Tulcheev V., Zhevora S., Gordiyenko N.
Reforming of agriculture has led to elimination or decrease in load of capacities of the enterprises I and III of spheres of agro-industrial complex and up to 140 industrial branches connected with the village. With destruction of industrial potato growing and vegetable growing to 90-93% of the areas in Russia are engaged today with small farms with which don't work the overworking plants, retail chain stores that leads to their leaving from the market. However small farms deliver more than 50% of all agricultural products on the market of the country. It is offered to create highly effective "Scandinavian" agricultural production and trade cooperatives (instead of procuring), like the Bryansk potato cooperative "Proizvoditeli i pererabotchiki kartofelja" with own seed farming, commodity production, storage, processing, packing and realization of potatoes. On the remained 7-10% potato and vegetable areas of Russia occupied with averages and large agricultural organization it is expedient to create the agro-industrial enterprises (like "state farm - the plant" - CJSC Ozyory) and associations of holding type ("Dmitrovsky ovoshhi" of the Moscow region). It is possible to use the Chinese model of economic transformations, but with the Russian specifics. It is offered to develop at the same time 3 spheres of agrarian and industrial complex and its main highly profitable and export-oriented subcomplexes with connection of designers and specialists of defense industry complex.
Medvedeva N., Prokhorenko O.
Развитие экспорта сельскохозяйственной продукции государств-членов ЕАЭС, развитие региональной торговли является одним из приоритетов согласованной аграрной политики ЕАЭС. В статье рассмотрены вопросы внешней и внутренней торговли государств-членов ЕАЭС, показан высокий уровень зависимости внутреннего рынка стран Союза от импорта отдельных видов сельскохозяйственных товаров, а также от материально-технических ресурсов. В связи с этим необходима диверсификации экспорта в сторону увеличения в его структуре продукции с высокой добавленной стоимостью. Для этого необходимо создание высокотехнологичных экспорто ориентированных производств, направленных на выпуск продукции конкурентоспособной на мировом рынке. Большую роль в развитие экспорта играет дальнейшая интеграция стран в этой сфере. Назрела необходимость разработки скоординированной экспортной политики, которая позволит объединить участников для реализации основных направлений по развитию экспорта, указанных в национальных программных документах, устранению имеющихся препятствий в этой сфере, содействовать продвижению сельскохозяйственной продукции и продовольствия на рынки третьих стран.
The market analysis of the agricultural equipment is presented in article. The economic analysis of potential development of Russian agricultural mechanical engineering is carried out taking into account policy of import substitution and opportunities of its expansion. Market segmentation of agricultural machinery from the point of view of development by Russian producers is made. The main competitive advantages of the domestic equipment are marked out: rather low price, availability of service, possibility of independent repair, protectionist policy of the state. Competitive advantages of the equipment made in foreign countries are reliability, productivity. The agricultural Belarusian machinery differs in the low price and protectionist policy of the government, holds a dominant position in structure of sales. Production of agricultural machinery, both the Russian samples, and foreign with high localization can be considered as a solution of the problem of formation of export-oriented agricultural mechanical engineering. The forecast of development of agricultural mechanical engineering and its export potential is offered. The main directions of development of the market of agricultural machinery as key element of the organizational and economic mechanism of technical modernization of branch are proved. Export growth is possible on the following segments of the market: combine harvesters, tractors with power more than 300 hp, the soil-cultivating equipment, the sowing equipment, complexes for storage and purification of grain, the forage hook-on equipment.
Various factors exert impact on financial results from production and realization in agriculture. Assessment of influence of these factors consists in definition of degree of efficiency of their use that is very relevant. In this regard search of reserves of increase in profit and profitability is one of the major tasks in any sphere of business. For carrying out the factorial economic analysis various methods and ways are used. A research objective is to analyse the influence of factors on change of the sum of profit and level of profitability of production of grapes and identification of reserves of their increase. The research is performed on materials of Tyatlyar agricultural firm of the Republic of Dagestan. It is revealed that 98,3% of gross profit are got from realization of grapes which depends on four factors: volume of product sales, its structure, prime cost and average level of the prices. Calculation of influence on the sum of profit and level of profitability of production of grapes is carried out by method of valuable substitution and way of proportional division. Results of the factorial analysis have shown that increase in profit on realization of grapes it is generally caused by growth of the average realizable prices (+15220 thousand roubles). Due to the increase in prime cost of a unit of production the sum of profit has decreased by 13152 thousand roubles. Level of profitability of production of grapes has increased by 0,97%, including for 23,39% in connection with increase in prices and has decreased by 22,42% due to growth of prime cost of a unit of production. For increase in production efficiency of grapes and financial results from his realization a number of measures, the branch, to attract investments, to enhance its competitive properties, and as a result, stability allowing to intensify is offered.
Semkin A., Bykov V.
The current state of systems, models of management and regulation at the state and economic levels and also experience of interaction of interaction of the government with local government of the leading agro-industrial countries (the USA, Germany, France, England, Italy, China and also agrarian and industrial complex of Republic of Belarus) at the municipal level is considered. The comparative analysis has shown that models of interaction of bodies of federal and local managements in the different countries have both certain similarities, and fundamental differences. Organizational structures and methods of management of agriculture at the level of local government and their functioning are given. The important role of state regulation of agricultural production and its influence on local governing bodies with use of various economic levers is noted: financial dependence of local bodies; regulation of activity by production quoting; developments and financings of various target programs; establishments of the supervising or supervising functions and introduction of some types of the reporting. The provisions of foreign experience recommended for use in the Russian control system of agrarian and industrial complex, use of some economic, organizational and other mechanisms in the sphere of municipal agro-industrial complex are formulated. Restoration of a vertical of hierarchy at all hierarchical levels and strengthening of responsibility for results of activity is necessary. Creation of section on coordination of activity of local self-government institutions and associations (unions) of agrarian producers is expedient
Research objective are development and scientific justification of theoretical provisions and practical recommendations about development of the state support of agricultural consumer cooperatives in the region. The beginning farmers even by means of pointed state support in a type of grants "The beginning farmer", "Family farm" and subsidizings of expenses on technical arms nevertheless have no sufficient means for the further development. In this regard new mechanisms and instruments of the state support and creation of agricultural consumer cooperatives, active involvement in the system of agricultural cooperation on the basis of grant support of investment projects of non-agricultural business are necessary. The mechanism of grant support of agricultural consumer cooperatives according to which support in the form of a grant of 60% of all sum of the project up to 40 million roubles on material support of production on the terms of joint financing of the remained 40% at the expense of own, raised or borrowed funds is provided to them is offered.
Troshin A., Sandu I., Doshchanova A.
The innovation and investment component is one of the most important components of the formation and practical implementation of the regional development strategy, both in our country and in a number of others, including the Republic of Kazakhstan. Such actions undoubtedly have a positive impact on the competitiveness of national economies in the current context of increasing trends in globalization and integration of economic systems. Innovation and investment development is considered by us as one of the most effective ways to reduce the time lag of transitions between technological modes. It is noted that one of the main problem areas on the innovative way of development of Russia is under financing of actual and demanded investment projects. In addressing this issue at various levels of the national economy, not the last role is assigned to large vertically integrated structural units. Within the framework of the research, the authors revealed the change in the parameters of socio-economic development on the example of a particular region, in this case, the Belgorod region. The article presents an array of statistical data, taking into account the analysis of which determined the contribution of the Belgorod region in the formation of the modern economic model of the country. The basic management initiatives of the regional authorities, the practical implementation of which allowed to achieve these results and bring the Belgorod region into the list of the most successful and steadily developing regions of Russia, are considered separately. Attention is paid to the basic strategic directions of regional development, within the framework of the adopted Strategy of social and economic development of the Belgorod region until 2025.
Increasing the production of livestock products requires the development of effective organizational and economic mechanisms for managing livestock enterprises that increase production and increase the competitiveness of manufactured products. One of the key factors for the effective development of the industry is the rational use of available production resources, natural-climatic and organizational-economic factors. The purpose of the study was to determine the features of the territorial and sectoral division of labor in animal husbandry and the theoretical and methodological justification for the optimal conditions and factors for the distribution and specialization of livestock enterprises. The research used abstract-logical, economic-statistical and computational-constructive methods of investigation. The empirical basis of the study was the official data of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. To assess the impact of specialization and concentration of production capacities on the efficiency of livestock and livestock production, an analysis was made of the functioning of the industry in the regional context and the features of the organizational and production structure of agricultural commodity producers. It is established that the share of the ten regions of the largest producers falls in 2012-2016 account for 34.1% of the total milk volume and more than 40.0% of the total volume of livestock and poultry for slaughter. The greatest effect from the intensification of the industry due to technological modernization and introduction of resource-saving technologies is noted in the sector of agricultural organizations. In a number of regions with a high level of technological development of dairy cattle breeding facilities and production concentration, a stable positive growth rate of animal productivity has been achieved. The lack of an effective system for locating productive capacities in livestock breeding reduces the industry's resistance to negative changes in the domestic market and macroeconomic factors. The conducted analysis of the current state of the industry made it possible to establish and systematize the main conditions and factors for the efficient allocation of livestock enterprises, which makes it possible to effectively use optimization and specialization factors.
Reimer V., Petrova-Shatohina T.
The study of the prospects for the development of livestock breeding in the regional scale should be based on an assessment of the trends in the change in the number of cattle in farms of different categories and the justification of the size of a herd of cattle. Given the limited number of agricultural organizations developing cattle breeding, it is proposed to develop a regional program for their development, in which it is necessary to justify the economic feasibility of keeping a livestock in each of them, taking into account the prospects for their possible reconstruction and their social significance for specific rural settlements. Significant differentiation of peasant (farm) farms and individual entrepreneurs by the number of cattle necessitates the development of various group strategies for their development. There is a steady tendency to reduce the number of cattle in private households with the growth of its concentration. According to the forecast calculations in agricultural organizations of the Amur Region with a herd of more than 500 animals by 2025, 96,5% of the total number of livestock in farms of this category will be concentrated. According to peasant (farmer) households, the projected increase in the number of cattle by 2025 is expected at 1300 head. Reduction of the number of cattle in the households of the population from 2015 to 2025 is expected from 46600 to 41100 heads. If the current trends in the structure of the herd, the dairy and meat productivity of cattle are preserved in the region, the Amur region will be able to increase the production of both milk and beef in the future.
The article proves the importance and effectiveness of the organization of additional professional education of personnel in scientific institutions, where scientific staff are authors of new knowledge, without intermediaries transmit them to the production specialists. Special attention is paid to the adaptation of scientific developments for each studied problem in specific projects, methodological and regulatory materials for practical implementation. Described research of the author on the peculiarities of adult learning, recommended forms and methods of organization of educational process, carried out by scientific institutions. Describes the main activities for the preparation of scientific institutions for training specialists, lists be developed (in accordance with the law on education) of the local acts.