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Krylov V., Bayunov V., Khudyakova E., Krugly A
In article the condition of a linen subcomplex is considered, its strategic importance for development of many branches is shown, to especially light industry, need of its restoration is emphasized. A research objective is to establish the main reasons for destruction of a linen sub complex. It will give the chance more specifically, scientifically to define a vector of its strategic development, to develop the most effective directions of branch restoration. The conclusion is drawn that the main reason for decline of a flax-growing subcomplex is hasty and scientifically unreasonable translation of economy from rigid state planning and regulation to work in unregulated market conditions. Duration of a production cycle (12-15 and more months) at the high cost of the bank credit and inflation, insufficiency of own available funds and absence necessary the state support predetermines unprofitability of cultivation and processing of a flax. In Non-Black Earth Region a flax is the only commodity crop culture providing profitability of agricultural production on an extent of centuries for many farms. In Russia in comparison with other countries are very low labour productivity, low flax productivity, its quality that much more reduces competitiveness of domestic linen production.
Ushachev I., Maslova V., Chekalin V.
Results of development of agro-industrial complex are the proof of success of policy of import substitution in the Russian Federation. The main instrument of achievement of goals is the State program of development of agriculture and regulation of the markets of agricultural production, raw materials and food for 2013-2020. As the retrospective analysis has shown, the duration of process of import substitution is various by separate types of agricultural production. At the same time the high import dependence on production of meat and dairy cattle breeding, vegetables and fruit and berry production remains. The separate problem is represented by import substitution of resources and technologies for agro-industrial production. Complicate process of import substitution in agrarian and industrial complex adverse macroeconomic operating conditions and also instability of contents and resource providing the state program. The conclusion is drawn that in process of increasing a share of domestic food in internal resources of the market, the value of import substitution as factor of growth of agro-industrial production will weaken that causes need of search of new drivers of growth and development of long-term strategy of sustainable social and economic development of agrarian and industrial complex.
Tu L., Chirkova I.
The problems of investing in agriculture of the Siberian Federal District caused by the reduction of state support, lack of credit opportunities and decrease of the own financial funds of agricultural organizations have been considered. The average annual rate of the investment decline in fixed capital of AIC of the SFD for the period of 2011-2015 was equal to 97.7%. The modern agrarian policy is aimed at encouraging the large-scale industrial production but the greater part of the available land and production resources of the medium-sized and small-scale forms of managing is not efficiently used under the implementation of measures on import substitution. The decision of these problems requires the improvement of the current investment policy at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation (that are federal in scope) including the stimulation of inflow of investments in the priority sub-sectors of agriculture and enhancing the state support of small and medium-sized agribusiness. In order to overcome the consequences of the investment switching in agriculture of the Siberian Federal District and to further intensify the agro-industrial production it is necessary to increase the growth rate of fixed capital investment in agriculture up to 8-10%. The mechanism of usage of the limited investment resources should be formed in view of the specific features of the region in order to determine the growth points and the priority of their investment.
Latkin A, Piao Ihua
Need of development of the Russian-Chinese agricultural business for border areas of the Far East is considered. Increase in production in the region is caused by use of the Chinese labour because of steady reduction of indigenous country people and strengthening of an imbalance of regional labour market. Negative tendencies in ecological pollution of land and water resources of Primorsky Krai, including Khanka Lowland are established. Methodical tools of justification of expediency of joint business in agriculture taking into account the ecology-economic risks arising at the same time are offered. For definition of the optimum scheme of joint Russian-Chinese agricultural business the approach estimating completeness of achievement of the goals of the agrarian sector of Russia and also requirements and economic desires of subjects of interaction is offered. For assessment use of financial indicators and agricultural production increasing is offered. On the basis of statistical data lines of a trend have been built and expected values are defined. Use of the offered technique of justification of joint Russian-Chinese agricultural business will promote increase in efficiency of functioning of the agrarian sector and increase in production of agricultural production.
Chirkov E., Khramchenkova A., Babyak M., Laretin N.
The article deals with the role, importance and problems of increasing the economic efficiency of the use of natural hayfields and pastures of the Central Non-Black Soil Zone of the Russian Federation in the reproduction of the forage base on the basis of factors determining the productivity of the land, the nutritional value of the products (feeds) obtained, and the minimum labor and fund expenses on its unit in modern conditions. The grassland economy acts as a strategic direction for its intensification and more economical development of dairy-beef cattle breeding. The central Non-Black Soil Zone of Russia has necessary economic potential for the solution of the mentioned task. At the same time, the current state of the grassland economy is such that it does not provide animals in sufficient quantities with quality roughages, succulents and pasture (green) fodders. The main reasons for this situation are: insufficient material and technical, labor and financial providing unsatisfactory orientation of the use of natural hayfields and pastures, land reclamation disorder, radioactive contamination as a result of the man-made disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The importance of scientific, technical and technological support, innovative and organization-economy and other factors in solving the fodder problem has been shown. The methodological and methodical approaches to the analysis of the efficiency have been clarified taking into account specificity of the forage base development on the natural lands. The issues of developing the integrated programs for the development of feed production, including grassland economy, creating of dairy and fodder clusters and rational organization economy mechanism for managing the production system and use of feeds have been considered.
In article the problem of restriction of the size of subsidies to one recipient and influence of such decision on growth of agricultural production is considered. The conclusion is drawn that policy concentration of subsidies creates exclusive competitive advantages to the largest producers and leads to replacement of small and medium business, reduces efficiency of branch. Subsidies to agricultural producers for the last 25 years concentrated in separate major agricultural firms and agro holdings of Russia more and more. Among other agricultural producers the share of those who didn't receive anything or received very insignificant state support grew. Such agrarian policy of the state promoted creation of exclusive advantages to the separate large companies, concentration at them the huge areas of the earth, to the accelerated replacement from the agrarian market of medium and small business. Around the world in agricultural production this business has priority development thanks to the state support rendered to him. The large business which isn't getting such support is forced to work under the contracts with small business, contributes to his development, relies on him, but doesn't ruin. The network organization of business in agrarian and industrial complex promotes his diversification, the solution of environmental problems, fast building of a share of the separate companies in the market of end products. Legislative restriction of the size of subsidies to one recipient is universal practice. The lack of such restrictions in the Russian legislation, according to the author's hypothesis, constrains development of branch. On the basis of the carried-out calculations the author shows that many small investment subsidies allow receiving more considerable gain of production, than small quantity of big subsidies. A conclusion of the author will be coordinated also with the general theory of the state support of agriculture focused on the decision not only economic problems of branch but also sustainable social development of the village.
Agriculture is in environmental crisis - declining natural fertility of the soil and hence the shortage of grain. The increasing pace and magnitude of land degradation in the country has led to a reduction in only 90 years 6.5 % of arable land. To overcome the negative trends in agriculture it is advisable to have a Program of greening, including: erosion control, application of organic fertilizers, agro forestry, cultural-technical land reclamation, fodder grass cultivation in order liming kitty, small, soil, biological methods of protection, crop rotation, clean fallow, accelerated development of industrial and domestic agribusiness. For implementation of the Ecological program it is necessary to create an appropriate system of market regulators (benefits, credits, taxes, etc.) for changing priorities in the allocation of resources, capital investments in agriculture. All stages capital cycle (money, productive, commodity) should be directly related to the process of preservation and reproduction of natural resources used. Source of information for determining ecological-economic efficiency of agricultural production are statistical data production and financial plan, the environmental pass -port, technological cards, accounting and statistical reporting, regulatory reference materials. Accounting environmental accounting is not regulations - based legislation, there is no standard governing accounting for the costs of environmental measures and rational environmental management. Based on the fact that the environmental damage caused it can be assessed, it is necessary to expand the interpretation of the concept "accounting environmental accounting". In environmental accounting statements of an enterprise should reflect not only the cost of nature protection actions, environmental payments and penalties for violation of environmental legislation, but also the damage caused by the enterprise to the environment.
Paptsov A., Shelamova N.
Global climate change is considered to be an already established fact. In this context there is a need for urgent action to counter the adverse implications for the sustainability of the global agri food system. The main purpose of the functioning of the global agri food system, as well as the world food market, is providing the world population with sufficient food. Climate change has diverse impact on agriculture, mostly negative, reducing natural soil fertility, crop yields, livestock productivity, making it difficult to manufacture sufficient food for a growing world population, and will also change the availability and quality of water resources. In order to improve the sustainability of the global food system must take a range of measures, including: reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions; increase the efficiency of agricultural production, it is important to reduce the amount of waste resulting from agricultural activities, processing and consumption of food. It is necessary to accelerate the innovative development of the agricultural sector, to promote participation in the development and implementation of solutions by all stakeholders - producers, representatives of agribusiness, government agencies, financial sector etc.