Kostyaev A., Yakhnyuk S.
Research objective is to consider the factors and problems exerting impact on efficiency of the budgetary support of agriculture on the example of the Leningrad region. The carried-out analysis of tendencies and structural shifts has shown all complexity of a situation which developed and exists in agriculture. The conclusion is drawn that many causes and effects of insufficient effectiveness of set of the realized programs substantially have typical character, reflect the general trend in development of the agricultural organizations of the country. The negative impact on economy of the agricultural organizations was exerted by volatility of the prices, both on resources, and on agricultural production. Differentiation of distribution of subsidies is in many respects connected with strengthening of concentration of production at the large enterprises of industrial type supported by the state. On the basis of results of the retrospective analysis offers on increase in efficiency of use of the budgetary subsidies in the long term are given: continuity of the mechanism of support at implementation of state programs, introduction of operational performance for an assessment of results, stimulation of development of consumer cooperation, granting target grants to effective small and average farms, improvement of system of agricultural insurance, etc. The scale effect and effect of innovations at an intensification of production have to become a basis for increase in economic efficiency of agriculture.
Tulcheev V., Lukin D., Lukin N.
The short analysis of domestic and foreign forms of cooperation and agro-industrial integration of small farms is provided. Creation of specialized agricultural production and trade cooperatives, having own (or in cooperation) shops of step availability, the food markets and the logistic centres which will become an alternative to the existing large retail chain stores and the overworking plants which refuse to work with small-scale sector is offered. On the basis of average and large SHO it is offered to create the agro-industrial enterprises (a control device for pre-launch and launching like state farm plant) and associations (APO of holding type). Inter farmer cooperation can promote more effective development of a production, including organic potatoes and potato's product. At the same time rational use of all resources and opportunities of each member of seed-growing or food cooperative is provided. The factors providing additional the income and effect which their owners can receive during creation of production and trade cooperatives and agro holdings are called. Creation of specialized seed-growing cooperatives and associations, and also the food agro-industrial enterprises and agro holdings in all regions of the Russian Federation, will allow solving a problem of food, national security. In Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, also as in Russia small-scale production of potatoes, vegetables, melon, grapes, fruit, etc. with use of manual skills, outdated technicians and technologies prevails. In this regard it is expedient to intensify investment cooperation in construction in the countries of EEU of storages complexes.
Filimonova N., Ozerova M., Ermakova I.
Crowdfunding is considered as the alternative mechanism of financing and the instrument of investment into the innovative companies. Article purpose is the analysis of application of Crowd technologies in agriculture. The essence of crowd funding, its advantage and shortcomings, a possibility of use as the instrument of financing of agriculture is considered. The economic relations of participants of crowd-technologies are opened organizationally. Information on the project provided on the Internet platform (the purposes, the used technologies, resource ensuring, the potential market, experience of design activity and so forth) allow making the decision on investment of the personal capital into the project. Interest in crowd funding as to a source of attraction of financial resources on the start-ups and innovative projects connected with agriculture gains the increasing popularity. The successful projects in the field of agriculture realized on foreign and Russian crowd -platforms in 2016 are submitted. Among them there are projects on a flower cultivation, cultivation of ostriches, rabbits, marals, preparation and processing of food forest resources and herbs, development of eco productions, formation of processing industries, development of national crafts and crafts, trade in farmer products, development of the village, etc. Successful implementation of crowd funding projects promotes increase in employment and self-employment in the village. The review of crowd funding platforms can help the state with making decisions on their support (or joint financing).
Sandu I., Polukhin A., Burak P., Alekseev K., Gevorgyan A.
The priority directions of economic and production policy of the state - stage-by-stage decrease in dependence of domestic agro-industrial complex on import of technologies, cars, the equipment and other resources. In article segments of the market of agricultural machinery where foreign brands dominate as localized in the territory of the countries of participants of EEU, and without production in their territories are defined. The directions of technical modernization of the park of agricultural machinery are presented in article. The main directions of development of segments of the market of agricultural machinery where foreign developers dominate as key element of the organizational and economic mechanism of technical modernization of agrarian and industrial complex are proved. In article the directions of technical and technological modernization of agriculture of Russia within implementation of the State program of development of agriculture and regulation of the markets of agricultural production, raw materials and food for 2013-2020 are proved. Suggestions for improvement of the mechanism of stimulation of localization of production of agricultural machinery are given. The analysis of the market of the agricultural machinery made in the EEU countries is submitted.
Makarov O., Yakovlev A., Tsvetnov E., Bondarenko E., Ermiyaev Ya., Strokov A.
The purpose of article is development of author's approach to economic assessment of agricultural soils as independent natural body and as most important component of the land plot and environment. The methodology of economical evaluation and soil cost is revealed. The existing methods of economical evaluation of soil are revealed. We describe the evaluation methodology which was created in 1980’s by researchers from the Dokuchaev Soil Institute. The value of soil in the context of economical evaluation of agricultural land is depicted by: 1) real and potential production capacity and other services of particular soil type, 2) variation projection of functional soil qualities, 3) capital inputs efficiency (fertilizers, meliorants etc.), 4) economic rent. The concept of “zero soil” is introduced. It is a model type soil with a value. In this case the soil cost evaluation is based on the costs of its creation by adding to the “zero” fertility substrate such additional inputs as fertilizers, meliorants, soil modifying agents etc. The specified method is implemented on the example of soils of pilot farm of Chashnikovo (Moscow region). The received cost on creation of 1 hectare of such soil is about 250 thousand roubles that less than 1% of the market value of these lands, but testify to rather high level of the expenses necessary for formation of indicators of fertility - acidity, the maintenance of a humus, mobile phosphorus and exchange potassium.
The share of the employees of management in total number working in the agricultural organizations makes, about, 20-25%, in the wages fund - more than 20%. Specific weight of costs of management in joint costs on production of agricultural production reaches 6-8%. It determines the importance of a complex assessment of economic board by rural territories and the agrarian sphere. Modern problems of economic board are investigated by development of agrarian sector and rural territories extremely insufficiently. Especially it concerns an assessment of efficiency of development which shows, in what direction the system moves: it is improved, degrades or remains without changes. The full-fledged assessment of effective management of production can be carried out on the basis of carrying out the dynamic analysis by means of dynamic indicators. In the methodical plan the assessment of management efficiency represents the complex problem connected with allocation of a share of administrative effect in production efficiency. Three options of an assessment of efficiency which can serve as efficiency models are for this purpose offered. The offered system of indicators for definition of management efficiency is subdivided on direct, indirect and the general. Each group of indicators is supplemented with the indicators characterizing conditions or possibilities of functioning of system, reflecting presence of resource capacity of management. The assessment of activity is conducted from private, concrete indicators to the generalizing conclusions. The offered methodical approaches are quite simple and achievable for broad practice, however need further improvement.
Ushachev I., Yeremeyev V., Zhukov N.
In article the main shortcomings of the existing pension system are considered, offers on her improvement are developed. After market reforming in the state pension policy of our country general obligatory (basic) provision of pensions is carried out. The coverage pension process of the increasing number of citizens is promoted by the system of voluntary and obligatory pension savings, the state program of joint financing of pensions. Basic requirements of development of pension system consider long-term financial security of pension liability; equivalence of the state pension liability to the saved-up pension rights of citizens; security of the minimum level of cash security of pensioners. It is noted that the directions of strategic development of pension system of the Russian Federation practically don't contain the mechanism of increase in level of provision of pensions, sources of increase in level of provision of pensions of citizens. The conclusion is drawn that need of cardinal reforming of all system of provision of pensions for the country which has to correspond to world practice has ripened. In rural areas very low level of provision of pensions of peasants, most of villagers can't influence increase in future pension. For improvement of provision of pensions it is offered: formation of the guaranteed and accumulative parts of pension by the worker on his various personal accounts; inheritance of the unused rest of funds of a savings account; establishment of an identical retirement age of men and women. Authors share opinion of other researchers on establishment of an identical retirement age of men and women. Release of legal entities from payments for formation of pensions considerably will raise reproduction opportunities of the enterprises, organizations and business.
Popkova E., Bogoviz A., Litvinov T., Aliyev N., Gorbachev A.
The relevance of the theme chosen for the research is due to the fact that innovations are key moment of high competitiveness and business effectiveness. These are the most important priorities for the development of agriculture in modern Russia, since they determine the possibility of ensuring national food security. The system of registration and evaluation of innovations underpins the state policy on regulation of agriculture. The success of this policy depends on the quality of the methodological support for such accounting and evaluation. The methodological basis of this work is formed on the basis of logical methods of conducting scientific research, namely the method of system and problem analysis, the method of synthesis, induction, deduction, graphic representation of information. The main conclusion of this study is that the system of accounting for and evaluation of innovations in agriculture in modern Russia is imperfect. It is characterized by two main problems. The first problem stems from the fact that innovations in agriculture are not covered by official statistics and are not identified in a separate section in statistical compilations. The second problem is caused by the absence of a specialized methodological tool that allows combining statistical data and measures of state regulation of innovative activity in agriculture. To solve these problems, we proposed methodological recommendations for improving the system of accounting and evaluation of innovations in agriculture. As such recommendations, a proposal was made to keep a systematic detailed account of innovations in agriculture, for which the relevant indicators were identified, as well as the developed methodology for assessing innovations in agriculture through the indicator of effectiveness, efficiency and intensity.
The value of education as most important factor of formation of the competitive and steadily developing agriculture extremely increases in course conditions on the technician - technological modernization of branch. Article purpose is the analysis of a state and tendencies of development of the general education in rural areas, transformation of its standard and legal base, consequences of "optimization" of network of rural schools. Investment processes in this sphere and a contribution of federal target programs are analyzed. It is noted that the transformational period was followed by the reduction of rural settlement network and a reduction of residents of rural territories caused by natural and migration decline in population, but these processes are incomparable to rates of liquidation of schools. The destructive contribution in rural education was brought also by transition to standard and per capita financing of the educational organizations. Results of the sociological researches on problems of rural school conducted within monitoring of a condition of rural territories are used. In 2016 within monitoring of development of rural territories survey of 2.5 thousand villagers having children of school age and living in 23 territorial subjects of the Russian Federation has been conducted. From 45 to 64% of respondents have noted such negative consequences there are reduction of free time of school students; fatigue and growth of incidence; a danger of transportation; outflow of the rural teacher's case and impoverishment of cultural life of the village. Problems personnel and material support of rural schools, vocational education of pupils have become aggravated. Almost, from among forced to reach the place of training by transport, the school bus is inaccessible for 2/5 rural pupils. Need of urgent change of the educational policy which is carried out in rural territories based on monetary ideology is obvious.
АЛПАТОВ АНТОН ВЯЧЕСЛАВОВИЧ, СЕМКИН АЛЕКСАНДР ГРИГОРЬЕВИЧ, КРЫЛОВ ВАСИЛИЙ СТЕФАНОВИЧ
Цель работы - исследовать состояние льнопродуктового подкомплекса России на основе анализа динамики посевных площадей, занятых под льняными посевами в разрезе регионов страны, дать оценку ресурсной и материально-технической обеспеченности отрасли по производству льна, проанализировать формы государственной федеральной и региональной поддержки производства льна в России. C начала проведения реформ в России сформировалась тенденция сокращения посевных площадей льна-долгунца. В ходе анализа выявлены системные недостатки в отрасли льноводства: определенный дефицит и низкое качество посевного материала; износ сельскохозяйственной техники, упрощение технологии; снижение качества волокна из-за недобора урожая; сокращение размеров государственной поддержки. Для устойчивого развития льнопроизводства необходима организационная и технологическая устойчивость сельскохозяйственных организаций, эффективное использование ресурсного потенциала отрасли. На основе оценки годовой потребности в льноволокне и показателях развития отрасли в рамках Государственной программы на долгосрочную перспективу выявлены основные направления развития льнопродуктового подкомплекса. В перспективе устойчивое развитие льнопродуктового подкомплекса должно базироваться на использовании инновационных подходов в производстве, внедрении высокоурожайных сортов льна, технологий переработки льна-долгунца, сохранении рационального размещения производства, росте урожайности и выхода высококачественной продукции.