Sharipov S., Kharisov G.
The formation of the institutional environment of innovative development of agriculture, providing food security of the country, is caused by the change of paradigm of socio-economic development, occurring in the agrarian sphere of modern Russian society. The institutional environment of innovative development of agriculture helps to ensure a favourable investment climate, attraction of innovations and the creation of favourable conditions for life and work in rural territories, development of human and social capital. The use of modern innovative equipment and technologies in agricultural production, demographic trends and age-related structural changes of the rural population contribute to the need to ensure agricultural production with highly qualified personnel. Social transformation and institutional changes associated with the formation of new institutions in the sphere of agricultural production, promote the emergence of effective infrastructure elements of the economy. Sustainable development of agriculture is provided by the organic interaction of the institutional environment and the institutional matrix of socio-economic systems, when institutional changes are subject to the basic institutions of society. The result is the harmonization of social development of rural areas and innovative development of agriculture, preservation and enhancement of natural resources. The creation of institutional environment for innovative development of agriculture, promotes sustainable growth of regional agro-industrial complex on the basis of the system development strategy with the direct participation and support of the state. On the example of agricultural enterprises of the Republic of Tatarstan shows that the factors of the institutional environment, the organizational forms of agricultural business, human and social capital, and innovation to achieve systemic effects, the preservation and reproduction of natural resources and improving the efficiency of agriculture.
Goncharov V., Koteev S.
The work purpose is to consider an export of oil-bearing crops and separate types of vegetable oil from economic positions. Due to the growth in the production of vegetable oils, in recent years it has become possible to increase their exports. As a result, in 2016 only the share of sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oil was 11.5% in Russian exports of agricultural products and food. In 2016, the foreign exchange earnings from export of sunflower and rapeseed oil could be higher if export prices did not decrease compared to 2010. The decrease in foreign exchange earnings was also affected by the decrease in recent years of acreage under rapeseed. The foreign currency proceeds from the export of vegetable oils from Russia can be significantly increased by reducing the sale of oilseed seeds. At the same time, additional workplaces can be created in Russia, and, most importantly, the most valuable by-product (meal) will remain to ensure livestock production in the country. For this, modernization of the material and technical base of the processing industry and restoration of the domestic seed-growing of oil-bearing crops is necessary.
Osipov A., Gasanova H., Veselovsky M., Osipov V., Gnezdova Yu.
The policy of import substitution showed the first results in the agricultural production sector. Despite the economic growth in the agricultural production sector, the problem of rational allocation of resources and choice of the optimal production structure has been outlined. Weak awareness of market actors about the volume of production of certain types of crops, product prices creates situations of uncertainty in which the decision-making process of producers can not be optimal. It is necessary to determine the options for providing producers of agricultural products with information on the volume and structure of production, which is possible both in the framework of the Pigouvian and Coasian directions of institutional reforms. The article shows options for implementing both directions, gives examples of the successful implementation of institutional reforms, and also suggests to depart from the concept of rationality in decision-making by actors in favour of limited rationality and libertarian paternalism in the spirit of the behavioural economy in accordance with the ideas of the Nobel Prize winner in economics R. Thaler (2017) and his predecessors, G.Simon (1978), T. Schultz (1979), D. Kahneman (2002). The article uses the methodology of institutional analysis and behavioural economics to determine possible directions of influence on decision-making by agricultural producers in order to ensure the most efficient production structure, a balanced distribution of income and avoid overproduction crises for individual crops.
Tractors and various attachments are the most popular producers of agricultural equipment, which is used almost in all works of the farms. In this regard, the load on them is very significant, which leads to frequent breakdowns. All this causes a downtime of agricultural equipment, productivity and production volumes. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the mechanism service maintenance of agricultural machinery, which will prevent crop loss. The research objective consists in development of practical recommendations of improvement of the mechanism of service of agricultural machinery in the region. The analysis of the current state of agricultural machinery in the Novosibirsk region is carried out. The service mechanism when with acquisition of the tractor the company signs the contract of service with the client is offered. Within the contract warranty repair, departure of crew to the place of breakage or the replacing tractor from the park of the technique of the campaign TRADE-IN is provided to the client. Duties of the service engineer at service of the equipment are considered.
The relevance of researches is caused by the fact that rise in agriculture is announced by the most important direction of economic policy of the state and the acts defining development of agriculture for the next years are adopted. Stable development of rural territories, increase in employment, income and the standard of living of country people are main goals of these documents. In article the content, level of income of rural households, their transformation in market economy, social stratification in comparison with city households are analyzed. Changes in level and sources of formation of income of country people during reforms have caused emergence of the types of income peculiar to market economy, their traditional structure has changed. Social differentiation of the population on the level of income has increased and their real content has decreased. Assessment of a condition of profitability of agricultural work has shown that its low level doesn't stimulate growth of labour productivity in agriculture. Owing to reduction of the agricultural enterprises there was restructuring of rural employment, a considerable part of citizens has appeared among so-called self-employed on production of agricultural production in personal subsidiary and family country farms of various level of marketability. The changes in the structure of income generation and their functions, due to the reduction in the share of wages in the sources of the aggregate income of the rural family and the increase in the role of income from the farmstead, make it possible to conclude that the labour motivation of rural workers today is determined not only by the amount of wages, but also the level of aggregate income, the stimulating function of which increases. At the same time, the growth of incomes and living standards of the rural population, as the main and even the main indicator of agrarian and general economic reform, does not correspond to the declared goals. Moreover, during reforms the level of profitability of agricultural work has sharply decreased in comparison with the prereform period and level of income of urban population.
Research objective is the analysis of placement of grain production and definition of a possibility of improvement of the developed structure of production and processing grain. Optimization of placement of a grain production promotes: to improvement of structure of production and processing grain for increase in annual revenues (income) from grain realization, to finding of the mechanism of compensation of deficiencies of grain in the areas having the enterprises for grain processing, search of optimum routes of transportation of surplus of grain from areas there is a lot of grain to areas with their shortcoming. In article two step model of optimization of revenue of production of grain are given in the region of Russia on statistical data of the Tambov region. On the first step of modeling restrictions for a problem of linear programming of maximizing revenue of production of grain are formed. Restrictions are formed by means of results of the solution of a transport task of a covering of deficiencies of grain in one areas by surpluses of grain of other areas. Assessment of the maximum income by production grain in the Tambov region in as a result of redistribution of land has been calculated by the LPSOLVE program. Achievement of optimum result means redistribution of land for production grain in areas of the Tambov region. The calculated income is higher actual for 22.3%. The submitted two-step scheme of optimization of income from production of grain can be applied also to other species of crops.
In the article, some questions of legal regulation of social security of rural households of the population are considered, the unsettledness of which hinders the development of this sector of agrarian relations. An absence of separate legal norms, their imperfection or discrepancy between various legislative and legal acts, leave opportunities for their arbitrary interpretation. Despite the historical duration of research into the economic nature of the household plots of the population, the legal status of the owner of the private household and its members as subjects of labour law remains to be determined. The current legislation does not define the employment status of this category of citizens, the type, and form of employment, the legal status of the employee and/or employer. Defining this activity as independent employment (self-employment), many researchers do not consider the cause-effect relations of these relations and their social and economic consequences. As the latter, the issues of social guarantees for this category of citizens - work experience, pension (including the type of pension on state pension provision, the conditions of its appointment, etc.), medical and social insurance remain the most problematic. The basic provisions for the development of the pension system for rural households of the population should be based on the following fundamental positions of legislative consolidation: the legal status of the owner of the personal subsidiary farming of the population and its members as subjects of the labour law; conditions of state pension provision for this category of citizens; sources and sizes of insurance pensions.
Bogoviz A., Popkova E., Litvinova T., Yermolina L.
The relevance of the study of rural entrepreneurship is explained by the fact that under the influence of the processes of globalization and integration of the economy of modern Russia new challenges are emerging for rural entrepreneurs, for a successful response to which a review of the applied business models is necessary. The development of rural entrepreneurship includes mainly financial instruments, while practically unused non-financial instruments have much greater potential and efficiency. The purpose is to study the characteristics of rural entrepreneurship through the prism of personal characteristics of a rural entrepreneur, as well as to identify prospects and develop practical recommendations for the development of rural entrepreneurship in modern Russia. The methodological apparatus is based on a systematic approach to scientific research and includes a method of problematic, structural and functional analysis, as well as a method of modeling socio-economic systems. As a result of the study, the authors reasoned that the personal characteristics of the rural entrepreneur play a central role in the success of rural entrepreneurship. The authors proposed a conceptual model of rural entrepreneurship, reflecting the importance of integrating the rural entrepreneur into the sales markets of the local social environment, into the physical and economic environment of the rural area. The authors also proposed a map of the competences of a modern rural entrepreneur and developed practical recommendations for their development among modern Russian rural entrepreneurs.
A special civilization mission of agriculture a reproduction of national identity and, first of all, radical the state forming and the state holding of the Russian nation. Problems of public administration, such as regulation of rural territories, stimulation and placement of productive forces in rural territories, realization of new settlement, town-planning, demographic and ecological policy are distinguished from priority problems of development. Experience of development of the Belgorod region, its achievements in agriculture and results of regional social programs is considered.
Kosolapova M., Svobodin V.
In article methodological and methodical questions of agrarian economic system development are considered. A research object is social and economic system, questions of assessment of functioning of its organization, a determination of interrelation of factors and results of production, an assessment and forecasting of development of economic system. A subject and an object of all economic researches is process of reproduction of economic system which consists from technological social, ecological, economic and organizational and administrative subsystems. Functional subsystems express the maintenance of economic system, and the organizational administrative sphere is a form of its functioning Assessment of functioning of economic system is connected with a need of more effective using of production potential. Assessment and forecasting of development of the agricultural organizations are carried out on the basis of their classification by profitability on profitable and unprofitable. The comparative analysis of work of the organizations for classes will allow to define the objective and subjective reasons of current situation. System and reproduction forecasting needs to be carried out on fields of activity that will allow to direct objects of management, to define the directions and volumes of investment activities. Methodological questions of the analysis of interrelation of technology factors and production efficiency are considered (prime cost, profit, profitability). Methodical provisions of determination of possible dynamics of development of the organizations on the basis of the comparative analysis of their production economic activity are proved. Content of imitating modeling of the economic mechanism of development of the organization for justification of the directions of an intensification of production reveals.