In the context of the thorny road of the cooperative movement in Russia, the article is devoted to the scientific foundations and modern legal support for a genuine revival of the cooperative movement in Russia. A serious lag in its theoretical development was noted, taking into account qualitative changes in the principles and world practice of cooperative activity. The reasons preventing this revival and increasing the effectiveness of cooperative activities and causing deformation of a rational agrarian structure are revealed. The necessity of forming a scientifically grounded cooperative policy and radical improvement of cooperative legislation is grounded. Definition of any cooperatives as commercial subjects of market business, in particular agrarian business, with active social orientation and the state support of members - owners of cooperative associations, providing them tax benefits, other measures of economic protection, especially at a stage of their formation will be scientifically based.
Sandu I., Ryzhenkova N., Afonina V., Doshchanova A.
In article questions of development of agro-industrial complex in the conditions of implementation of the concept of digitalization are considered. Experience of introduction of digital economy to the agrarian sector of the developed countries, possibilities of its application in agriculture of Russia is considered. Domestic landowners apply elements of digital economy in limited volumes because of lack of financial means. It is offered to expand scope of digital economy due to the state investments, formation of various cooperation associations.
The analysis of structure changes of the agricultural organizations at various stages of agrarian reform and during the post-reform period shows that despite expectations of scientists and experts of the most different economic and political views agricultural cooperation in the country developed rather poorly. The situation was changed even by active use of an administrative resource and the state money. Moreover, the agricultural production cooperatives created with the state support on ruins of the ruined enterprises in the bulk haven't shown necessary financial stability and have been forced to stop the economic activity. The following data, in particular, demonstrate to it. If in the 90th the share of cooperatives in the general structure of the agricultural organizations constantly grew and by 2002 has reached 48.7%, then today she hardly exceeds 20%. And it, we will notice, has occurred those years when the economic situation of agricultural branch in general, certainly, improved, quite good growth rates of agricultural production of and livestock production were observed. Need of modernization of the agricultural production providing decrease in energy consumption on a unit of production and increase in labour productivity contradicted the requirement of preservation of jobs which is one of the main economic interests of members of agricultural production cooperatives. It is important as well the fact that the cooperative form of the organization of production doesn't stimulate inflow of private investments from other spheres of economic activity that constrains development of branch even at substantial increase of level of its profitability. Noted shortcomings are characteristic, first of all, of agricultural production cooperatives. Therefore it is quite natural that at this conjuncture the cooperation development vector gradually changes towards the accelerated growth of number of consumer cooperatives. It is important that the structure of interests of members of consumer cooperatives is much simpler, than production. Therefore the organization of effective work of consumer cooperatives is less difficult and that is very essential, doesn't impose special requirements to personal qualities of the members.
Ushachev I., Kolyazina E., Arzhantsev S.
The relevance of the study is due to the dependence of domestic agriculture on foreign varieties of breeding, imported fertilizers and machinery. It is no secret that plant breeding is one of the foundations of food security of the country, therefore, the further development of the domestic market of scientific and technical products of plant growing, including selection achievements, acquires a crucial role in the development of not only the industry, but also the entire agriculture of the country. The market of scientific and technical products of crop production is a system of organizational, economic and legal relations between the participants of the selection and seed-growing process. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to develop proposals for improving the organizational and economic mechanism of the market of scientific and technical products of crop production. The methodological basis of the study was a review, analysis and generalization of the works of domestic and foreign scientists on the development and functioning of the organizational and economic mechanism of the market of scientific and technical products in crop production. As the main methods of research, we used the system and logical approaches, the method of theoretical knowledge, monographic, as additional: historical and scientific abstraction method. The main results of the study is the author's generalization of the views of leading domestic and foreign scientists on the functioning of the organizational and economic mechanism of the market of scientific and technical products in crop production. According to the results of the study: the author presents the definition of the organizational and economic mechanism of the market of scientific and technical products of crop production; considers the organizational and economic tools of the market of scientific and technical products of plant production; developed proposals for improving the organizational and economic mechanism of the market of scientific and technical products of plant.
Maslova V., Avdeev M.
The article considers a set of factors affecting the competitiveness of agricultural products of the Russian Federation: the average prices of producers, average export prices, production and exports. The analysis showed that since the introduction embargo on the import of agricultural products and food from a number of countries to the territory of the Russian Federation in 2014, the competitiveness of domestic products has increased significantly. This trend was due to the depreciation of the national currency, as well as the relatively favourable market conditions, which allowed increasing the volume of production and exports of agricultural products. At the same time, the analysis of price competitiveness factors revealed the increasing imbalances in the price relations between the agri-industrial sectors, which have a negative impact on the sustainable development of agriculture and the attraction of additional investment resources in the industry. The task of investment development, import substitution and increasing the volume of non-oil exports, it is necessary to search for new growth factors aimed at qualitative changes in production. One of the ways of increasing competitiveness of AIC - introducing digital technologies in agriculture, which will improve productivity and speed up technical and technological updates, increase the competitiveness of agriculture.
Modern conditions of functioning of agriculture is characterized by the fact that finally the country began to carry out a protectionist policy towards the industry, which gave domestic producers relative freedom and support from the state. The policy pursued by the state has allowed agriculture to increase domestic production, but the efficiency of agricultural production is still lagging behind the indicators of advanced countries. In the new environment, the issues of competitiveness management have not faded into the background. On the contrary, the level of competition between producers, but now between domestic ones, is increasing. There are still important problems of saturation of domestic food production of the domestic food market, which would have a high competitiveness, the ability to displace imported products, which will begin to enter the market again, to ensure food security. In the article, on the example of enterprises producing dairy products, the state of the regional market and competitiveness management are analyzed, the expert assessment of product quality is carried out and the leading enterprises are determined. The factors that allow leaders to take the leading positions are revealed, it is stated that the most important resources that allow them to be the first are the use of digital and information technologies.
Afanasyev E., Tyu L., Rudoy E., Lukyanov K., Molyavko A.
Specific features of the regions of the Siberian Federal District are specified by the geographical conditions of the area, social structure of the population and economic external and internal conditions. Agricultural policy of the District sees grain production development as an element, which is the basis for consumption, livestock production and exports development. The area of grain crops is quite sustainable and varies from 9.5-10.2 million ha. Gross grain yield varies from 9.0 to 15.3 million tons. Livestock farming is the leading sector of agriculture; it takes about 53% of the gross output of the agricultural sector in the Siberian Federal district. In recent years, the development of animal husbandry in the macro region experienced significant changes. Milk production in recent years is steadily equal to 5.5 million tons. The structure of meat production has changed. Pig production and poultry farming could take prominent part at the meat production market. At the same time, there were no radical changes and efforts in improving economic situation in concern of agricultural production in the Siberian Federal District. Development of agricultural production in the regions of Siberian Federal District has multidirectional tendencies and certain features that should be considered when designing the strategy of agricultural development. The competitive opportunities in each region are different; this is explained by real participation of the regions in trade and economic relations where the regions use their specific resources, production capacities and conditions. Competitive advantages of agricultural producers contribute to the amount and structure of export and import as well as interregional food relations on export and import of food products of each region.
Kuznetsova O., Melguy A., Dvoretskaya Yu.
The agricultural industry of Russia shall strengthen economic line items as it has positive dynamics of development for a row of the last years. Article contains express assessment of a condition of the domestic agrarian sector of economy, the code of key problems and the offer in the field of revitalization of its social and economic development. Authors offered the concept of decrease in cost value of agricultural products within system a target-costing. Recommendations about production organization of new types of products with low costs (for example, horse-flesh) are of particular importance. Authors suggest applying tax optimization as the tool on attraction of financial resources to upgrade of agricultural production. Authors consider that stimulation of economic development of the sphere of agricultural industry of Russia should be combined with revitalization of social security of workers of agrarian subjects. Social expenses shall increase, in connection with implementation of the state Sustainability strategy of the rural territories. Private social expenses shall grow too. They can be inexpensive, but rather effective (consultations and trainings about a healthy lifestyle, the organization of days of health and another).
Kostyukova E.I., Skripnichenko Yu.S., Skripnichenko V.Yu.
Despite the same conditions of economic activity, enterprise structures in the sphere of agricultural production have also distinctive features that cause essential differences in the level of agricultural production. The differentiated level of development of enterprise structures in agricultural production acts as a prerequisite of comparison of subjects of agrarian business on the level of development of agricultural production. The level of development of production of agricultural production can be characterized not only the physical volume of production, but also a set of other criteria, such as cost of fixed assets, work costs of production, etc. Therefore for a tipologization of subjects of agrarian business methods of multidimensional comparisons have been used. As a result of a research the agricultural organizations of the region have been divided into groups with very high, high and average level of production of vegetables of the open ground. The highest level on all set of classification criteria the Gold Field Agricultural firm of Novoaleksandrovsky district has.