Polunin G., Alakoz V., Cherkashin K.
The paper depicts a history of household plots origination, contains analysis of theirs land usage contemporary state and defines their development prospects. Being unique form of farm for former USSR countries, household plots originates during the period of massive collectivization as a trade-off for the property taken away from farmers. The recent land reform conserved this form of land use and present day household plots take an important part in agricultural production of Russian Federation. Having high social value for residents and being the source of most of the produced livestock products and crops (especially vegetables and potatoes), overall production in the household during past 10 years continuously was reducing. Total area of abandoned households and fallow land is growing; cultivated area and livestock are decreasing. But household plots and other individual households with an area of more than 2.5 hectares have an opposite trend. Despite that having that high area is formally illegal, the number of such households and their total area keep on growing. In order to maintain viability of legal household plots and to apply land management on them authors suggest the most necessary measures of governmental support and intervention.
Gerasimov A., Gromov E., Skripnichenko Yu.
From the effective innovative activity of the regions, the stable, dynamic development of Russian agriculture largely depends. The research of priority directions of innovative development of agricultural production in the Stavropol Territory is caused by the need to differentiate various directions of specialization of this branch of the region in order to determine the most effective directions for stimulating innovative development. In this regard, it is urgent to investigate the theoretical and practical aspects of innovative development of agriculture, its organizational and economic mechanism, and to identify priority areas that will contribute to the growth of innovative activity in the agricultural sector of the region. The purpose of the study is to identify priority areas for the development of agriculture in order to take advantage of the individual development directions in terms of the impact of stimulant factors and destimulator factors. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research was the fundamental and applied research of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of spatial economics and economic analysis, thematic publications in periodicals devoted to the problems of agricultural production in the management system of regional socio-economic systems. To determine the priority directions for the development of agriculture, a method was used that was distinguished by a block structure. The model of multicriteria rating assessment provides criteria for assessing the potential of innovative development of territories. As a key parameter of the potential of innovation development is a generalizing indicator, in accordance with the level of which three levels of innovative development potential are allocated.
Small farms are an integral part of agrarian production of the North Caucasian federal district. In 2017 year 61.6% of total amount of the agricultural products produced by farms of all categories of the district, including 28.2% of grain, 21.9% of sunflower, 78.0% of vegetables of the discovered and closed soil, 90.1% of potatoes, 59.3% of meat of the cattle and a bird, 88.7% of milk and 72.3% of eggs fall to their share. Despite so considerable outputs, the involvement of subjects of small farms into the sphere of commodity exchange and the system of the food market remains extremely low. For the purpose of further development and growth of efficiency of small business entities in the district in the conditions of multistructure agriculture and strengthening of interaction between various legal forms of managing creation and expansion of a system of agricultural cooperatives is necessary. In the North Caucasian Federal District as of January 1, 2016 438 agricultural consumer cooperatives are registered that makes 7.3% of their Russian number from which only 59% actually work (across Russia this figure reaches 68%). Today in the majority of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, including also North Caucasus federal district, development of small forms is kept within State programme’s actions for 2013-2020. So, for example, in 2017 for 1 rub of gross output, small farms received only 0.8 kopeks of the federal help that it is obviously not enough. At the same time extremely important not only to increase the sizes of the funds allocated by the state but also to provide their effective use.
In the article on the basis of data of the all-Russian agricultural census of 2016 in comparison with data of the all-Russian agricultural census of 2006 tendencies of providing with land resources and other agricultural producers are considered; processes of concentration of land use; dynamics of the reclaimed lands; application of mineral and organic fertilizers. The expansion of the land area of farmers and individual entrepreneurs was noted. The estimation of the area of unused agricultural land was noted. On the basis of the analysis the directions of improvement of land accounting and land policy in agriculture, stimulation of rational land use are substantiated.
In article problems of outflow of the population from rural territories are considered. Measures of economic and demographic development of rural territories are proposed: granting the target credits to villagers for up to 30 years on construction or purchase of own house and support of business; engineering, infrastructure and social arrangement of rural territories. Experience of the Belgorod region in development of rural territories is considered.
Efremova A., Dagayev A.
Despite the progress of many knowledge-intensive industries, the welfare of the population is still determined primarily by the level of agriculture development. Moreover, in the foreseeable future, the significance of this branch of the economy will only grow steadily due to the increase in population, urbanization processes, reduction of cultivated land, environmental pollution and several other reasons that accompany evolutionary changes at the present stage of history. Therefore, the production of food is invariably among the practical targets of national importance. A significant contribution to the development of domestic agriculture is made by poultry farming. In a short period of time (1998-2017) in Russia, poultry meat production growth was 7 times, eggs - by 37%. To maintain the momentum and continue the progressive development of poultry, it is necessary to increase its competitiveness considering present and future challenges.
Chernova S., Ozhogova O.
Vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries are familiar and necessary food in the diet of the average Russian. The growth rate of production of these products does not keep pace with the needs of the population, so every year the Russian Federation imports from 4 to 6 million tons of fruits and vegetables. The article considers the dynamics of production of vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries in the Siberian Federal district for 1990-2015.the factors influencing the development of fruit and vegetable growing in the district are revealed. Studies have shown that for the further development of these industries it is necessary to intensify the construction of new irrigation systems, to attract large investors for the construction of modern greenhouse plants and the laying of perennial plantations, to use the possibilities of logistics centres to create modern storage bases and workshops for processing agricultural products, to create cooperatives, fruit and vegetable trading bases-markets for the purchase of surplus products from private households and farms. Indicators of production (vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries) were calculated on the basis of the required volumes of food, according to the recommended consumption rates and the expected population of the region. In the production of vegetables, potatoes, fruits and berries in the Siberian Federal district, personal subsidiary and farm enterprises occupy a leading position, which brings instability to the Siberian market and the orientation of processing enterprises on imported raw materials. In our opinion, for greater stability of the fruit and vegetable market, it is necessary to gradually increase the role of large agricultural organizations in the fruit and vegetable industries of the district.
The topicality of research is conditioned by the problem with investment in agriculture of the Siberian Federal District (SFD). Since 2013 there has been a steady trend of decreasing the volume of investment in agrarian production. The volume of fixed investment in the AIC was equal to only 40 billion roubles in 2016 which was about 90% from the total investment in 2010 in a comparable estimate. One of the causes for an uneven development of agro-industrial complex across the territory of the country including the Siberian Federal District is the differentiation of economic entities in investment of agricultural production. The existing measures of state support of investment activities in agriculture are notable for their selectivity and low availability for the bulk of agricultural commodity producers and they do not assist in smoothing out this differentiation. The potentialities of the regions of the SFD in production of the main produce of agriculture allow meeting the needs of the district in the major food-stuffs in full. This will require a significant increase of investment in the sector (2.0-2.5 two and two and a half times). Due to the lack of investment resources the system of priority investment in agricultural sector has been substantiated in order to enhance the efficient use of these resources.
Gritsenko G., Vernigor N., Minenko A., Apalkova O.
Organized infrastructure of the state support allows small business entities to reduce business costs, in due time to receive public services, to have the cheap loans providing them development. A research objective is to show on experience of Altai Krai the most effective elements of infrastructure of the state support of rural small business considering its branch accessory and different sources of providing support. For achievement of a goal there were used monographic, statistical, abstract and logical methods, the analysis, synthesis, a comparison, a comparison, generalization. As a result of a research elements of infrastructure of the state support of rural small business of Altai Krai are systematized and structured, types of service of its elements are shown, the role of municipal budgets in development of small rural business is shown, results of use of budgetary funds as an indicator of efficiency of activity of subjects of infrastructure of the state support are generalized.
Syomin A., Skvortsov E.
The most important factor in the transformation of social and labour relations is the development of the means of production, scientific and technological progress, and the improvement of technology and technology. Recently, robotics has been rapidly introduced in agriculture. The main scientific idea is that the robotization of agricultural production leads to a significant transformation of social and labour relations. To assess these processes, various sociological research methods were used. The transition of the agricultural sector of the economy to robotics contributes to overcoming one of the serious contradictions of modern production, on the one hand, between the growing specialization of labour operations as a condition for increasing labour productivity and, on the other hand, the need to enhance the content and creative nature of labour. Robotization causes a transformation of the professional composition of workers in agricultural organizations. Workers with a high proportion of manual labour (milkmaids, cattlemen) are replaced by specialists of mainly mental labour (operators of robotic milking, robot maintenance equipment). As the analysis shows, robotization transforms the gender composition of agricultural workers. Robotization is associated with an increase in employment with skills in engineering, engineering and mathematical specialties, among which women constitute a smaller part of workers. The use of robotics in agricultural production increases the attractiveness and variety of labour, which has a positive effect on the retention of young professionals in the industry.
Russian Federation faces tough challenges in the current geopolitical situation. These challenges came from the extending economic sanctions and reciprocal anti-actions and influence greatly on the efficiency of agricultural production and agro-food import substitution. The new approach to the use of economic levers and methods of impact on all reproduction stages is needed. The given research was carried out in one of the largest regions of the country - Zabaykalsky Krai, which has the extraordinary features connected with its geographical and climatic conditions. An attempt to define the most priority directions of increase in efficiency of agro-food production using capable economic mechanism in this very region is made.