Syomin A., Truba A.
In rural areas of the country there is an increase in social tension. Reduction of social facilities continues. Only in the last ten years the number of paramedic-midwifery stations has decreased by more than 12%, general education institutions - more than 22%, other objects of the social sphere of the countryside have decreased by 7-10%. There is not only their reduction, but quality is declining and the volume of provided social services is declining. Migratory processes became more active. About 200 billion roubles are spent annually on the maintenance of social facilities in rural areas. budgetary funds related to the purchase of energy resources, which is about 2% of the total expenditure of the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation for the maintenance of socio-cultural sites. Expenses of the budget of municipal entities for the acquisition of fuel and energy resources (FER) for social infrastructure facilities are even higher - up to 8%. In the structure of spending on the maintenance of social real estate, the cost of paying for energy resources is the bulk (about 70-80%). FER at social property sites are not used rationally, the technical potential of energy saving at such facilities is up to 80% of actual energy consumption. It is established that only by improving the energy management system it is possible to reduce the annual energy costs in rural areas by 16-17 billion roubles. This article focuses on the problems of rational and efficient management of energy consumption at real estate objects in the social sphere of rural areas. The need for the development of specific methods for assessing the level of energy efficiency of social real estate objects, monitoring energy conservation, creating scientific and practical recommendations for improving the agro-energy management system in rural areas is substantiated.
The objects of article are to analyse the qualitative structure of heads of the agricultural organisations in the Russian Federation (according to the All-Russia agricultural census of 2016) and to prove offers on its improvement. At research methods of groupings, the analysis and synthesis, an induction and deduction, comparison and others were applied. In the course of researches the low educational level at many heads of the agricultural organisations is established. So, even in the organisations concerning large and average business, 52,5 % of heads have the higher agricultural education only. At heads of small enterprises an educational level even more low. On microenterprises Rosstat has not presented the information on qualitative structure of their heads. From the departmental reporting of regional controls agriculture follows, that many heads of such economy have also no secondary special education. However regional programs of preparation and improvement of professional skill of heads of the agricultural organisations are absent. For increase of qualitative structure it is offered: 1) to accept the special Federal program of increase professional knowledge, abilities, skills administrative shots of the agricultural organisations; 2) To federal service to the state statistics to collect and bring to the notice of controls and the public the information on presence at heads of the agricultural organisations, including and concerning the microenterprises, corresponding administrative education.
Krylov V., Semkin A., Bayunov V., Mikheyev E.
Article is devoted to the analysis of a state and the main directions of development of agricultural cooperation and its value for stable development of agro-industrial complex, strengthening of economy of agriculture, especially at the regional and settlement levels of the Lipetsk region. The role, value and need of active participation of the regional and settlement authorities for the organization of agricultural cooperation are defined. The feature of approaches and the new directions of the organization and the state support of agricultural cooperatives of area thanks to which the area is an undisputed leader, both on the number of cooperatives, and on the level and stability of development of rural territories are investigated. Authors give special attention to deeper studying and need of application for regions of the country of experience of the organization of the cooperative movement in the Lipetsk region.
Bogoviz A., Popkova E., Svistunova I.
The purpose of article consists in development of conceptual and innovative model of agro-industrial reproduction in the conditions of the industry 4.0. The theoretic and methodological base was created by the advanced researches of modern Russian and foreign scientists concerning modernization of agrarian and industrial complex and optimization of system of agro-industrial reproduction. In work three most perspective directions of modernization of agrarian and industrial complex on the basis of the industry 4.0 are designated: diversification and optimization of agro-industrial production with use of the latest technologies and opportunities of the industry 4.0, use of the latest technologies for delivery of food production to consumers and increases in efficiency of a chain of value added of agrarian and industrial complex and also introduction of inter industry cross-industrial technologies and applications for expansion of cooperation and integration of the agrarian and industrial complex enterprises. Authors have offered the most promising and demanded technologies allowing to realize this directions and also the author''s conceptual and innovative model of agro-industrial reproduction in the conditions of the industry 4.0 directed to formation of agrarian and industrial complex 4.0 is developed. Implementation of this model will allow to solve successfully a problem of global food security thanks to ensuring high productivity, controllability, independence of climatic conditions and ecological safety of agrarian and industrial complex.
Ryzhkova S., Kruchinina V., Gasanova X., Lankin A.
The world pays great attention to organic production systems aimed at creating agro ecosystems that are economically, socially and environmentally safe. Organic products are already produced and sold in Russia, but there is still no need to talk about the broad development of organic agriculture in Russia. There is no fundamental moment - the legislative field, which is only being formed. The purpose of the study is to examine the current state of the legal provision of organic production and turnover of products in Russia, as well as the negative consequences of the absence of a direct action law regulating the organic market for producers, processors, consumers, exporters and importers. Authors used methods: abstract-logical, analysis, comparison, deduction, induction, monographic. The legislative acts of the European Union were studied and analyzed, and the current laws of Ukraine and Armenia were compared with the domestic draft of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On the production of organic products." As a result of the research, the authors came to the following conclusions: the domestic legal system for ensuring the market of organic products is not perfect; in the absence of a law of direct action, it is necessary to develop technical regulations for organic products, replacing them with existing GOSTs; It is necessary to adopt a law of direct action not only for production, but also for the circulation of organic products. The law on production and turnover of organic products will become an important regulatory document for the Russian economy. It will ensure the proper functioning of the market of organic products and will help to increase the competitiveness of domestic organic products and expand foreign markets for its sale. The results obtained by the authors can later be used in the development of special laws and by-laws, as well as by participants in the market of organic products in practical activities.
Poultry industry is the most dynamically developing sector of agriculture, which is able to contribute meeting population’s needs in nutritious and healthy foods at the same time helping to implement the general programme of agricultural exports through the development and strengthening of the industry’s production capacity.Russian poultry is the only branch in the agro-industrial complex that was able in short term (from 1997 to 2017) to increase poultry meat production output 7 times, eggs - by 37%. However, not all regions are able to provide the population with these products. In the Far Eastern Federal District the level of self-sufficiency in poultry meat and eggs is low and stands at 22% and 63% respectively. Providing the population of the Far East with products, in particular poultry products, is a priority.Due to its favourable geographical location (proximity to major Asian markets - China, Japan), the Far Eastern Federal District may become a key export region for poultry products. The aim of this article is to analyse the current state of the poultry industry in the Far Eastern Federal District and its potential for the development of the industry. Based on the results of the analysis recommendations have been made for forming the regional market of poultry products.
The economic sanctions imposed on Russia, the reciprocal ban on imports from the countries that joined the anti-Russian sanctions, food products, the depreciation of the rouble against major world currencies, the favourable natural and climatic conditions and the macroeconomic situation in the markets have become additional impulses for the development of a number of branches of the agricultural economics of Russia, increasing production volumes and saturating the domestic market with the main types of agricultural products. The harvests of grain of wheat obtained in recent years in our country allow us to fully meet the requirements for food grain, increase the supply of domestic livestock with grain, increase exports. The article analyzes the export potential of the Russian market of wheat grains, examines its relationship with the current state of selection of this crop. The main problems of domestic research institutions conducting grain selection work are shown, as well as the conditions under which the most complete realization of the export potential of the grain market is possible.
СЕНОКОСОВА ЛЮДМИЛА ГРИГОРЬЕВНА, ЛАБУНСКИЙ ВЛАДИМИР ВЛАДИМИРОВИЧ, УЗУН ИВАН НИКОЛАЕВИЧ
В статье раскрывается взаимосвязь правовых и экономических аспектов собственности. Указывается на то, что экономические отношения складываются в самом производстве в процессе хозяйствования, а право собственности является отражением этих отношений, дающее свободу принятия решений в обмен на ответственность за эти решения. Показано, что эффективность реализации собственности в сельскохозяйственной отрасли связана не только с рыночными силами и разнообразными формами собственности, но и с определенным характером и спецификой рыночных отношений в аграрной сфере.The article reveals the relationship of legal and economic aspects of property. It is pointed out that economic relations are formed in the production itself in the process of management, and the property right is a reflection of these relations, which gives freedom of decision-making in exchange for responsibility for these decisions. It is shown that the effectiveness of the sale of property in the agricultural sector is associated not only with market forces and various forms of ownership, but also with a certain nature and specificity of market relations in the agrarian sphere.