Schastlivtseva L., Panina N.
The relevance of work is caused by need of an exit of economy from crisis which Russia has entered, since 2014. A research objective is the analysis of conditions in which process of accumulation of the capital at the macro-level and in a branch section (agriculture) and also development of recommendations about acceleration of an exit of Russia and other countries of EEU on rates of steady growth of economy proceeds. Paramount attention in work is paid to justification of a proportion between fund of accumulation and consumption in gross domestic product. Also a number of tasks of formation and effective use of fund of accumulation, in particulars, investments of capital in branch with the high output capital ratio and respectively a fast payback period of investments is formulated. Recommendations about priority development of the branches making production ready to final consumption (agriculture and the industry processing agricultural raw materials) since they not strongly extend a chain of intermediate consumption are made and in them expenses on modernization pay off quicker. The special emphasis is placed on improvement of system of the prices through which the largest volume of financial resources comes to economic entities, defining the nature of course in them reproduction processes.
The dynamics of trade development requires the feedback from the market participants in order to increase the efficiency of the business. At the same time we observe the processes of blurring formats and business concepts in the trading activities practice, which lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of general trading activities. In this regard, the importance of acquiring a conceptual approach to the selection of trade formats acquires particular importance, the expedient selection of which ultimately influences the formation of loyalty of the target segments of buyers and the overall performance of trading companies. Justification of the expediency of the transition from the processes of accumulation of trade formats without understanding the differences between them in the structure of trading company to the well-founded construction of the multi-format trade business model. A carefully built, grounded multi-format business model can positively influence the overall performance of trading companies.
The accession of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia to the EU in 2004 led to profound reforms in the main sectors of the economy of these countries, including agriculture. In the years since the accession of these countries to the EU, the share of agriculture in GDP decreased markedly in the course of reform there have been major changes in livestock and crop production is dramatically reduced population of farm animals increased the share of growing wheat and rapeseed at the expense of other cultures. In General, the share of agricultural workers in the Baltic States has decreased significantly. However, there were also positive aspects. Accession to the EU forced farmers to improve the quality of products in accordance with European standards, to look for new markets for their products.
For the last several decades in the majority of the countries of the European Union the structure of the programs focused on agriculture has considerably changed. Need of support of rural areas in time of a depression of the 1930th years and aspiration to growth of agricultural production after World War II was an initial incentive for formation of these programs. In the 21st century of requirement of agriculture have radically changed, and there was a need for revision of agricultural policy which rather often was exposed to criticism for its high cost and low efficiency. Studying of lobbyist activity of the social and economic organizations is important at assessment of their influence on uniform agricultural policy. Lobbyist groups have rather wide range of "access points" to institutional structures of the EU. Based on "the theory of access", it is possible to offer a number of concrete hypotheses of access for various groups of interests in the multilevel system of the EU.
Shabanov T., Kopchenov A.
The article presents the methodology of the prospects of the agro-industrial market and the relevance of its development. The concept of modeling the market prospects as a dynamic mechanism of supply-demand balance is proposed, the method of modeling the market prospects on the basis of variation deviations of trends is developed. The application of the proposed approach makes it possible to demonstrate the connection of the basic provisions of the market equilibrium theory with the problems of assessing the prospects of the situation in the agricultural markets. The market outlook modeling methodology includes four successive stages. Testing of the proposed method was carried out using official Rosstat data on the grain market. Over a twenty-year time interval, the changes in prices and production volumes were analyzed. The basic statistical parameters of regression are defined. The quantitative parameters of the dependence of the volumes of supply and demand and prices are established. The conditions of market equilibrium in the wheat market are determined. The elasticity of supply and demand for the price is estimated. The gradient and the nature of the market balance are revealed, the prospect of the Russian wheat market is described. Testing confirms the practical usefulness of the results in the wheat market prospects management. The proposed methodology can be used in the analysis of other markets with significant variability of parameters by their operators.
Polunin G., Alakoz V., Cherkashin K.
Considering present geopolitical situation it is necessary for Russia to achieve food self-sufficiency, which requires an involvement of unused agricultural land into agricultural production. To reach that objective it is necessary to evaluate the potential of unused land in the country and estimate the degree of food self-sufficiency. Areas of unused valuable productive agricultural land, which should be returned to production, determined as a result of classification of land by it suitability for agricultural use. State food self-sufficiency rate is determined for basic food products considering the standards of its consumption. The possibilities of the dairy farming were calculated. It is one of the weakest industries. There is necessary capacity by involvement of unused valuable agricultural land into production with intermediate input level. As a result for European part of Russia it is possible to reach up to 85% of required production capacity (for now it is about 60%) engaging only valuable unused land (which is only 20% of unused land in that area), and, for sure, to exceed the existing amount of import. The most part of unused land falls on the non-chernozem zone of Russian Federation and development of livestock industry within that area should serve as a source of growth of rural territories, which are in desolation for now.
Article purpose is the analysis of a condition of enterprise climate in agriculture defining possibilities of subjects of small business for functioning and development of the activity. Assessment of level of satisfaction of subjects of small agribusiness by a condition of elements of enterprise climate in the region is executed. The received results demonstrate dissatisfaction of subjects of small agribusiness with a condition of the studied factors. The highest level of dissatisfaction is characteristic of a condition of material infrastructure, level of availability of financial resources and land resources. The analysis has shown low supply of the equipment. Possibilities of attraction of financial resources are complicated by high interest rates and requirements for mortgage base. Possibilities of receiving lands of agricultural purpose for subjects of small agribusiness low. In the most remote areas having the respective areas, businessmen don't show activity in creation and expansion of production as effective motivational mechanisms of their attraction on these territories aren't implemented.
Bulgakov A., Vinogradova O.
The article’s purpose is an assessment of opportunities of determination of probability of crisis on the basis of significant factors. A research object is the agricultural organizations of which is characteristic dependence of business on an environment, seasonality of production works, the considerable competition, sharp fluctuation in prices of agricultural production, high wear of fixed assets. A serious problem is also the lack of financing, low investment attractiveness of the agricultural organizations, inaccessibility of credit resources and a lack of mortgage providing. It leads to the high level of bankruptcies for the agricultural organizations. So, for the end of 2016, by data SPARK-Interfax, more than 300 in a state bankruptcies were the share of 27.6 thousand operating agricultural organizations, and about 1.9 thousand more enterprises were liquidated. The mechanism of crisis management directed to prevention of bankruptcy of the agricultural organizations, assuming determination of probability of approach of bankruptcy on the basis of significant factors is investigated.
Chernova S., Vakhnevich K.
The structure of the price for the last quarter century has changed dramatically. If in the pre-perestroika period, in the prime cost of production, the main costs were for the maintenance of fixed assets, seeds and labour. Now, in 25 years, the expenses for the maintenance of fixed assets have been reduced by 2 times, but expenses for oil products and electric power have increased 5-fold, and overhead expenses (administrative expenses) have doubled. In unstable market conditions, an agricultural commodity producer is faced with the fact that after the sale of its goods it does not pay back its costs and is at a loss. The rather complicated and unstable situation on the grain market led to the result, when peasants, having received a large harvest, can not sell it at reasonable prices. The state in such situations should act as a guarantor of the fact that at such price hikes the commodity producer can always count on getting state support for the lost profit. For the operation of such a mechanism for regulating the grain market, we propose an indicative mechanism for pricing in the grain market, based on the definition of indicative prices, taking into account expanded reproduction. Calculation of indicative prices should be made taking into account the net payback of costs for the production of gross output. Proceeding from the offered technique actually in 2015 producers of grain has received less 1529.4 million roubles. Settlement indication price of grain in 2020 will be 9.48, in 2025 - 13.1 thousand roubles/t.