Azerbaijan pursues purposeful state policy in the field of sustainable development of agriculture. Agrarian policy of the state is implemented by means of the relevant legislative initiatives and state programs. Measures of the state support are aimed at providing national food security, development of agricultural production, modernization of processing enterprises, development of logistic infrastructure, and development of rural territories. One of the directions of state policy of Azerbaijan is decrease in import production in the domestic food market and implementation of complex measures for creation of food stocks. Taking into account a goal of agrarian and industrial complex Azerbaijan directs the efforts to improvement of bilateral and multilateral standard and legal base and further trade liberalization. Creation of large logistic bases for transition from single small wholesale trade operations to long-term contracts has to become an important step on the way of increasing export.
Shelkovnikov S., Kuznetsova I., Peshkova O.
In the formation of human capital in agriculture used on the farm the leading role played by the state, because it is thanks to investment from his side there is a preparation and retraining of specialists in higher educational establishments of agrarian profile, and also created the conditions for further securing of professional staff in rural areas. Today in the agricultural sector there is a negative trend, which consists in the "aging" of the existing professional staff and the lack of qualified replacement for them. First of all, the outflow of workers from agriculture is associated with low material interest, difficult working conditions and weak development of production and social infrastructure. The existing measures of state support for workers in agriculture are fragmented with insufficient funding and do not have a significant impact on the renewal of personnel in the industry.
Ermakova E., Vinogradova O.
Working capital management plays a significant role in improved profitability of firms. Firms can achieve optimal management of working capital by making the trade-off between profitability and liquidity. This paper analyzes the effect of working capital management on profitability and probability of bankruptcy firms in Russia. Regression models were used to establish the relationship between working capital management and firm’s profitability. The study finds a negative relationship between conversion cycle and firm’s profitability: turnover of current assets has a significant impact on the return on assets. Based on the key findings from this study it has been concluded that the management of a firm can create value for their shareholders by change in volumes of working capital. Moreover, the management can also reduce the likelihood of bankruptcy by increasing current liquidity. Firms are capable of gaining sustainable competitive advantage by means of effective and efficient utilization of working capital of the organization. In so doing, the profitability of the firms is expected to increase.
Ushachev I., Nechaev V., Bondarenko T.
In the scientific and technical sphere are distinguished from problems of development of business: spontaneous transfer of results of intellectual activity between the countries, a lack of monitoring of transfer, a need of formation of the legal environment and favourable conditions for investment climate, a creation of the corresponding infrastructure, a definition of models of scientific and technical business. In the scientific and technical sphere of EEU the following forms of business are possible: a performance of concrete research and development, consultation, drawing up an image of the future on the basis of expert estimates, publishing in combination with advertising and marketing, etc. Further development of the agrarian sector of EEU is connected with improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism of functioning of the market of science results of the EEU.
The main internal reasons for difficult situation with providing the population of the country domestic by milk and milk products, the productions of milk connected with low rates of a gain due to insignificant quantity of again constructed, reconstructed and modernized complexes and farms, the continuing reduction of a livestock of cows, low marketability of production of milk and non-equivalence of exchange are opened. To increase stability of maintaining dairy cattle breeding, it is necessary: to pass from regulation to management, from forecasting to planning of development of subsector; to create the effective mechanism of the state influence directed to increase in efficiency and competitiveness of dairy cattle breeding; not to allow decrease in production of milk in the country in the conditions of steady falling of his production in farms of the population; to increase domestic breeding resources of the leading breeds of the dairy cattle.
The growth rate of milk production is increasingly determined by the level of competitiveness in the global market, the compliance of quality indicators, costs and environmental safety of production to the world's leading competitors. An increase in animal productivity, labour productivity, product quality, a decrease in resource intensity, losses in the production and processing of milk, environmental pressures, production and economic costs require the system development of innovative technologies. Digital technologies provide the transition from management of innovation development at individual stages of the production chain to their unification in a single production and economic system on the basis of a "digital platform", which allows to obtain synergistic result, increase operational and investment efficiency, realize economies of scale and comparative advantages, provide competitiveness and strong growth in milk production volumes. The development of digital technologies ensures the transition from the application of innovations at individual stages of the production chain to their unification in a single production and economic system on the basis of a "digital platform", which makes it possible to obtain synergistic result, to increase operational efficiency, to realize economies of scale and comparative advantage, to ensure the competitiveness and strong growth in milk production volumes. For the development of innovative digital technologies by most participants of dairy cattle breeding, it is necessary to revise the forms of state support for the investment process in dairy cattle breeding.
Increase in efficiency of cows doesn't lead to the adequate growth of economic efficiency of dairy cattle breeding therefore the research purpose - carrying out additional researches of influence of growth of yields of milk of milk on profit and profitability of his production. Farms of the Leningrad Region are rather differentiated on the applied technologies of contents, feeding and milking and without these distinctions it is difficult to reveal regularities of influence of efficiency of cows on economic efficiency of dairy livestock production. The executed groups of the agricultural organizations of the Leningrad Region for indicators of average annual milk yield of milk counting on a cow have shown that each subsequent increase of yields of milk of milk becomes more and more resource-intensive that leads to decrease in profitability of expenses. The hypothesis of a possible divergence of results of calculations and conclusions by them was checked by consideration of expenses and results in relation to production of milk (the 1st option) and concerning costs of the main herd of the dairy cattle and fattening cattle at the corresponding proceeds from sales of milk and cattle (the 2nd option). The biological limit of efficiency of cows in the Leningrad Region averages not less than 13000 milks from a cow in a year, and in separate farms is significantly higher. Therefore, to reach these indicators for today isn't a problem. At the same time the aspiration to increase efficiency of cows isn't always economically justified in any way. Extreme, economically justified efficiency of cows for each economy of dairy specialization is individual when which determining it is necessary to consider a complex of technology, genetic, organizational, personnel and other factors.
The statistical analysis of the efficiency of investment in regional agriculture of Russia is conducted for the period from 2006 to 2016 using Russian agricultural census data in the published research. In order to take into account the natural and climatic differences between the regions of Russia, as well as significant differences in the rate of change, size, composition of crop farming and animal husbandry resources, the method of factor cross-classification are used. As a result of the statistical analysis, groups of regions characterized by high efficiency of investment activity and regions it is necessary to improve investment policy are distinguished. The investment in the framework of the approach is viewed as a multidimensional process that has a significant impact on all aspects of society.
Demidov P., Ulezko A., Reimer V.
Consideration of land resources as object of the real estate and spatial basis has led not only to distortion of functions of strategic management, but also to violation of balance of interests of subjects of the land relations, has caused the low level of efficiency of state regulation of processes of land use. The author accentuates the separate issue of deformation of the information provision subsystem of the land resource strategic management system. The developed mechanism of maintaining the inventory of the real estate provides a possibility of realization only to a part of functions of ensuring strategic management with them. At the level of economic entities strategic management of land resources is focused on formation of the steady agro landscapes providing the level of efficiency of agricultural production. The purpose of strategic management of land resources of the agrarian sphere consists in ensuring effective use of productive lands in the long term. Functions of strategic management of land resources are within the competence of the state which within land policy defines the strategy of use of productive lands and their reproduction.
Romantseva Yu., Galyautdinova D.
The article provides a statistical assessment of the level and dynamics of income of agricultural producers. The contribution of the industry in the formation of GDP as a whole across the Russian Federation is still insignificant and does not exceed 4.5%, however, a significant differentiation of this indicator is observed in the territorial section. Economic and statistical analysis has made it possible to identify groups of regions that differ in size, resource potential, level and conditions of development of agriculture and the economy as a whole. The study showed the need for a differentiated targeted approach to support the industry. Groups of regions with the most favourable economic conditions, making a significant contribution to the formation of regional incomes and ensuring food security, at this stage of development require a minimum level of state support since they are attractive to the private investor. The most numerous group of regions with significant resource potential need development in the framework of export-oriented policies aimed at increasing the volume of products. In regions unfavourable for agricultural production, where the industry is subsidiary, and there is acceleration in the processes of depopulation, it is required to improve the policy for the development of rural areas and support for the households of the population.
In the article on the basis of data of the all-Russian agricultural census of 2016 in comparison with data of the all-Russian agricultural census of 2006 the tendencies of technological development of agriculture are considered. The processes of land reclamation, the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, the state of agricultural machinery, the use of elite seeds, and the provision of industrial infrastructure are analyzed. There is a differentiation of the level of accessibility to the means of intensification and innovative technologies of large agricultural organizations, small enterprises and peasant (farm) farms. The main directions of improvement of scientific and technological in agriculture are considered.