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Yanbykh R., Saraykin V.
Complex cooperative legislation in Russia is the case in the confusion of Soviet and post-Soviet regulatory norms. The existing classification of cooperatives, both agricultural and non-agricultural, does not contribute to their development and government support. Agricultural cooperatives are not always involved in agricultural production and its maintenance, and vice versa. The group of cooperatives has shown that 46.7% of the registered cooperatives are garage and construction cooperatives, 19.3% - housing co-operatives, 14% - production cooperatives from which a little more than 10% are presented by agricultural production cooperatives, 6.4% are the share of consumer societies. Improvement of the regulatory and statistical basis of agricultural cooperation is extremely important.
Latkin A., Korotkyh E.
The development of small business in agriculture over the past few years has been hampered by the outflow of people from rural areas and the low profitability of agricultural production. Regional programs aimed at changing this situation, copying the structure and main activities of the Federal level, poorly take into account the specific features of the natural and economic conditions of the regions. In this regard, the current mechanism of support for small businesses demonstrates low efficiency due to the lack of a balanced strategy for the distribution of state subsidies to various subjects of agricultural entrepreneurship. The research carried out by the authors made it possible to make adjustments to the existing steps of subsidizing small forms of management. The proposed measures are aimed at improving the regional model for the implementation of their state support in the allocation of subsidies on the basis of the recommendations of municipal units.
Rakhayev H., Eneeva M., Ivanova Z.
The North Caucasus has a natural competitive advantage for agriculture. But at the same time, in general, in the NCFD, the level of labour productivity is lower than the average Russian almost twice. And not an abbreviation is observed, but an increase in this gap. As a result, the agriculture of the North Caucasus has a low level of competitiveness, despite the fact that in many subjects it is a system-forming branch of regional farms. The article analyzes the state of labour productivity in the agriculture of the North Caucasian Federal District and its subjects. The differentiation of the level of labour productivity in the subjects of the NCFD has been established, the causes have been identified, the influence of various factors has been calculated on the level of labour productivity, the strength of communication (using correlation coefficients) between labour productivity and the factors influencing its level has been calculated. Based on the generalization of the identified dependencies and problems, proposals are formulated to improve the level of labour productivity for various subjects of the NCFD.
The offered methodological approach to assessment of efficiency of the economic mechanism of development of branch communications is based on certain principles, the reasonable system of indicators and criteria for evaluation of efficiency. For assessment of efficiency of the economic mechanism of development of branch communications in a sub complex of meat production using of the concept "economic rationality" as the generalized quality standard of efficiency of the activity directed to achievement of the goal at the available restrictions and resources is offered. By means of method of expert evaluations diagnostics of system of branch communications in a meat production sub complex on the basis of which the main criteria of optimization of activity of the enterprises of branch are developed and proved is carried out. The technique of identification of inefficient business processes is developed. Methodical approaches of creation of the rational model of business processes differing from the links which are earlier existing smaller quantity in a chain and the coherence of processes with business functions of each stage leading to cost cutting, increase in level of consumption of meat production to medical reasonable norms at the existing purchasing power of the population are defined.
Pirumova L., Urbanskaya G.
The article gives results of agricultural economics micro thesaurus creation performed in CSAL. The research goal was a linguistic tool that can form and structure information on economics of agriculture with relevant subject-specific retrieval and also can be used as a table of correspondence for number of information retrieval languages. Effective subject-specific search requires specially designed linguistic tool - thesaurus. Micro thesaurus specializes on a separate area of agriculture, can be used as a directory of normalized dictionary, supports normalized dictionary introduction into local scientific practice and gives opportunity to estimate a level of any topic research. The method of thesaurus creation included vocabulary selection and takeoff, semantic processing, normalized dictionary tailoring and creation of lexical entries. To reveal the terminology the authors analyzed different sources including dictionaries thesauruses, current and retrospective articles. All the terms and items included passed through notional processing to determine status of the term, all the synonyms and connections with other terms as well as paradigmatic and associative relations. All descriptors were connected with English equivalent ones. Also authors created the tables of correspondences for thesaurus, branch rubricator and Universal Brussels Classification which means that any descriptor in the thesaurus was connected with its analogues. The micro thesaurus created is fully corresponded to current level of linguistic support and can be used as a linguistic tool of document processing, subject-specific search and also as a directory of normalized dictionary.
Research objective is justification of theoretical provisions and development of recommendations about the solution of problems of sale of agricultural production. Creation of marketing consumer cooperative in Vavozhsky district of the Udmurt Republic is offered. The pricing method providing a combination of expensive and market methods is offered. By means of a method of economic-mathematical modeling the existing channels of realization of beef in half carcasses, milk and potatoes have been analysed. Criterion of optimality in a profit ultimate goal taking into account rational specialization and concentration of the agricultural production in all objects considering necessary zootechnical and veterinary requirements. Offers on optimization of channels of realization of agricultural production in marketing consumer cooperative, different from the existing researches are proved by the integrated approach allowing to open model of optimization of channels of product sales taking into account implementation of payment on the offered plan.
Sigarev M., Narynbayeva A.
Personal subsidiary farm of rural people is the form of business activity on production provides to processing and realization of agricultural production itself the independent form of the organization without formation of legal entity which is carried out by a personal labour of citizens and members of their families. It is the most important producer of agricultural production that is caused by a solution food and on this basis of economic security of certain regions and is directed to increase in employment rate, income and quality of life of country people. The conducted researches show insufficiently high level of productive activity of personal subsidiary farms of the population in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. Many of them have no own sources of income due to realization of the made production and exist due to targeted social support of the state. The analysis of personal subsidiary farms of the population of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia which has allowed to develop recommendations about increase in effectiveness of production of agricultural production is presented in article. Offers and recommendations will find practical application in the agrarian sector that will allow to increase production efficiency, realization and processing of agricultural production and food on all categories of farms.
The analysis of distribution of the subsidized short-term credits on federal districts in the sphere of crop production in the directions is made. The main reasons for decrease in demand for proceeds of credit and reduction of availability of loans and credits as a result of aggravation of a financial condition of borrowers are considered. Conclusions are drawn that low profitability and high debt load of agricultural enterprises reduces possibilities of agricultural producers for attraction of proceeds of credit. An assessment of influence of the state support on financial stability of agricultural producers who obtain the credits for support of crop production is given. The maximum size of the loans which are attracted by agricultural producers on development of the sphere of crop production is revealed. Conclusions are drawn on reduction of the index of physical volume of capital investments in fixed capital of the sphere of crop production. The main creditors of agro-industrial complex are revealed. The main tool of state support in ensuring availability of current borrowed funds which are necessary for crop production is offered.
Shpilko A., Korotchenya V.
This study examines the need for the BRICS countries to switch to technologies of Agriculture 4.0 (Digital agriculture)-the current stage of agricultural development. The objectives of this article are: to calculate a technology gap between the BRICS countries and advanced economies in the agricultural production; assess technical efficiency of the BRICS countries’ agriculture within their local groups; analyze the need to switch to technologies of Agriculture 4.0 for the BRICS countries. Data envelopment analysis is used as a methodology for the calculations: a metafrontier approach is applied to a dynamic non-oriented SBM model with constant returns to scale (with five local groups of countries: the CIS, developing economies of Latin America and the Caribbean, developing Asia, developing economies of Africa, located to the south of the equator, advanced economies; 97 countries in total; the time interval of data: 2000-2014). The study shows that the BRICS countries have exhausted their potential of the applied technologies in agricultural production, since they have reached the maximum technical efficiency within the technologies of their local groups. At the same time the technology gap between the BRICS members, with the exception of China, and the advanced economies is relatively large and permanent, which indicates that the majority of BRICS members are not ready to switch to Agriculture 4.0. Of all the BRICS countries, China has the greatest potential for switching to new technologies in agriculture, which can eliminate the technology gap. According to our estimates, the transition to new technologies in Russia can increase its potential output of agricultural products twice with the same expenditure of agricultural resources. As a source of financing for the introduction of new technologies in our country, it is proposed to change the structure of state support of agriculture (by reducing market price support in favour of increasing support to fixed capital formation).
Tulcheev V., Zhevora S., Gordiyenko N.
Creation on the basis of integration of member countries of EEU, the CIS and BRICS of the common agrarian market on the basis of the agro-industrial formations uniting small farms for production of potatoes, vegetables, etc., and construction of the modern automated storages, including railway and specialized vehicles is proved. During creation waste-free the vertically-integrated agro-industrial formations and at construction in them pre-fabricated storages from an easy metalwork it is possible to increase supply of food potatoes and products of its processing to the countries of EEU, the CIS, SCO, BRICS, etc. to 710 million tons. For the member countries of the CIS, BRICS needs to develop joint strategic comprehensive programs of development of the common agrarian market or to begin to develop in common missing links of uniform grocery chains.