A mechanism to identify hazards and threats in activities of institution subordinate to the Ministry of Health of the Astrakhan oblast

Zaitsev S.V., Nadeina I.A.

Subject The article addresses the theoretical aspects of economic security in public health, namely the economic security of a State-financed institution subordinate to the Ministry of Healthcare and delivering material and technical supplies service to medical facilities. Objectives The study aims to analyze the economic security of the institution under the Ministry of Healthcare, develop methods for assessing the economic security. Methods We employed methods of logical, mathematical and statistical analysis and performed economic security assessment under our own method of analysis. Results The paper systematizes theoretical aspects of economic security assessment of a budgetary institution rendering services to medical facilities. We created an algorithm to analyze the economic security of a subordinate institution based on various determinants of management, developed an integrated method of assessment, carried out express diagnostics of subordinate institution's operations, calculated the integrated index of its economic security, offered analytical management solutions to improve its activity. Conclusions The proposed mechanism for identifying risks and threats in the activities of the institution under the Ministry of Healthcare enables to assess the economic security of the institution, develop management solutions and improve operations.

Approaches to the public management of infrastructure investment in Russia in the light of international practices

Bogacheva O.V., Smorodinov O.V.

Subject This paper discusses the holistic approach to the public management of investment in the economic and social infrastructure. The majority of economically developed countries have accepted this approach. Objectives The paper aims to analyze foreign public management of investment in infrastructure and explore the possibility of introducing this approach in Russia. Methods For the study, we used the methods of logical and comparative analyses, as well as a generalization of world best practices. Results The paper formulates key characteristics of the holistic approach to the public management of infrastructure investment. It suggests a set of criteria allowing to evaluate the efficiency of investing in infrastructure projects. Conclusions and Relevance The paper concludes that increasing the efficiency of public management of infrastructure investment in Russia is a multifold task. Its solution requires adoption of long-term national strategy of infrastructure development, forming new government management elements, providing a financial stability during the whole life-cycle of infrastructure project. The results of this research can be useful in investment project selection and project efficiency assessment.

Compulsory medical insurance in the Russian Federation: Problems of development

Martov S.N.

Importance High-quality medical care is a priority task of the State strategy for health care development in the Russian Federation. The reform of compulsory medical insurance faces barriers that slow down the function of the mechanism providing a sufficient level of medical care in the country. Objectives The paper includes my own interpretation of problems and prospects for compulsory medical insurance development in the Russian Federation. Methods Validity, reliability and reasoning of recommendations in the article are achieved through the use of the following tools: comparison of data, formation of theoretical basis of the research, assessment of positional elements, comparison and argumentation of obtained data. Results The article considers theoretical framework for compulsory medical insurance, reveals factor advantages and disadvantages, formulates prospects for development. Conclusions and Relevance The unveiled downsides of compulsory medical insurance show that it is crucial to ensure the balance of revenues, free medical care, cancel penalties for additional medical services, eliminate intermediaries.

Conservative methods of investing

Parshina L.N.

Subject The article addresses the safe ways to invest money. Objectives The purpose is to analyze various methods of investing money, i.e. real property purchase, account opening with a commercial bank, and precious metals purchase, namely, gold bullion coins. The paper also considers prices for one square meter of property measured in gold. Methods I employ various methods of academic research, like economic analysis, statistical and economic method, and systems approach. Results The cost per square meter is growing faster than household incomes. With the current rate of inflation, the deposit interest rates of commercial banks make it impossible for depositors to maintain the purchasing power of their savings. To protect their savings, individuals should pay attention to precious metals, gold in particular. Gold as a commodity is sold in various forms. The most common method is gold bullion and gold coin trading. The findings may be useful for individuals concerned about maintaining the purchasing power of their savings. Conclusions It is crucial to diversify risks and distribute money equally into precious metals, foreign currency (preferably the US dollar, as it is the funding currency, and all goods and major debts are denominated in USD), and the Russian ruble.

Express analysis of the investment appeal of regions

Trachenko M.B., Dzhioev V.A.

Subject The article analyzes the investment attractiveness of regions. Objectives The study focuses on systematization of factors affecting the investment attractiveness of regions and development of investment appeal index of the region to perform an express analysis in the potential investor's interest. Methods We employ the methods of bibliographic analysis, logical analysis, synthesis, and the systems approach. Results The article classifies determinants of investment attractiveness of the region, and, as a result, distinguishes three subsystems, namely, basic conditions of the region, investment climate, and investment risks. We developed an algorithm for express analysis based on the region investment appeal index. The index calculation rests on the coefficient of basic conditions of the region, the coefficient of investment climate, and investment risk ratio. Each of the three coefficients is calculated on the basis of 7-11 indicators and reflects a corresponding subsystem of factors of investment attractiveness of the region. The information base for index calculation is in public domain and available for each investor. The express analysis does not involve interviews and expert evaluation. Our approach has been tested on the data of two constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania and Moscow. Conclusions Major advantages of express analysis on the basis of the developed index of investment attractiveness of regions are information availability and calculation simplicity in combination with the coverage of the most important factors for the investor that characterize a particular territory.

Financial and economic specific nature of the activities of resource-supplying organizations in modern Russia

Sukharev A.N.

Subject This article discusses the financial and economic relations of resource providers in the sphere of housing and communal services. Objectives The article aims to reveal the specifics of the financial mechanism of resource providers in the sphere of housing and communal services. Methods The work uses formal logic and a systems approach. Results The article presents elements of the tariff for utility payments, which are atypical for market structures, and quantitative data that show the level of utility payments in modern Russia. The article says that the important problem today in the sphere of housing and utilities are non-payments of the population, which in general deform financial and economic relations in the industry. Conclusions In present day Russia, the financial mechanism of resource providers does not correspond to the market realities, the balance of economic interests, and the principles of justice. There is an urgent need to modernize the financial mechanism of resource providers in order to increase the overall efficiency of the housing and utility sector.

Financial security of the region: The concept and decomposition

Chichkanov V.P., Chuvashova A.A., Chistova E.V.

Importance The article considers the concept and structure of financial security in the region. Objectives The aim is to present our own definition of the concept of financial security of the region based on the genesis of approaches by various authors; to show the importance of insurance for financial security of the population and business; to substantiate the decomposition of financial security. Methods The study rests on general scientific methods of research, like grouping, comparison, analogy, generalization. Results We offer our own approach to the definition of the financial security concept, demonstrate interrelation between financial and economic security, and describe protection as a critical feature of security. From the perspective of financial security, protection, among other things, is achieved through the insurance system. We present enlarged decomposition of financial security of the region and show the place of insurance in it. Conclusions In the current circumstances, insurance can and should play a significant role in financial security, in strengthening the economy and social sphere in Russian regions. The findings may help develop an approach to assessing the insurance system as part of the financial security in the region.

Financial support to municipalities in the Russian Federation: Key challenges and solutions

Balynin I.V.

Subject Modern socio-economic conditions require new approaches to financial support for municipalities in the Russian Federation. Objectives The article focuses on conceptual features of municipality budget management, unveils key problems and offers solutions. Methods The methodology of the study relies on scientific review, generalization, analysis, comparison, and synthesis. Results I define types of local budgets, the main sources of income, and key expenditures by local budget type. The paper presents a set of actions aimed at immediate and efficient solutions to detected problems in municipal budget management in the Russian Federation. Conclusions Current conditions necessitate modernization of methodology for municipal budget management, considering the new social and economic challenges and using the modern tools, like participatory budgeting, self-taxation, etc. To improve the financial security of municipalities, it is crucial to amend the Budget Code of the Russian Federation, actively involve the academic community in solving the existing problems, devise long-term programs for socio-economic development of municipalities up to 2050. The findings are of practical significance. They may be helpful in decision-making process for municipality budget management perfection and in educational process of higher schools and colleges.

Government investments in the region: Problems and prospects

Shvetsov Yu.G.

Subject Declining investments propel grants to the budget of many subjects of the Russian Federation and result in falling incomes of the population. The article addresses the issue of developing the regional long-term special-purpose programs, as they may improve the system of fiscal federalism in our country. Objectives The article analyzes the present state of the system of government investments in the territorial aspect, conditions for its function, and update. Methods I employ the systems approach and universal dialectic method of studying the objective economic laws, processes and phenomena in their constant development and interrelation. Results I examine the most important special features and key deficiencies in financing the investment projects for economy development of the subjects the Russian Federation. The paper offers areas to improve the formation of regional special-purpose programs for territories to unlock their potential and accelerate their social and economic growth. Conclusions The conclusions substantiate the need to change the current procedure for formation and implementation of special-purpose programs for regional development and improvement of mechanisms of investment resource accumulation.

Innovative properties, positive and negative effects of cryptocurrency turnover on the economy

Kochetkov A.V.

Importance The article considers the nature and characteristics of cryptocurrency, being the innovative financial instrument and a new form of money in a market economy, which is understudied. The tasks of the State include creation of regulatory environment, protection of cryptocurrency market participants and development of its infrastructure. It is crucial to de-anonimize cryptocurrency-denominated transactions to combat terrorist financing and money laundering. Objectives The aim is to perform a complex analysis of innovative properties of cryptocurrency, identify the effects of cryptocurrency turnover and its impact on the economy, assess the economic and legal status of cryptocurrency in the Russian Federation. Methods The research employs methods of analysis, comparison, generalization, and the formal-logical method. Results The article reveals the cryptocurrency turnover effect on the economy. It describes factors affecting the supply and demand of cryptocurrency, assesses the economic and legal status of cryptocurrency in the Russian Federation. Conclusions The scientific analysis demonstrates both positive and negative effects of cryptocurrency turnover. It reveals the absence of mechanism for statutory regulation of cryptocurrency turnover in Russia. The article concludes that cryptocurrency turnover is subject to regulation and control by the State, underpins the need for legal framework and regulatory and supervisory authorities to ensure the security of economic space, counteraction to terrorism financing and money laundering. The findings may be used by the State to formulate the cryptocurrency policy and develop the governing law.

Investment activity of insurance organizations: Opportunities, prospects, and lines of development

Kozlova O.N., Kalacheva E.A., Kalacheva I.V.

Subject This article deals with the issues of investment activity of insurance organizations, estimation of opportunities and prospects of its development, and interaction with other participants of financial markets. Objectives The article aims to investigate possibilities of investment activity of insurers, substantiate prospects and directions of improvement in connection with development of financial markets and strengthening of mutual interests of their participants. Methods For the study, we used analytical and statistical methods. Results The article defines and substantiates the main areas of investment and further development of Russian insurers and other participants of financial markets, banks and mutual funds. Conclusions Russian insurers have good prospects of investment activity due to growth of insurance reserves on life and equity insurance. Trust management in insurance which has not been developed yet should be a promising direction.

On attracting direct investment of U.S. Transnational corporations to the Russian economy under sanctions

Koshko O.V., Romanova E.M.

Importance The article shows major problems related to attracting U.S. investment to the Russian economy, taking into account 'unfavorable' prospects for cooperation between Russia and the USA. Objectives The purpose is to identify main constraints and problems preventing an increase in the American capital inflow to our economy under counter sanctions. Methods We employ methods of scientific abstraction, statistical analysis on the basis of domestic and foreign literature review. Results The paper unveils positive and negative trends in the Russian-American investment cooperation, identifies problems in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) of the U.S. transnational corporations to the Russian economy. Conclusions To increase the inflow of U.S. direct investment to strategically significant sectors of our economy and improve the investment cooperation between Russia and the USA, it is necessary to solve essential problems hampering the successful bilateral cooperation, on condition that sanctions against our country be lifted. Russia should have a policy to develop methods of attracting capital to our country based on the principle of deterring FDI inflows to strategic sectors (as it is practiced by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean governments). Further prospects for bilateral investment cooperation are very uncertain. The United States does nothing to improve Russia-U.S. relations, much less to propel them to the next level. The article may be of interest to experts of the world economy, academic researchers, postgraduates and students majoring in economics and finance.

Peculiarities of business restructuring by means of shares

Ermolaeva O.V.

Subject The article deals with the issues related to business restructuring and various methods based on splitting the company's assets. Objectives The article aims to identify the specifics of the implementation of various strategies for business diversification and give a theoretical assessment of the feasibility of restructuring the company through corporate spin-off and equity carve-out types of corporate reorganization. Methods For the study, I used a theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific literature concerning the structural analysis of the realization of transactions on stock transfer and allotment. Results The article reveals the fundamental characteristics of the restructuring and formulates their main advantages and problems. Also, the article statistically assesses the current and prospective state of the market. Conclusions Mergers and acquisitions are ones of the ways to improve the competitive position of a particular company in the market and achieve the desired results. The market of transactions on equity transfer and allotment keeps on growing and will continue to ascend. Companies share their capital to increase the operational efficiency and focus on their business matter.

Powers of the Central Bank in the context of the liquidity preference theory of J.M. Keynes

Gogokhiya D.Sh.

Subject This article considers the powers of the Central Bank, their justification and the shortcomings of this justification. Objectives The article aims to discuss the expansion of the powers of the Central Bank not as a lender only, but also as a borrower of last resort. Methods For the study, I used the historical-logical and functional methods. These methods helped J.M. Keynes develop a macroeconomic theory of liquidity preference and refine the theory of interest and money demand. I also used the methods of comparative economic analysis to study the theoretical constructions of Keynes. Results The article identifies the grounds that allow to differentiate the demand for money as a store of value and demand for money as a medium of payment for production resources and other capital assets. The article says that the liquidity preference theory by J.M. Keynes, as it is formulated in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money , Chapter 17, gives the basic guidelines for search of such bases and accordingly, ways of improvement of the modern monetary system as a central bank system with deposit fractional-reserve banking. Conclusions and Relevance The analysis reveals specific features of supply and demand in the money market and the potential of the Central Bank to provide through a differentiated interest policy the unconditional safety of the value of monetary assets. The results obtained can be used for discussion and choice of monetary policy options.

Protection of impaired savings of people as a socio-economic factor of Russia''s development

Semenov S.K., Semenov K.S.

Subject This paper examines the problems of economic and monetary policy, investment and savings, in particular, the restoration of the impaired savings of people. Objectives The paper aims to analyze the issues of compensating the population's bank deposits that impaired at the beginning of market reforms. The paper does not intend to discuss the causes and specific persons involved in the process of impairment of savings. Methods We use the works of foreign and national scientists as a methodological and theoretical basis of the study. The study involves the dialectic principle, methods of logical and statistical analyses. Results The paper analyzes the process of compensation and rehabilitation of impaired deposits of people in Russia and the former Soviet Union. We contribute suggestions on the question. Conclusions and Relevance We conclude that the Russian Federation government should undertake activities to gradually restore the impaired savings. It will ensure the restoration of the citizens' confidence in public and financial institutions. People will be able to commit the accumulated funds to economic reconstruction and development. The results of the study and our suggestions can be helpful in the activities of the organizations concerned.

To the question of financial autonomy of municipal entities and methods of assessment of its level

Dadashev A.Z., Zolot'ko A.I.

Subject This article considers the issues of financial self-sustainability of municipal entities in the context of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and municipal reform being conducted in the Russian Federation. Objectives The article aims to reveal the essence and content of financial self-sustainability of municipal entities and substantiate the method of estimation of its level. The article also aims to develop and propose a method of estimating the level of relative financial self-sustainability of local self-government bodies, which would provide sufficient confidence in the process of separating groups of municipal entities. Methods For the study, we used a systems approach and the methods of comparative and structural analyses. Results The article reveals the content of financial self-sustainability of municipal entities, the key criterion of which is the need of local budget for government aid. As well, the article proposes a method of assessing the level of relative financial self-sustainability of local self-government bodies, which ensures a greater reliability when separating groups of municipal entities. Conclusions On the basis of the key criterion, municipal entities can be identified as municipal entities that have attained full financial self-sustainability and municipalities which financial independence is incomplete or relative.

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