In the article the author considers the concepts of Debussy’s works, based on Pierre Louys’s poetry collection «The Songs of Bilitis». Except the famous eponymous vocal cycle and cycle for two pianos «Six antique epigraphs», the author analyzes Debussy’s music to the staging of twelve poems by Louys, for the first time in Russian musicology. Poetess Bilitis is found in the center of the art world of works, who along with the forest god Faun embodied the ideal of the creative personality, composer’s aesthetic ideas. The author substantiates music symbolism: the flute-syrinx folk tune is symbol of the unity of Creator, Nature and Art, which is opposed to the death and oblivion, reflected in the motive of sorrow, in alarm sounding of bells, unforgiving race of rhythmic ostinato. The author comes to the conclusion that Debussy approves the high idea of artist’s purpose and immortality of art, overcoming death and oblivion.
Kharuto A.V., Utegalieva S.I.
This article is devoted to the computer studying of dombra traditional scale on the example of a fragment from D.Nurpeisova's (1861-1955) kуui «Enbek eri» («Hero of Labour») in the author''s performance. For the first time, the pitches of sounds of both dombra strings have been measured - at the same and different time moments. The pitch intervals between the sounds of each of two voices (lower and upper) were estimated, and intervals between two voices in same time moments; the structure of the general pitch row and intervals between adjacent degrees have been determined. The measurement was carried out using the program SPAX, specially developed by one of the authors (A.V.Kharuto) for musicological research.In the studied musical fragment, the pitch row includes more than 12 degrees in octave. Some of measured intervals were close to similar in the Pythagorean, pure or equal tempered rows, but other were “narrow”, i.e. coming nearer to ⅛, ⅓, and also ¾ of standard tone.
The article is devoted to evolution of musical-theoretical conception of the term and the genre of the concert arias - an obscure and almost unexplored phenomenon of musical culture of XVIII - early XIX centuries. Exploring the epistolary, musical criticism, reference and research sources from the XVIII century to the present day, the author picks out three stages in the history of these ideas. The first stage is contemporary to the active phase of the existence of the genre (XVIII - the first third of the XIX century) and characterized by absence of the literary data on the concert arias and identifying them with operatic arias in practice. The second phase (mid-1830s - the end of XIX century) marked the inclusion of the term «concert aria» with brief definitions in music dictionaries (G. Schilling, H. Riemann, A. von Dommer, H. Mendel and others). The third stage (XX - beginning of XXI century) is associated with the appearance of the analyzes of the concert arias by W.A. Mozart, J.C. Bach, Beethoven (H. Abert, C. Wysocki,Kirillina, S. Kunze, P. Lutsker, R. Maunder, I. Susidko, A. Einstein), and the first attempts of the scientific understanding of the genre (R. Gerber, S. Kunze, I. Fuchs, A. Einstein). Outlining a number of important problems in the theory of the genre of the concert arias, such as its origins, specific musical features, genre variety, musical science of the last hundred years marked the beginning of his study.
The article is dedicated to the problems of genre transformation of carnival samba of Rio de Janeiro in diachronic aspect, from its origins to the present time. It characterizes the genesis of samba as a mixed vocal, instrumental and dance genre, its main features and its development as musical component of a special type of carnival block - samba schools. The article analyzes the changes that have occurred in the functional content of the genre, in his choreography, in the poetic text and musical language. It comes to the conclusion that the need to adapt to external conditions led to the changes in the carnival samba music, which at different time periods manifested in its rhythms, melody and compositional form. Nevertheless, the carnival samba genre demonstrates its stability, not transforming into other forms of music, and for nearly one hundred years maintaining its dominant position of the biggest mass celebration in the world - the carnival of Rio de Janeiro.
Kuivinen Paul Walter
Recent research has found the diatonic garmun, popular among the Tatars of Northwest Tatarstan, in 35 different tonalities. Interviews with those continuing this Tatar instrumental folklore, demonstrate that the understanding of the phenomenon of tonality fundamentally differs from that developed by the western European academic tradition. They have their own discussions about tonalities relative to the tonal range of the human voice (important to them is that one can easy sing with the accompaniment) and their own criterion determining the compatibility of tonalities when multiple instruments perform together. For Tatar garmun players performing in ensemble, we see that playing simultaneously on instruments of various tonalities is acceptable. This strongly differs from the perspective of classic music player who goes to great lengths to make sure all instruments in the ensemble are precisely tuned to a common tone.