Tukova I. Gennadievna
Traditionally, the art of music and science are seen as two completely separate spheres of knowledge of the world. The article makes an attempt to form an idea of their development as a integrated system. Chosen period - from the XVII century to the present moment. At this time in the natural sciences were established and developed two paradigms - the classical (mechanistic) and non-classical (relativistic). The generality of musical art of modern times leads to the formation and development of a single composition technique - key functional system. The last century has changed dramatically this unity by introducing various principles of selection and organization of material.The article commonality of musical art and science is considered in two ways. First - chronological. Recorded events, demonstrating a paradigm shift. The second - a principle of understanding the world. An attempt is made to identify the main features of the natural sciences law characteristic of classical and non-classical paradigms. Their features are projected on the principles of musical material. This approach allows us to understand the underlying causes of co-existence in the XX century - the beginning of the XXI century, a variety of composition techniques, ways of structuring essays etc. The main methodological approach is proposed to use the principle of complementarity, introduced in science by N. Bohr.
This work is dedicated to the problem of typology of Chopin mazurkas. In the domestic musicology these issues were addressed in the works B. Asafev, Vyach. Paskhalov, V. Bobrovsky and others. This research is aimed at finding and consideration of a new typological principle - the rhythmic structures («kinems», E. Nazaykinsky). Among the variety of options, the author finds three main rhythmic structures, which encode the type of the conflict, the algorithm of formation of the composition and specify characteristics of the «inner form» of mazurka genre. This research gives a new understanding Chopin’s mazurkas as style forming genre. Deep structural and semantic properties of the invariant genre (M. Aranovsky) mazurkas are the most important generating principle of the Polish composer’s style, which is detected both at the level intonation and rhythm, and on the level of the whole composition.
The questions of registration of organ sonata «The 94th Psalm» by Julius Reubke (1834-1858), a pupil of Liszt and an outstanding representative of Weimar school, are discussed in the present article. The disposition of Merseburg Dom organ (1855,F. Ladegast), is also the object of analyzes because the sound of this instrument gave the real impulse to create the mentioned above sonata as well as such significant organ works of Franz Liszt as Prelude and Fugue on BACH theme and Fantasy and fugue on the theme «Ad nos, ad salutarem undam». Emphasis is given to the author’s registrations that demonstrate superior knowledge of the specific features of the instrument and the organ performance in whole. The characteristic stylistic features of the German organ romanticism in particular, the timbre, dynamic and register preferences common to Liszt and J. Reubke are examined on the example of the sonata «The 94th Psalm».
The article «Stylistic horizons of “The Stone Guest”» offers a new view on one of the most problem Russian’s operas of XIXth century. Under this view the features of the different styles from Baroque to Dodecaphony are dissolved into recitative flow of the operas.
It’s known that «Khovanshina» and «The Fair of Sorochintsy» had remained unfinished and respectively hadn’t been orchestrated by the author. But there had been preserved the scores of some numbers from two operas - which were made for the production at the concerts of The Free Music School during 1879-1880s. For «The Fair of Sorochintsy» Mussorgsky had been orchestrated only two numbers - Introduction and « Parasia’s Dumka». Full «Parasia’s Dumka» score was completed byN. Rimsky-Korsakov. In the article are researched the autographs of both Mussorgsky’s scores held in the fund of N. Rimsky- Korsakov in the Manuscript Division of the Russian National Library. The autograph of «Parasia’s Dumka» gives a good opportunity to discuss the features of the two orchestral styles of composers in the early 1880''s.
Medvedeva Julia, Yu Wu Jing
Based on the analysis of Chinese national folklore the author argues that the story of the history of Turandot, which are traditionally associated with Arabic and Persian literature, has a pronounced resemblance to the stories of Chinese folklore sources. Among them - the legend of «The Princess Venchen arrives in Tibet» and the fairy tale «In Search of the Imperial- law». Despite the obvious parallels with the Chinese folklore in the plot of Puccini, China is presented in Puccini as generalized fabulous. Analysis of the documents the history of ancient China, ancient Chinese literature and philosophy of Confucianism major installations shows that the central image of the opera - the image of Turandot - is non- Chinese. Chinese princess had never had the opportunity to act on their own. The nature of Turandot - domineering, cruel, and full of contempt for men - contrary to basic facilities of Confucianism in determining the behavior of women in ancient China.
This article is devoted to the problem of performing interpretation of song folklore. The article presents the statement that a song, perceived as whole work of art, has qualities of language and speech. The language of a folk song is a multilevel system of codes-symbols ( verbal language, musical language, language of mimics and gestures ). Coincidence of separate signs of the notions of speech and song gives possibility to consider the process of development of song’s meaning in the moment of performance as a song speech. Semantic connection of words and music is performed on the basis of general idea as the highest level of semantic generalization- song’s conception. Special attention is paid to the whole intonational and semantic analysis of different variants of Saratov’s song «White fluffy snows». As a result, it is revealed that change of performance’s circumstances (including plot’s circumstances) lead to variant’s change of version of performance’s interpretation of the song. The key role in engagement of verbal and musical components of the song’s text belongs to the semantic meaningful context.
The article is devoted to the tunes of wedding group lamentation songs of tirade-strophic composition, recorded in Prikamye region along with single-line and regularly-strophic tunes. External signs of tirade-strophic composition are founded in the sample of wedding lamentation songs, recorded in the beginning of the XXth century by V.N. Serebrennikov. However, the small volume of notation does not allow an idea about principles of musical-temporary development of form. For solving this problem archival recordings, made in the Perm region and Komi-Perm Autonomous District in the 1960-1990s, are involved. Two samples are used to analyze syllable-rhythm, harmony-intonational organization of tunes, and to trace the relationship between the structure of musical periods and content of poetic texts. The issue of attribution and evaluation of such tunes (an accident or a relict?) is raised, full answer to which can be obtained only by attraction of a broad base of additional sources.
САДЫКОВА ЛИЛИЯ АХНЯФОВНА
Настоящая статья посвящена вопросам структуры музыкальных номеров в операх seria Дж. Россини. Большое внимание уделяется двухчастной форме, состоящей из кантабиле и стретты и именуемой la solita forma. Такая форма, чередующая в себе медленный и быстрый разделы, созерцательность и активную действенность, позволяла разнообразить арии и дуэты. Выявляется значение термина «кабалетта», который неоднозначно трактуется в зарубежной и отечественной музыковедческой литературе. Большинство номеров в операх seria Россини написаны в двухчастной форме. Однако в более развернутых ариях и дуэтах две основные части могут дробиться. В статье рассмотрены различные варианты членения разделов la solita forma, которые затем образовывают четырехчастную форму. В качестве примеров представлены наиболее яркие образцы россиниевских арий.