This article is devoted to the reading of alterations in modern transcriptions of medieval polyphonic music. As the test material are motets XIII century, works of F.de Vitry, G.de Machaut, F. Landini etc. The article deals with the conditions of alteration marks, how to use them in modern musical transcriptions by various authors, scientists-medievalist, such as P. Aubry, H. Husman,L. Shrade etc.Attention is paid to the fact that researchers do not always adhere to the principle of a single installation of signs. In the application of alteration marks revealed some differences, given their comparative characteristics. Main provisions of article illustrated musical examples. The article concludes by summarizing that each author’s version of the transcription of polyphonic medieval manuscripts has general and distinctive features.
In article is given the original ancient Chinese classification of musical instruments ba yin in the base of which distribution of the Chinese musical instruments according to eight natural materials. The resounding part of the instruments is made of eight natural materials. In a context of philosophy, an esthetics and musical culture each of eight categories (metal, stone, silk, bamboo, pumpkin, clay, leather, wood) and some instruments representing it is briefly considered. The ba yin system is not only distribution of the instruments, but also the system of traditional idea of combination sounds of instruments of different categories of ba yin. For Zhou dynasty, for example, it was important the combination of zhong and qìng made from metal and stone. In spite of the fact that the majority of instruments of ba yin are nowadays lost, is among them still living in the Chinese musical culture, bearing in the sound spirit of great music of an antiquity.
There is the old bells in Russia. The bells of the big sizes have been preserved to our days. Their number is small. The most remarkable among them is the famous «Tsar»-bell. It is located in the Moscow Kremlin. Approximate sound of this bell can be reconstructed. Special mathematical methods are used for this purpose. This calculation of the main parameters of the bell: dependencies between the weight, size and frequency of the lower tone. Were presented possible sound settings earlier bells. This predecessors «Tsar bell».Calculated parameters of titanium and brass plates. Reconstruct the bells of the big sizes possible with this method. Can sound close the audio range bells of different weight. Past and present bells «light» and «heavy» created a wizard-there were some casters. Reborn casting of bells of the big sizes in modern Russia. A method of modelling of these bells related to the European method.
The article is dedicated to the phenomenon of “painting” in Edison Denisov’s piano music. This notion is identified with the composer’s name and style, his images and composition techniques. The article contains a brief characteristic of his piano music: its genre, image-bearing content. Denisov’s “painting approach” to piano music is classified according to characteristics of colour, genre, the latter being typical for the art of painting (landscape picture, portrait). It also involves the notion of light, interpreted by the composer in the aspect of philosophy. A special attention is given to using such painting techniques as water colour, gouache, grisaille, oil painting as compared to composition techniques. The analysis brings the author to a conclusion that the piano generated the composer’s interest in searching new combinations of allied arts, as well as sound experiments, which highlights such a stylistic criterion as sonority. Denisov’s works “ Signs on white ”, “ Dots and lines ”, “ Reflections ” reveals certain ideas, artistic principles and stylistic directions inherent to the art of painting.
The article presents a comparative analysis of the two editions of the Serenade Op. 3, № 5 S.V. Rachmaninoff: the first edition in 1892 and the second presentation in 1940. The selected angle of the study reveals spatial and “orchestral” properties of the musical matter of the piano piece. The article considers many various resources of the creation of sound perspective and genre color of Serenade. A comparison of two editions leads to the conclusion: the colorful imagination of the piece refers to the orchestral sonority, only the second edition achieves that each fragment of the piece gives the spatial effect and allusion of orchestral sound. The text was written in 1892 as an orchestral score, the voices are arranged horizontally, plans of the sound perspective are divided but the piece does not sound of the paints of the Symphony Orchestra. Numerous details of the guidance performing of the second edition were needed to achieve a colorful texture of the symphonic character.
Kiseleva Elena Vladislavovna
The article is devoted to systematize birth-christening ritual songs. In folk tradition of Smolensk-Vitebsk borderland they (songs) are quite diverse, representing the core of the birth-christening song system, which includes confined genres (dance and lyric songs). Based on the analysis of functional, meaningful, stylistic and structural features of musical and poetic forms, the specific traits identified that promote the formation of ritual songs in a single cycle. The functional purpose of the ritual songs suggests fixing milestones for a particular group of ritual chants having stylistic connection with various genres of musical folklore of local tradition. Structural-typological features of tunes (slogorythmic, mood and intonation indicators) identify general patterns of ritual songs organization within the birth-christening cycle.
The article is devoted to the problems connected with a systemic approach to historically informed vocal interpretation of early Italian opera. Stylistic principles that formed in music by the XVIIth century are considered to be one of the important components of early Baroque vocal interpretation model. The component refers to the zone of composer competence. Searching new ways of expression led to formation of the united stylistic system called «monodia con basso continuo» in the frame of which different musical styles and styles in opera were formed. Dramatic and chamber styles became the bases for developing the operatic style. The style had the pecularities in different opera schools of the first half of the XVIIth century. The stylistic principles defined an affect of a vocal piece. The affect influences the style of performance and performance technology that already referred to the zone of performer competence.
The earliest treatise of Johannes de Muris on music “Notitia artis musicae” (“Cognition of art music”, 1319/1321) linked their origins with the Faculty of Arts, University of Paris. Its two parts cover two branches of musical knowledge, existing at that time: “theoretical music” (musica theoretica) and “practical music” (musica practica). The theoretical music considers the attributes of musical sounds in pitch, the practical music - in time. One of the goals that Muris set himself in the treatise - to reorganize the theoretical understanding of the musical rhythm and its notation, so that practical music gained the status, which before only a theoretical music had for the university research community. Muris extended the definition of theoretical music from the first part of “Cognition” on practical music. He saw the physical and mathematical laws in the temporal organization of music, thereby forming a conception of practical music as “medial science” (scientia media) (having a dual foundation - in mathematics and physics), already approved for the theoretical music.
Melodeclamation (recitation with music accompaniment) is a genre which has become very popular in Russia at the turn of 19- 20th centuries. Five hundred pieces of music from that time are known now as such. Many composers created melodeclamations, this genre had its own maitres, among which were I. Rebikov, A.S. Arensky, M.F. Gnesin. The article looks into the musicological analysis of a melodeclamation by Alexander Afanasievich Spendiarov “We will have rest” based on A. Chekhov’s drama, considered one of the best samples of this genre. The author analyzes the role of the text (Sonya’s monologue) in the literary primary source, which is the play “Uncle Vanya”, and compares the idea of musicality, that shows in the monologue, in the play of Chekhov and Spendiarov’s melodeclamation. The author gives a thorough analysis of the meaning of this idea in work of the latter. At the end of the article the problem of expressive sounding of the word and music in a melodeklamation, their interactions and interference are highlighted.
This article is devoted to Vladimir Ivanovich Rebikov’s work (1866-1920). He was a composer innovator, a pianist, a teacher and a writer with uncommon literary capacities as well as a musical public figure. The composer’s aesthetic views are considered in the article. New judgement of form and harmony problem, reconci diration of traditional elements of musical language, creation of unique synthetic genres is connected with his views.The composer’s aesthetic views have found reflection in vocal works wich take an important part in the creative heritage of Rebikov. The attention is given to such vocal genres as vocal stages, rhythmic recitation, melodic poems. Features of compositions, ladas and harmonious language, parity of vocal and piano parties, expressive possibilities of pronouncing of the literary text are considered in specific examples.In the end of article conclusions that vocal work of Rebikov has appeared the field of innovative searches are done.