The way of development of the newest folklore direction was marked actualization of russian religious folklore (the works byG. Sviridov, Yu. Butsko, R. Shchedrin and other composers). The reasons of attention to the genre of spiritual verse are examined in the period of stylish cooperations of the second half of the ХХth century. The features of the modern use of genre of spiritual verse are shown on the example of the works by V. Kalistratov in compositions of large form - oratorio «Weeping of Earth» and concert «Confession». Poetic sources, system of expressive facilities (tune, harmony, texture, dynamics) are analysed. Reception of multiquoting is emphasized as a characteristic feature of creative method of composer. Among the newest facilities - multitonal system, choral clusters. Stage concert «Confession» considered in connection with the actual genre of choral theatre; sound effects and also receptions of authentic execution on the basis of regional traditions are analysed.
Utegalieva Saule, Kharuto Aleksandr
In the article some results of measurements of separate sound pitches and sound rows on the Kazakh kyl-kobyz (two-string bowed chordophone) for the first time are presented. The measurements are carried out by means of the computer SPAX program developed by A.V.Kharuto, who is a Head of Musical Informatics Research Center of Moscow State P.I. Tchaikovsky Conservatory. The author made attempt to reveal a sound scale of a musical instrument, its features. There were the sound pitches of two sound rows levels. The intervals received on kyl-kobyz were compared with pure, Pythagorean and equal tempered systems. Records were made from performers A. Karsakbayeva and S. Ibraim. The instruments are made by masters K. Kazakbayev andS. Umbetbayev. Results of measurements are reflected in schedules and tables.A sound row of kyl-kobyz contains the intervals of different system (pure, Pythagorean and equal tempered) at prevalence of a pure scale. The kyl-kobyz tones enter partially in European 12-tone system and form the scale of frequencies with smaller “step”, than half tone.
This article is devoted to the phenomenon found in German music in theory and practice of the middle of the XVIIIth century and consisting in the interaction and combination of aesthetically polar phenomena, the contrapuntal scholarship and the then modern gallantry. By using phrases like «galant fugue», «galant imitation», «galant counterpoint» etc., German authors (Walther, Mattheson, Marpurg et al., in particular Quantz) emphasize in their treatises that polyphony (associated by their contemporaries with music of the past ages) is capable of charming ear as well, being in certain cases gentle, pleasant, and natural. One of the«kings» of the gallant style, G. Ph. Telemann, in his «Canons mélodieux» boldly combines a strict polyphonic form with various elements of galanterie. A similar combination is to be found in the music of J. S. Bach, especially in his later works («Goldberg Variations», «Canonic Variations», «Musical Offering» etc.), showing that the composer acted quite in line with the trends of his time.
The article is a first special investigation devoted to neumatic General Menaion - Russian chant book of the XVIth - XIXth centuries. Paleographic peculiarities of manuscripts, structure and contents of the book are considered, hand-written copies are divided into periods: the Middle Ages from late XVI to early XVII century, culmination in the second half of the XVIIth - beginning of the XVIIIth centuries and copying among Old-Believers in the XIXth century. Roots of the book lies in Greek and Bulgarian general Service. One of the earliest Russian liturgical books containing the term «general» is Sticherarion (1380) written by Epiphaniy Premudryy. Continuity relationship between Full Menaion and General Menaion is traced. These books have identical book title and contain chants to fests which refers to annual fixed cycle of services. Author shows development of characterizing melodic formulas and describes stylistics of chants from the Middle Ages to contemporary period. The chants to one female martyr is chosen as an example.
The detailed analysis of the music structure of Gubaidulina’s Ten etudes for Solo Cello is connected with significant difficulty of the performing interpretation of musical meaning of the work. The presence of micro-cycles within it, the mirror-symmetric parts of the titles, genre associations with parts of the sonata cycle, a single grain of intonation and tonal plan make it possible to regard this work as a cycle. The main dramaturgical idea is to identify each part of expressive possibilities of a cello, concluded between the opposing methods of sound production ( staccato - legato, sul tasto - sul ponticello etc.). Musical language of composition forms elements that acquire symbolic value in the later works of the composer. The combination of innovative content and classical structural frame of 10 Etudes includes this work to the list of the best compositions for solo cello in the XXth century.
Stochastic music (from Greek στοχασμός - a guessing) was developed under influence of the scientific theories and philosophical doctrines in the twentieth century music and Iannis Xenakis’ creativity in the first place; it assumes that organization of sound materials is based on method of statistical distribution of elements (sound’s parameters, form’s sections etc.) to some extent. Stochastic method of composition had a solid philosophical foundation which made Xenakis reconsider an artistic experience and suggest a new creative paradigm that was not found in the past music. By his convictions, this compositional technique reflects basic principles of the nature’s development, which composer tried to follow in his music. In addition, he used a stochastic music in searching of a new musical expressiveness and sounding material which would correspond with his perception of the world, artistic, and aesthetic views that are considered in this article.