The article is devoted to the role of cloisters and their chant tradition during different stages of Russian church chant history. The author accentuate great significance of monastic rules in the keeping of ancient written heritage and support of church chant tradition in historical dynamics. Significance of cloisters during the periods of cultural transition is analyzed. The article notes important changes in the church chant through the peculiarities of ancient chant books (late XI-XII centuries), manuscripts of the period of Orthodox Divine service reform (XV с.), chant sources of early New age (XVII с.).Early stage of Russian church chant development is connected mostly with the activity of monks of Kiev-Pechersk monastery. Thanks to them rules of Alexius Studit Typikon and church chant (mainly oral tradition) applied to the whole territory of Kiev Russ. During XV-XVI с. a lot of monasteries elaborated Octoech system and exact forms of its reflection in musical script. Among them Trinity-Sergius, Joseph-Volokolamsk, Cyril-Belozersky and Solovetsky monasteries. Monasteries of XVII c. supplemented their singing repertoire by post-byzantine tunes from South-West Russ.
The article is devoted to historiography of funeral and memorial lamentations of Vologda region. Based on textual analysis of publications of folklore-ethnographic materials, the author reveals the problems of genre attribution, complex representation forms of lamentations with their contextual and functional components, dialect-style specific. Particular attention is given to the publication containing musical samples of Vologda funeral and memorial lamentations. The examples of auditory notations are given from the collections of late XIXth - early XXth centuries (F.M. Istomin - S.M. Lyapunov, F.N. Lagovsky, O.H. Agreneva-Slavyanskaya,V.N. Tenishev’s «Ethnographic Bureau»). We present brief analytical review of researches on this subject, published in the second half of XXth - the beginning of XXIth centuries. In general, the author determines the degree of scrutiny of subject in publishing practice, suggests a need for further researches to full areal scientific description traditions of lamentations of the Vologda region
The article investigates the chants by Greek masters in honor of the three Russian Tsars - Peter I, Paul I and Alexander I. It is famous nowadays 14 Greek notated manuscripts containing Enkomiy for Russian Tsars. They relate to the period from the beginning of XVIII to the middle XIX centuries. In the process of cataloging the Greek singing manuscripts in Moscow collections author of the publication identified two other sources. The first are photos from Codex Pantileim. 1012 (1768), brought to Russia by the famous Russian traveler and archaeologist P. Sevastiyanov. These photocopies are stored in Sevastianovs archive of the Russian State Library (RGB, F. 270 III a, 3. 51 (70)). The second is a hitherto unknown script: singing manuscript (beginning of the XIX century) from the Shchukins collection of the State Historical Museum (GIM, Shchuk. 1036 ). In the manuscript on pp. 149-151v Enkomiy to Alexander I by mr. Krali containing music of Peter Mpereket in Gregory Protopsalt exegesis is placed. Photocopies of this chant are published in a special supplement to the article. A comparison of known and new sources of Greek Enkomiy for Russian Tsars allows us to observe the development of the genre, the change of poetic form, the appearance of the musical version of chant. The study of Moscow collections of Greek singing manuscripts also allowed to add a new page in history of Russian musical Byzantinistic.
This article is devoted to the authentic interpretation of the piano and chamber music of Olivier Messiaen. Special attention is paid to the analysis of Messiaen’s and outstanding French pianist Yvonne Loriod’s recordings. The article presents the statements of Messiaen and his disciples about favourite type of piano, preferred by Messiaen, features of the composer’s style and musical means of expression, including the colour such as the complex and entirely individual unique characteristic. Also the point about Messiaen’s attitude to the interpretation of his own music is considered, and what kind of performer should be: interpreter or executor. As a result, the so called «manner of realization» of Messiaen’s works is revealed. It is based on the impressionistic interpretation of the piano, which is deep and enriched owing to the surreal content as well as thorough approach to the each element of the musical texture.
Basing on the analysis of the documents deposited in the Library of Congress of the United States of America, the author examines the issues of musical education of George Gershwin, nearly concerned with widespread rejection of him as a profound composer. The paper is focused on the studies of three foreign authors who presented their PhD theses at the turn of the 21st century: Steven R. Chicurel (1989) and Susan Neimoyer (2003) from the United States and Noel R. C. Brooks (1998) from Canada; several other studies are used as context (from «JSTOR» etc.). The analysis of their works verifies that Gershwin studied under outstanding musicians Edward Kilenyi, Charles Hambitzer, and Joseph Schillinger.As a result, the author concludes that Gershwin received a unique education (outstanding musicians Edward Kilenyi, Charles Hambitzer, and Joseph Schillinger were his teachers) and became one of those who established American professional music, as well as that «Gershwin, an amateur artist» is a myth disproved by the fact that he was taught by celebrated teachers and made a great stride from a songwriter to the world-class symphonist.
The paper describes the key period in the history of French horn evolution which is marked with intensive attempts of expanding of sound potential of the instrument and sphere of its use. The author considers the steps of the improvement of natural French horn’s construction: invention of ring crooks and, subsequently, tuning slides, or “inventions”, which allowed to tune up or down the natural tones; the technique of stopped horn which made it possible to play almost full major scale. The paper is focused on the activity of Anton Joseph Hampel, an outstanding Dresden artist who accomplished the majority of the revolutionary changes of the French horn construction and techniques of playing, including the division of the whole French horn’s range into “high” horn and “low” parts, which is used in contemporary practice. The further history of the 18th century innovations is also traced.