Articulation marks in J. Haydn's clavier sonatas: specific of interpretation

Zorina Evelina E.

The article is devoted to the studying of the debatable question of articulation marks interpretation in J. Haydn's clavier music. The author attempted to answer the question how to interpret Haydn's articulation marks (strich, punkt, punkt under slur, slurs) based on the studying of 18th century treatises, modern scientific researches, scores of J. Haydn's clavier sonatas. J. Haydn uses a little vertical strich to denote an ordinary staccato. It halves the note and doesn't require accenting or softening of sound attack during a performance. Punkt under slur is the special clavichord articulation mark calling Tragen der Töne, that means sounds are performed coherently and each of them stands out by a soft pressure. Punkts without a slur is the most debatable symbol because of it has special meaning in Haydn works. Probably, they don't have a link to staccato, but mean another form of Tragen der Tone, because of they appeared in similar context. Tenuto mark above a note means direction to dwell on the note according to its full duration and doesn't include dynamic nuance. Two notes linked by a short slur have to be performed coherently. At this first note should be pretty accented, but second one has to be shortened.

Eduard Voltaire - collector and scholar of Baltic folklore

Patoshina Anastasia Y.

The article presents an overview of Eduard Voltaire’s legacy as a researcher of the folk art of the Baltic peoples. The relevance of the study and its scientific novelty consists in a generalizing analysis of diverse folklore activities of the scholar. At the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries E.A. Voltaire made several ethnographic trips, during which he recorded about two thousand tunes of folklore art of different genres. He was the fi rst collector of Lithuanian folk music using Phonographic rollers in the history. E.A. Voltaire used his own expedition materials, studies and folk song collections compiled by other scholars, as well as data obtained through Ethnography and archaeology, linguistics and textual studies for a comprehensive study of Baltic folklore. The object of our research is the scientific researches by Voltaire, dedicated to Lithuanian and Latvian folklore. The subject is the collection and research activities of the scientist in this field of activity. The aim of the study is to study E.A. Voltaire's scientific contribution to the national folklore of the late XIX - the first half of the XX centuries. After the 1917 revolution, Voltaire and his family were forced to emigrate from Russia. Most of the scientific works of the researcher devoted to folk songs, mythology, holidays, rituals and customs of the Baltic peoples in our country were unfairly forgotten. The research findings of this outstanding scholar are very impressive. The depth and diversity of E.A. Voltaire's approaches to folklore studies made him a major milestone in the history of folklore science.

Rachmaninoff and Medtner: the great friendship

Dolinskaya Yelena B.

The article considers the history of friendship and long-term correspondence of two geniuses of Russian music - Sergei Rachmaninoff and Nikolai Medtner. The destinies of the musicians were different, the first was destined to conquer the world, the second - to wander in search of shelter after the loss of the Motherland. The great friendship of the two musicians remained embodied in a grandiose epistolary heritage, which complemented the succession of examples of communication between composers, a rare in depth of creative and human contacts. In the history of Russian music this is not an isolated example, let us recall the correspondence between Tchaikovsky and Taneev, Prokofiev and Myaskovsky. For domestic historiography, these are invaluable documentary evidence. Let us dwell in detail on one of the episodes of the correspondence between Rachmaninoff and Medtner, showing how the mutually interested epistolary reviews were born at the time of the concerts: The Second concert of Nikolai Medtner and The Fourth concerto of Sergei Rachmaninoff.

The Avant-Garde technique of aleatory compositions as a means of expressiveness in music of the second half of the 20

Farkhutdinova Svetlana G.

The situation in the musical art of the 20th century has been changing because of the emergence of "avant-garde" opuses that are defi antly opposed to the traditional norms of music. The new reality requires development of new approaches. Identification of the models of texture space organization in relationship and interaction with composition techniques, i.e. sonorism and pointillism, leads to understanding of the specific characters of the world spatial images and allows tracing the influence of the atomicity on the density of the texture with the addition of such qualities as weightlessness and tenuousness. It is no doubt that at the beginning of the 20th century it was quite possible to come across the term "composition" (e.g. in the works by V. Kandinsky). So no wonder that since the second half of the 20th century composition occupies a prime position in music not only at the level of form, but also at the level of the author's name of the composition, which brings to its interpretation some additional semantic counterpoint. The question of the final result is that of compositional structure of new semantic, dramatic, philosophical and technological ideas. For each composition it is necessary to bring up, to invent or to discover something new, without repeating if possible. That leads to polystylism with an entirely different way of thinking, where a composer can take any previously written music (e.g. that of classics, romantics, etc.) and use it as a source for composing a new work, introducing and tying up together various historical and cultural spaces.

The Formation of the Russian Children''s Music Theater in the 20s-30s of the 20th century in the Light of Trends of Cultural Policy in the USSR

Ermakov Alexander A.

In this article the author researches the development of the children's musical theatre as the form of creativity and education of the kids (in the USSR in 20-30s of XX century). Based on the analysis of various materials, the author revealed the main trends in the development of the "professional theater" and "amateur theater" in the context of the state ideology. In the Soviet period, the professional theatre direction became a priority and received the main support of the state. Amateur children's performances took place mainly at schools. In the second half of the 1920s, new trends appeared in the repertory policy that corresponded to socialist attitudes. The themes of the performances were significantly changed, performances had socio-political, agitational significance. The activities of the censorship authorities during this period contributed to the emergence of special lists of permitted and forbidden to perform operatic works. The difference in previous years for the amateur theater (didactic) and professional theater (artistic) in the 1930s was not noticeable. The tendency towards the convergence of these two directions of children's music theater was continued in the following decades of the Soviet period. It corresponded to the general vector of state policy implemented in various spheres of the functioning of musical culture.

Victor Mikhaylovich Yakovlev (1933-1987)

Yakovlev Andrey V.

Article is devoted to Victor Mikhaylovich Yakovlev (1933-1987) - the people's artist of RSFSR, the chief conductor of the Moscow State academic children's musical theater. Article reveals some pages of his biography, features of creativity, coauthorship with composers: Vladimir Rubin, Eduard Kolmanovsky, Yakovov Solodukho, Dmitry Kabalevsky, Boris Terentyev, Alexander Tchaikovsky, Mark Minkov, Shirvani Challayev, etc. For operating time the musical director of theater V.M. Yakovlev has created performances among which: "Snow White", "Wolf and seven kids", "Three fat men", "City of masters", "Sisters", "Tale of downtime", "My mother", "Maksimka", "Magic music", "Master Rokle", "Jungle", "Inheritance", "Rifle and heart", etc.

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