Categories of macrocosm and microcosm in Russian music of the ХХ century

Demchenko Alexander I.

Perhaps the deepest of the cardinal essences of Russian music of the early XX century was the movement to the origins of life. It implies the artistic development of the root system of existence of the world and man, the desire to penetrate into the original layers of life matter. This process has received the most diverse refraction. The resulting aspiration to the eternal substance, even universal c climbing to the categories of natural and naturalnogo meant the aspiration to the macrocosm. One of the ways to comprehend the macrocosm was through the embodiment of images of nature, which begins to be considered not only as a factor accompanying people's lives, but also as something self-valuable, beyond the human world, which in the limit led to pantheism. A different form of contact with the macrocosm was associated with the comprehension of the above-time categories, which happened more than once in the best examples of spiritual music, which experienced its Renaissance at the beginning of the XX century, as well as in the forms of organ neo-Baroque. On the other hand, there was a dive into the depths of the microcosm with access to the level of primary, sometimes embryonic manifestations of life, and was carried out including through the development of the subconscious. At first glance, the trends of macro and micro seem to be directly opposite, but there was a certain parallelism between them. The most significant moment of their rapprochement was associated with destructive processes that were directly or indirectly related to the return to the primordial life. On the same soil and spontaneity grew-a quality inherent in both the microcosm and the macrocosm, belonging to the sphere of the original due to the fact that it is coming from the depths of nature and human nature.

"East Prussian Bach" Georg Riedel (1676-1738): Findings of "lost" sources in St. Petersburg

Shabalina Tatiana V.

The elder contemporary of J. S. Bach, Königsberg composer Georg Riedel belongs to those Baroque masters, whose works are considered almost completely lost. The modern articles contain references only to one his surviving work, the funeral cantata «Harmonische Freude frommer Seelen». However, starting from the research of Hermann Güttler (1925), Riedel is regarded as one of the most significant composers of East Prussia and named as «Ostpreußischer» or «Königsberger Bach». For more than two hundred years his manuscripts and original publications of his works had been kept in Königsberg. But since the World War II almost all these sources have disappeared and to date there is no information about their fate. Fortunately, recent findings at the National Library of Russia have revealed original printed texts for many vocal works by Riedel as well as original publications of his pieces in scores and parts. All of them belong to the oldest repository of the library compiled in the late 18th - early 19th centuries. The article contains analysis of the newly found sources and their significance for our knowledge of the work by the Königsberg master. It is demonstrated that a number of findings radically change the existing knowledge about Riedel's strict adherence to the old forms of German church music and absolute absence of influence of modern trends on his work. At the conclusion the role of Riedel in the history of music is shown in the new light.

Epistolary duo of composers

Dolinskaya Yelena B.

The article considers the history of correspondence of two composers - Edison Denisov and Sergey Slonimsky. Letters of musicians become important documents of the history of Russian music and to some extent continue the most valuable epistolary duets - Tchaikovsky and Taneyev, Rachmaninoff and Medtner, Prokofiev and Myaskovsky. Not all musicians keep a diary, not often diary records are published. For example, Alfred Schnittke, who did not write memoirs himself, was captured in an interview genre with Alexander Ivashkin. Edison Denisov speaks about himself in the Notebooks published by V.S. Tsenova - a publication for some people in a discussion, since the composer’s notes are focused on capturing important facts of his life and are not always (always not) meant for a wide publication. Slonimsky does not keep a diary, but this composer-writer has a number of works where he not only describes important facts of the history of Russian music, but also tells a lot about himself. In this regard, the correspondence of the sixties is just beginning its movement towards the reader. It is valuable that one of the correspondents, Sergey Mikhailovich Slonimsky, became a participant in the publication.

Features of Traditional Etiquette in the Structure of North Caucasian Vocal Polyphony

Vishnevskaya Liliya A.

The culture of etiquette has acquired a great prominence in the traditional life of North Caucasian peoples as a means of self-protection and self-development of the society. Features of the etiquette culture have been reflected in different spheres of creative work, in folk singing art among others. For the first time North Caucasian vocal polyphony is studied on the material of Adyghes’, Karachays’ and Balkars’ traditional solo and group songs from the perspective of universals of traditional etiquette. Its features are notable on the levels of ensemble performance arrangement and the structural and functional hierarchy of the voice parts, in the context of monologue and dialogue as the main forms of etiquette communication, on the basis of the etiquette formulas of "greeting" and "leave-taking", in the light of songs’ genre peculiarities. This research leads to the following conclusions. The etiquette as a reflection of the mentality and psychology of the North Caucasian peoples allows to explain the peculiarities and the typological affinity of the vocal polyphony in the traditions of different North Caucasian peoples. The culture of etiquette has predetermined the musical thinking by the set regularized categories, structural orderliness of the vocal polyphony of traditional solo and group songs of Adyghes, Karachays and Balkars.

M.I. Glinka''s Petersburg mummery

Frolov Sergey V.

The great Russian composer M.I. Glinka was raised by Petersburg, was with him in constant dialogue, thanks to which he and his work became the personification of the so-called "Petersburg text" of Russian culture. Representations about this text are built by analogy with the concept of the "Petersburg text of Russian literature, derived by V.N. Toporov. The most important manifestation of this "text" is his increased theatricality, his propensity for acting, which reaches the level of ernicism. The article discusses the conditions for the formation of hypocrisy by Glinka during training in the Noble Boarding School and the forms of manifestations of the modus operandi in life, especially in the form of imitation of the model of the acting of his boarding instructor I.E. Kolmakov, in theatrical rallies among Petersburg's secular youth, in the company of the Kukolnikovs "Brethren" and, fi nally, in the demonstrative epatage of the last days of life. As an illustration to these forms, examples from contemporary Glinka cartoons by N.A. Stepanov are indicated. At the same time, the issue of the reflection of the lucre in such works as the operas "Life for the Tsar", "Ruslan and Lyudmila", in the "Kamarinskaya", in the vocal cycle "Farewell to St. Petersburg" is also touched upon.

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