Panteleeva Yulia N.
The article devoted to the music of the Russian composer Pavel Karmanov (b. 1970) speaks about the general direction of his work and, more speciﬁcally, about the individual method, based on the example of the chamber piece “Different... rains” (1996) for ﬂute, piano and phonogram. The focus is on how to organize texture, pitch and rhythm. The article notes the continuity of the compositional methods of P. Karmanov in relation to the methods of the American composer S. Reich, one of whose works served as a direct impulse to the creation of “Different... rains”. Analysis of the “constructive principles” of P. Karmanov’s work allows to establish the originality of the writing of this modern author.
Smotrov Veniamin E.
The article tells about the interrelations and points of intersection between the French composer Charles-Valentin Alkan (1813-1888) and the Polish composer Frederic Chopin (1810-1849). The relevance of the article is determined by the need to highlight a facet of Chopin's life activity, to which the Russian musicology had not attention. Of considerable interest is the ﬁgure of C.-V. Alkan, the composer, whose compositions is experiencing a renaissance around the world in recent decades. Alkan and Chopin were composers-pianists, contemporaries, like-minded people and friends. Musicians met in 1832 and since then (until Chopin's death) maintained close communication, taking part in joint performances, attending social events, exchanging number of letters. The musicians had similar views on art, they were similar in character. However, the musical styles of Alkan and Chopin is different, in spite of the fact that they both composed solo piano music. Nevertheless, the music of Chopin, as an elder composer and who formed his personal manner at a rather early age, had a signiﬁ cant inﬂuence on the music of Alkan. The article explores the inﬂuence that Chopin's music has done on Alkan's compositions and cited the facts of the joint creative activity of Alkan and Chopin.
Shchepkina Nadezhda A.
The phenomenon of multiple-echoi hymns involves the embedding in such hymns of special symbols, the medial echos martyry-signs, which differ from the initial echos designation of a certain hymn. Such martyry-signs appear at the beginning (or sometimes in the end) of neumatic text lines throughout the entire hymn. The textual analysis of ﬁve Russian and four Greek manuscript copies of the eight-echoi doxastichon «By the Divine Command» made it possible to identify a common pattern associated with the insertion of medial martyry-signs. The embedding of the martyry-signs reﬂects modal shifts in various parts of a hymn, although it appears that such written directions are not always to be observed in actual performance. The comprehensive analysis of the manuscripts makes it evident that although sometimes a martyry-sign does not appear in a hymn, the modal shift could also be performed upon an oral instruction of the cantor aware of the nine-echoi structure of the hymn. Further study of the issues associated with the transcription of multiple-echoi hyms appears to be promising and favorable for a deeper understanding of cross-cultural interaction between Byzantine Empire and Ancient Rus.
Sahakyan Lusine Z.
The article is devoted to the last period of life and activity of the greatest representative of the Russian and Soviet conductor school Konstantin Sarajev. The sphere (ﬁeld) of musical, educational and organizational activities of the great conductor in Armenia, his creative interrelations with Armenian artists have ﬁrst been collected, summarized and reviewed in chronological order. The main principles of Sarajev's performing and teaching activities have been considered to the extent possible.
Loshakov Semyon A.
The task of this article is to characterize eleven symphonies of Alexander Lazarevich Lokshin, created in a short period (from 1957 to 1976), as a whole. Given the fact that for the designated period of Russian music this is the time of intensive search for the renewal of the symphonic genre, the originality of Lokshin's creative thinking is seen in an alternative plane of understanding. An attempt is made to classify the composer's symphonies according to a number of criteria (the author's attitude to the traditional structure of the Symphony, the performing composition, the literary text), as a result of which several different types of organization of the symphonic cycle are traced, each of which is characterized separately. By means of the score, the author creates a certain semantic ﬁeld in which there is a code of variation with characteristic attributes that have developed in centuries-old practice. In the poetics of Lokshin, there is always something elusive, subtle and deep, something hidden from outsiders, who do not look and do not listen to the eyes of the alien. To pave the way for understanding the unique creative universe of the composer can establish the typical features of his musical language and form, which represent a single system, each time organized around a new poetic space, creating its subtext and inscribing it in a musical context.
КОНДАКОВ ЛЕОНИД, ДЕЛИЙ ПАВЕЛ