ОБСЕРВАТОРИЯ КУЛЬТУРЫ

2588-0047

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение Российская государственная библиотека
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=25173

Content

Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy: “The Indians Have Never Believed in Art for Art...”

Korotchikova Polina

Analyses ideas of the famous indologist and orientalist, philosopher and art theorist whose works may be regarded as an attempt of the East­West cultural dialogue. The article focuses on the Coomaraswamy's concepts that are most relevant and important today for both indologists and wider audiences. The main objective of the paper is to introduce the core principles of Coomaraswamy's methodology to contemporary discourse and to reveal the specificity of his interpretations of the Oriental art and its features

Anthropology of Inclusion: Autonomy or Authenticity?

Shemanov Alexander

Provides a philosophical analysis of the social constructionist substantiation of inclusion and social model of disability. The article also considers the notion of psychological service for inclusive education participants using Herman P. Meininger's concept of normative anthropology that provides for structuring perspectives of delivering support to people with disabilities as the analytical tool. The author approves Meyninger`s conclusions about the inadequacy of normative anthropology of inclusion based on the ideal of autonomous personality. This ideal accepted by the normative anthropology preserves the non­inclusive character regardless of what inclusion model is accepted for people with disabilities - social (inclusion) or individual (integration). The structuring perspective for providing care (as the normative anthropology) that draw on the ideal of authenticity is supported. The author emphasizes importance of considering both cultural and embodied aspects of human existence while constructing the normative anthropology of inclusion and related psychological services for its participants.

Cultural Theory of Education, Its Research Area and Tasks

Yanutsh Olga

Исследуются проблемы, составляющие предметное поле новой области знания - культурологии образования. Автор обосновывает необходимость создания фундаментальной теории образования на основе метаметодического подхода, объединяющего принципы психологии, педагогики, философии образования и культурологии. Данная теория направлена на целостное изучение всех аспектов культурной политики и социокультурных практик повседневности, без корреляции с которыми невозможно выстроить эффективную модель развития системы образования.

Daniil Andreev’s Metaphysical Concept

Shulyndina Anastasia

Represents an attempt to analyse ideas of this Russian writer and visionary as the whole system. The author argues that Andreev’s theory has significantly contributed to the perception of the Russian metahistory and the inner spiritual life of a human. The article also reveals a close consistency of Andreev’s worldview to the dialectical philosophical concepts (Vladimir Solovyov, Nikolai Lossky, Semen Frank) and Christian mystical traditions (Imiaslavie).

Desuete Names in the Musical Culture History of the Russian Far East: The Khabarovsk Professional Musical Education from the End of the 19th Century to the 1930s

Koroleva Valentina

Deals with the first period of the musical education history in Khabarovsk, which is analysed within the frame of the general historical and cultural processes in the Far East. Basing on the local archives documents, the author reconstructs the life and activities of the Khabarovsk musical school founder Jadwiga Sventorzhezkaya, the alumna of the Paris Conservatory who was born into the noble Polish family. The names of the Khabarovsk Musical College professors Nikolsky and Shveinik persecuted in 1937 for political reasons are re­introduced to the regional culture history.

Discovering the New Cultural Reality: Benefits and Drawbacks of the Augmented Reality Technology

Savitskaya Tatiana

Explores new modes of cultural production and consumption brought to life by introduction of augmented reality (AR) technology. The special attention is paid to the famous Google Glass as a novelty of AR­technology and to the problems of its social, medical and anthropological adaptation in particular. The author also addresses the possible impact of the AR­technology mass dissemination.

French Structuralists Roland Barthes and Claude Lévi­Strauss on Japanese Culture

Grishin Mikhail

Analyses views of these researchers on Japanese culture. They underlined the radical dissimilarity between Japanese culture and cultures of the West or of continental Asia. The author reveals the mechanisms of constructing images of Japan by Roland Barthes and Claude Lévi­Strauss that were based on visual images of the Japanese culture and translated texts.

Henri Duponchel and the Birth of Romantic Theatrical Decor

Zhestkova Olga

Is devoted to Henri Duponchel, the brightest personality in Romantic musical and theatrical art. Being an architect, stage and costume designer, stage director and theatre manager of Académie Royale de Musique, he was the first who made Paris audience interested in Medieval colours, which became an essential part of Romantic theatre setting. Duponchel's work and his input to development of the French grand opera are analysed within the Russian art criticism tradition for the first time.

“I Believe in Seven­String Guitar”: On the Occasion of Yury Vizbor’s 80th birthday

Bogatyreva Nataliya

Is dedicated to diverse artistic and creative work of this singer­songwriter, journalist, script writer and actor. The author analyses Vizbor’s poetics and evolution of his creativity from his students’ songs and to philosophical lyrics imbued with existential feelings and evaluates Vizbor’s contribution to Russian culture as that of a man of the sixties.

Karl Wirth’s Notebooks: The Musical­Instrument Maker and His World of Ideas

Lomtev Denis

Addresses the work of German musical­instrument maker Karl Wirth (1800-1882) who lived in St. Petersburg. The research is based on analysing Wirth’s sketchbooks and his grand pianos that are currently may be found in Russian museums. Particular attention is given to the sketches that often provide even more insight into Wirth’s thoughts and ideas than the accompanying texts.

Medieval Laughter Culture and the Anti­World of Russian Postmodernism

Litvintseva Galina

Provides a comparative analysis of the comic world or antiworld in medieval and postmodern literary texts. The postmodern and medieval parodies create seamy, inverted world that is free from the etiquette rules and propriety. Postmodern writers and artists break the “classic” aesthetic canon that restricts freedom of creative expression and artistic perception of the text as a self­sufficient one. Grotesque hyperrealism of Russian postmodernists is a revival of burlesque travesty of medieval topography on a new level.

Original Song as an Art of Confidential Communication: To the Notion of Genre

Belen’ky Leonid

Is devoted to the understudied aspects of Russian song performed by its author in Soviet times. The author addresses the issues of genre typology, interrelations of notions genre and original song within the context of world song culture, and the verbal genre theory by Mikhail Bakhtin. It is argued that the art of confidential communication may be analysed as a special type of artistic creation.

Photography and Visual Comprehension: Key Notions and Research Issues

Loginov Artyom

Is devoted to dividing key notions and notion pairs used in research of visual comprehension related to the photography specifics. The article aims to elaborate conceptual instruments that may be used to analyse photographic images. The article also covers in brief the aspects of analysing a role of the visual in the personal relation to actuality and photography reality.

Russian Church Schism and the Formation of “Two Russias”

Tovbin Kirill

Describes the course and nature of Raskol (splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 17th century). The author considers the effects of the split on Old Believers, which led to the enforced adaptation of ideological modernism that combined with their original traditionalism. While proceeding from participants of traditional spiritual movement to religious adepts, Old Believers have developed their own ideology and negative identity (which are the main points of the modern type of religiosity). Though Old Believers confronted Modernity both ideologically and mentally, they used veiled postmodern mechanisms, which are actively run today for shaping stylistics and imitationalism of the postmodern spirituality.

Thanatochronotope in Cinematic Texts of St. Petersburg and Kiev

Kirillova Olga

Represents the author coined notion of thanatochronotope, which is used for description of art works aesthetically, optically, and rhythmically determined by the object­matter of death. The concept is applied to analysing the complex “representative urban cinematic texts” of St. Petersburg and Kiev in the films by Russian and Ukrainian directors, namely Lev Kulidzhanov, Andrei Eshpaj, Alexander Sokurov, Andrei Khrzhanovsky, Ivan Dykhovichny, Alexei Balabanov, Sergei Masloboyschikov, Alexander Shapiro et al. To resolve some theoretical and historical problems of film art the author conceptualizes the notions related to the representative urban cinematic text, which was not identified within the general notion of urban text previously. The article reveals both the specificity of the St. Petersburg cinematic text and its heterogeneity. The notion of thanatochronotope provides for analysing both the representative urban cinematic text and its decadent paradigm within the frame of the film thanatology approaches that swiftly develops as a new philosophical and culturological method. This approach is also used for Kiev cinematic text analysis and its comparison with the St. Petersburg cinematic text.

The Geo­Culture Concept and Its Development in the Russian Humanities

Puchkovskaya Antonina

Analyses the interpretation of the geo­culture concept. The author addresses the notion of geo­culture as it was coined by Immanuel Wallerstein, its fundamental aspects and evaluation by Russian researchers. The positive tendencies in the productive use of this concept for description of contingent, world­systems processes of the present are revealed.

There Was a Genius Loci

Gorbatova I.I.

Is dedicated to the unique monument of Russian culture - Chertkov's House in Moscow and its Universal Russian Library. Today this urban mansion shares the fate of many memorial places at risk of destruction in Russia. Meanwhile, this kind of historical and cultural heritage items may perfectly serve the idea of patriotic education and national pride, which are greatly needed by the states in the context of globalisation.

The Semantics of Death Image in “Madrigals” Supercycle by George Crumb

Petrov) Vladislav

Considers a unique song cycle of the postmodern epoch - “Madrigals” by American composer George Crumb. The author addresses the semantic meaning of Death image in particular and reveals parallels in its representations by the composer and by Federico García Lorca. It is argued that Crumb used particular phrases of the Spanish poet and dramatist to create the original dramaturgy that deepened the tragic death imaging.

Transformations of the Resurrection Image in Russia

Ivanova Svetlana

Investigates the breach of tradition in Easter iconography, which happened in 18th century Russia. The author examines a new type of iconography that appeared in Russia at that time and reveals its clear linkage with the engravings of the Protestant Piscator Bible and the series of illustrations to the Apostles’ Creed.

Value System and the Sum of Technologies

Drikker Alexander

The fall of the Soviet empire is traditionally referred to technological problems. However, it is possible to relate this unexpected downfall to degeneration of the Soviet value system, which earlier produced the rise unprecedented in Russian history. Today in society and culture, the main deficiency is in inspiring objectives that can response to the national character and mechanisms of their achievement but not in technologies. The author discusses the ways and prospects of searching these values.

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