Nery Monteiro Argus Cecil
Antunes Filho: Formation of the Brazilian System of Theatrical Art (by Argus Cecil Nery Monteiro) is devoted to the formation and development of the method of Antunes Filho, a reformer of the modern Brazilian theatre. Resting on Stanislavski’s system, he created his own method based on contemporary psychological and philosophical researches. His method is successfully used in training actors at the Centre of theatre researches founded by him in São Paulo.
Art as an Object of Cultural Studies (Experience of a Methodological Reflection) (by Elena Yarkova) determines basic principles of the culturological approach to the art studies, reveals specific characteristics of the culturological understanding of the object, the subject, and the methodology of the art studies. The author represents an original typology of the aesthetic culture which could be considered as a model of conceptualization of art and artistic processes from the position of cultural science
Collecting Photography (by Artem Loginov) makes differentiation of key concepts and rules of the art-market of photography. The article’s aim is to show several limitations which form specific features of relations between authors and buyers of photographic art pieces. The article analyzes in brief some criteria which have an influence on price formation in the art-market of photography.
Eternal Middle Ages: Time Models in Modern Mass Culture (by Aleksey Pozharov). Nowadays in the works of mass culture, a remarkable interest in the Middle Ages is noticed. According to many cultural studies, it is not so much the historical Middle Ages reflected in the cultural artifacts as it is the contemporary society set in medieval surroundings. What images and ideas does the modern mass culture deliver? In order to deal with this issue, it’s necessary to consider one of the fundamental concerns of civilization: which model of time is relevant to the contemporary cultural artifacts.
German Motet in Johannes Brahms’ Works (by Elizaveta Tkachenko) analyzes the seven motets of the eminent German romantic composer - Johannes Brahms. Works of this genre are considered from the standpoint of their belonging to the Protestant variety, which originated in Germany during the Reformation and was enriched during the next two centuries by exquisite examples of leading Lutheran composers. Just like his great predecessors, Brahms took tunes of Lutheran chorales as a musical foundation for his motets and quotations from the Bible in Martin Luther’s translation as their verbal foundation. Particular attention is paid to the definition of features of the composer’s method of work with canonical texts.
Gift and Donation in A. P. Chekhov’s Artistic Comprehension (by Liudmila Yakusheva) considers in the context of realogy - a modern trend in the studying of day-to-day culture - the phenomenon of gift as a thing and as a social practice. The process of donation is described, its functions and features. By the example of A. P. Chekhov’s personal and artistic experience, gift is analyzed as an occurrence in Russian life.
Historical and Biographical Research and Archives (by Yulia Yumasheva) presents a short historiographical review of historical and biographical research conducted in Russian and foreign historical science within the three auxiliary historical disciplines: genealogy, prosopography, and historical demography. For the first time in Russian historiography, the implementation experience of such research in the State Archives of the Russian Federation has been reviewed, as well as the largest foreign projects existing in the Internet have been analyzed.
Imagological Method in Literary and Cultural Research (by Alexandra Kozlova). The categories of otherness and strangeness, mainly expressed in terms of impression of a different people’s culture, language, and mentality shown in another people’s literature, are among the most actual problems of modern literary studies, specifically of comparativistics. Perception of one culture by another gives an idea of a different people or country, which later constitutes a well-defined image. The image can more or less correspond to reality or can essentially differ from it. Formation of the image is a rather long-term process influenced by a lot of different and unexpected factors.
In a Key Position. Suvorov and the Crimea in his Letters and Notes (by Valentina Naumenko) deals with the problem of joining of the Crimea to the Russian Empire, revealed through the epistolary and literary heritage of the great Russian general Alexander Suvorov. His letters of the years 1777-1779 are both some kind of “portraits of the place” and a first-person history. They demonstrate an experience of the future generalissimo, approaching then his 50th anniversary, in the understanding of the main tasks of that era, his knowledge of terrain and people of that multinational peninsula.
Human Individuality as Embodiment of Culture and the Problem of Inclusion: an Outsider’s Perspective (by Leon Chernyak). The article considers the problem of inclusion from the point of view of a philosopher working in the area of ontological anthropology. Proceeding from this ontological perspective, it argues that the notion of a human being as the embodiment of culture (and, consequently, of the human individual as an embodied entity) constitutes the major obstacle for the development of a theoretically consistent conceptual framework for the intuitive notion of inclusion of people with disabilities. The notion of a human individual as a corporeal (or bodily) entity is proposed as an alternative to the notion of human individual as an embodied entity. On the basis of the notion of the human individual as a corporeal (bodily) entity, the concept of culture as the only form of objectification of the human mode of being is proposed, and, in its turn, on the basis of this concept of culture the following concepts are formulated: health (the integrity of the organism), medical norm, and disease.
Internet of Things: Experience of a Culturological Analysis (by Tatyana Savitskaya) studies the cultural meaning of the Internet of Things as an ascending trend in the development of information technologies. The focus is on the history of interaction between a man and a thing, both in the consumer society and in the modern electronic civilization. The article reviews some social and anthropological effects of the mass use of new cultural practices oriented towards the Internet of Things
Liminality as an Archetype in Federico Fellini’s Art (by Patimat Gamzatova) analyzing a number of typical structural features of Federico Fellini’s films (non-linear narrative, purposelessness, randomness), the conflicts of the plot (moments of crisis of the society and personal psychological crisis), the nature of the characters (marginality, the culture of laughter and its characters, creative persons), the peculiarity of the main character and the alter ego of Fellini himself (Marcello Mastroianni) that represents the perplexed, shapeless, meaningless face in the world of «faces-meanings», the author of this article comes to a conclusion that liminality (state of transition - the concept that has been formed and analyzed in Ethnology) is one of the archetypes of consciousness that forms artistic structures and is most vividly manifested in the work of Fellini.
Michelangelo Antonioni’s Magical Realism: Elusive Optics (by Anna Zakrevskaya) is an investigation of Michelangelo Antonioni’s film ‘Blowup’ with regard to its combination of magical, irrational elements and visible signs of recognizable reality. By means of work with frame composition and colour dramatic structure, a special unique “truth of life” is revealed - the change of perspective allows us to see some hidden depths, to reconsider our boundaries of reality, to make our worldview more complex.
Salsa and Santeria: to the Problem of Desacralization of a Ritual (by Olesia Platonova) is dedicated to the dialogue between a popular genre (salsa) and a religion (Santeria) in the context of desacralization of a ritual. Comparing salsa and other genres, like gospel, spiritual, Christian rock, the author notes a profound connection between a song and a personal spiritual experience of the musician, analyses some examples of the genre: subject symbolism, color symbolism, bilingualism of texts (the Spanish and Yoruba languages), music quotations of Santeria’s hymns.
Sources of Russian Musical Management: Unexplored Pages (by Olga Garmash) considers the history of organization of musical life in Russia in the epoch «before management». The author views this theme through a prism of previous music experience based on some historical sources of the end of 19th - beginning of 20th century. The main line - a composer’s one - of the classic music promotion of that time has been examined.
“Stars” from the Tube (by Evgeny Dukov) deals with the new socio-cultural trend - individual artistic industry. It developed on the basis of appearance in the Internet of the Blog website (1990-s) and the YouTube video hosting (2000-s). Arisen independently of one another, they began to play a very important role in contemporary musical life: the bloggers became conductors of the new musical content that they would “catch” in the Internet; the technical capabilities of YouTube made saturation of that content simple, even for novice users. All this has led to the emergence of a new type of “stars”; they “break out” without any assistance of show business professionals, without competitions and festivals, but always with some initial aid of bloggers. The Internet audience finds something interesting for themselves in the creative work of the “stars”, which makes music critics, sociologists, and other specialists solve the problem of artistic preferences of the modern (mostly young) Internet audience. However, the bloggers themselves usually remain in the shadows. They unselfishly open to the web community and promote in the Internet any phenomenon which, from their point of view, can claim the status of artistic.
To Understand, to Guess, to Feel the Reader (by Violetta Askarova) gives review of the book “Typology of Fiction Reading and Fiction Readers” by M. Y. Serebryanaya and G. N. Shevtsova-Vodka. This publication includes an analysis of fiction reading. The process of reading is displayed; the theory of reading and the scientific approaches to the classification of fiction readers are examined. Some basic concepts of the typology of reading are described. The authors analyze the typifications of fiction readers. Results received by different researchers in this field are summarized. The publication will help with the choice of literary and fictional works to read, with their most complete perception.
Visuality in Robert Louis Stevenson’s Novella “Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” (by Ludmila Dorofeyeva) analyzes some visual images connected with the author’s way of writing, the picture of the world created by him, spatial organization of the text, and content of the characters’ images. According to the levels of art space, we can see two basic types of visual images. The world of “visible”, real actuality is accompanied by some visual images generated by an “outward” sight, which are traditional to a realistic prose. Their main function is a characterological one. Visuality of the second type concerns the mystical side of the novel, accompanies the image of Mr. Hyde and the image of London. It is mainly a metaphorical symbolism and a kind of medieval genre of visions. General historical context of the novel relates to the Late Victorian period, accordingly to the Protestantism; and its spiritual space is a Christian one. Therefore, the nature of this novel’s mysticism is not magical, and the visual images associated with it open their spiritual meanings rather than mystical ones. One of the most important conclusions here is the statement that Mr. Hyde’s image is impersonal, that he lacks personality, which means his lack of personal will and of free self-determination. He is not a double who wants to replace and destroy Dr. Jekyll’s personality but just a transformed Jekyll’s body, a mask, a guise, a “container” for dark, demonic powers; the character of his visuality witnesses that.
What does the Song Show? Popular Music on Soviet Television. Part 1. 1960s-1970s (by Dariya Zhurkova) analyzes problems of popular songs’ adaptation to the rules of television shows of 1960s-1970s. The research is based on the example of some popular TV programs such as “Hello, we are looking for talents”, “The Little Blue Light” (a New Year’s show), “The Benefit”, “13 Chairs Tavern”. The article examines how the Soviet television sought for its-own original ways of a song presentation. Also, the article discovers how the television pop music would reflect, sometimes unintentionally but very clearly, those unofficial changes which happened in that period in social aspirations and ideals.
What does the Song Show? Popular Music on Soviet Television. Part 2. 1980s (by Dariya Zhurkova) continues to analyze the problems of popular songs’ adaptation to the rules of television shows. This part of the research is based on the example of “The Morning Mail” - a popular TV program in 1980s. The article traces the arrival and development of music video clips on television. Moreover, the article discovers the main role of television in creation of the cult of civilizational benefits and of the institute of “stars”, despite the fact that the processes actually ran counter to the official policy and ideology.