ОБСЕРВАТОРИЯ КУЛЬТУРЫ

2588-0047

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение Российская государственная библиотека
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=25173

Content

A Stimulating Factor or an Artificial Selection: The Scholarships at the Moscow Conservatory before 1917

Shabshaevich Elena M.

The article is devoted to the phenomenon of scholarships at the Moscow Conservatory before 1917. Scholarships in the period were considered as a kind of grant that allowed talented low-income young people to get a decent education in this famous institution. On the basis of materials from the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art, the article analyzes in detail the conditions and procedure for assigning the scholarships. For example, there is found a difference in the purposes of philanthropists, which influenced the conditions for allocation of the scholarship funds. The founders of the scholarships are divided into two groups: public organizations (Moscow Branch of the Imperial Russian Musical Society (IRMO, RMO), Moscow City Administration, Empress Maria’s Department) and individuals (usually large patrons). Each group had its own characteristics in the selection of scholars. The scholarships were assigned solely on the criteria of talent and zeal. Thus, many individual scholarship founders had their own goals (to perpetuate the memory of their loved ones or provide education to their descendants). Among the restrictions (conditions) put forward by them for future scholars, there were the following: specialty, gender, social origin, place of birth, religion. Deprivation of scholarship was subordinated to more objective criteria: mainly taken into account the negligence of the scholar or their noncompliance with learning standards. The procedure of scholarship deprivation was not clearly spelled out in legal terms, but in most cases it was decided by the Artistic Council or personally by the Director of the Conservatory. In conclusion, the article puts forward the idea of updating the motivating role of scholarships in the modern Russian education.

Count Michal Kleofas Oginski’s Musical Collection from the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts in Moscow

Sukhoveiko Renata Ya.

The article is devoted to the collection of manuscripts and musical publications from the heritage of count Michal Kleofas Oginski (1765-1833). For the first time ever, there is revealed his diplomatic archive (including his manuscripts), stored in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts in Moscow. Oginski was not only a politician and diplomat, but also a violinist and a talented composer. The article aims to demonstrate the diversity of count M.K. Oginski’s personality. The author brings a new approach to the study of the composer’s creative heritage, demonstratively proving that his works (particularly, the widely known in Europe and Russia polonaises) are an important source of knowledge about his musical preferences and artistic achievements, and a valuable illustration of that age as well. Studying of these materials is a component of the larger research project “Musical Polonica in the Libraries and Archives of Moscow”, carried out by a Polish-Russian group of librarians and musicologists. For the first time, the efforts of specialists from both countries will be aimed at identification of unexplored and unknown sources and documents showing the relationships and interinfluence of the musical cultures of Poland and Russia in the 19th-20th centuries.

Engravings Based on Adolph Menzel’s Drawings in the Works of Alexander Benois

Zavyalova Anna E.

The relevance of the article’s topic is determined by the fact that the drawings of Adolph Menzel, one of Alexander Benois’s favorite artists, reproduced in woodcut engraving in various publications, have never been the object of a special research as artistic sources of the artist’s creativity. The scientific novelty of this article is in the fact that here for the first time the experience of analyzing the influence of the engravings based on Menzel’s drawings on A. Benois’s work has been undertaken. The author uses a complex method that combines the source analysis of the artist’s memories, the traditional formal analysis of his works, the comparative formal analysis of his works with the works of Menzel, Ando Hiroshige, the drawings of Julius Dietz, the engravings of French masters of the 18th century. The memoirs of Duke de Saint-Simon and Marquis de Dangeau, the novel by Alexandre Dumas “Joseph Balsamo” are also considered. This allows to significantly expand and deepen the existing idea of the historical and artistic sources of Benois’ creativity. It is revealed that the engravings based on Menzel’s drawings influenced the image of the old king in the sheets of the graphic cycle of Benois “The Last Walks of Louis XIV” (1896-1898), as well as the pastel “Masquerade under Louis XIV” (1897). It is also established that the composition of Benois’s watercolors “The King’s Walk” (1906) and “The Wedding Walk” (1906) repeat the compositions of the engravings, based on Menzel’s drawings, “Friedrich on the Upper Terrace of Sanssouci” and “King Friedrich II with the Queen in front of the Court” from Kugler’s book “The History of Frederick the Great”.

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL MUSICAL DRAMA OF CHUICHUI-QIANG IN THE REGION OF DALI OF YUNNAN PROVINCE

Li Jianfu

China, as well as Russia, is a multinational country, where each nation has its own unique history and culture. Preserving cultural identity of smaller nations is often problematic due to the phenomenon of assimilation. Therefore, in the overinformed 21st century, the survival and popularization of various species of smaller nations’ art is a great achievement in terms of preservation of a multinational country’s cultural richness. This article is devoted to the history of development of the musical and theatrical art of Chuichui-Qiang (吹吹腔) of the minor people of Bai (白族), living in the South-Western part of China in the county of Dali of Yunnan province. It is noted that, genetically, the drama of Chuichui-Qiang originates from the drama of Yuan dynasty of the 13th-14th centuries, later influenced by such varieties of opera as Siqin-Qiang (西 秦腔) and Si-Diao (西 调). The article reflects distinctive, individual features of the genre, as well as more general characteristics of the Chinese musical drama (opera), which are also embodied in Chuichui-Qiang. The author justifies the conclusion that the presence in Chuichui-Qiang of the things inherent to all Chinese, such as love for a clear regulation of procedural action, ceremonial etiquette, use of certain traditional symbols, is determined by the interpenetration of cultures in the course of historical development. At the same time, this genre has its own unique characteristics, which are also reflected in the work. This research can be useful for the audience, interested in the multinational culture of China, and for those who consider the issue of preservation of original kinds of smaller nations’ art in China, as well as in Russia, to be important.

ICONOGRAPHY OF THE RESURRECTION: THE QUESTION OF DATES OF ORIGIN AND ANCIENT MONUMENTS

Ivanova Svetlana V.

Iconography of the Resurrection: The Question of Dates of Origin and Ancient Monuments

Inclusion as a Value Core of the Philosophy of Humanism

Sudakova Natalia E.

Sociocultural transformations that affect today all layers of human existence exacerbate the problem of including the Other into the social life. Inclusion - a new phenomenon of culture - appears as a response to the intolerant attitude of a person to another person. The need for cultural philosophical reflection on inclusion predetermines the relevance of this work. Inclusive practices, whose common understanding draws attention to the destructive nature of social interaction of the society and the individual with disabilities, require a revision of their sense-forming coordinates. The renewed understanding of inclusion as the nucleus of the philosophy of humanism expands the scope of the view that technologies the society uses for satisfying special sociocultural and educational needs should be addressed to people with disabilities, shifting the emphasis towards recognizing the “singularity” / uniqueness of each individual for the further development of human civilization. The author’s approach, giving everyone unlimited opportunities for self-fulfillment, immerses a person into the amazing mystery of creativity, striving to create the joy of co-existence. Emphasis is placed on the understanding that creativity is a process of social interaction, where deprivation of the supremacy of the competition and effectiveness paradigms prevailing in the modern society contributes to overcoming the negative practices of self-awareness / accepting the Other as a carrier of abnormality, as well as to affirming the importance of the individual’s “singularity”/ uniqueness for the social well-being of people and society. The presented approach to inclusion, accumulating the conceptual ideas of the philosophy of humanism, allows a person to discover a unique beginning in themselves, which promotes both the socialization of the personality and the acquisition of new reasons for existence. Appealing to the latest research in the field of neurobiology proving the social nature of man is dictated by the insufficient attention of the modern society to education of a socially responsible person. The social fullness of a person’s life, leading to the assertion of one’s own unique nature by including in the process of co-creation, contributing to the overcoming of the life meaning search crisis, harmonizes the vital activity of all social institutions, including those in the scale of humanity.

Interdisciplinarity in the Humanitarian Knowledge

Volkova Natalia A., Kataeva Olga V., Khodanovich Marina A.

The article describes the formation of a complex multilevel system of humanitarian knowledge in the contemporary literature. For analysis of this process, there is used the conceptual apparatus associated with the phenomenon of interdisciplinarity. There are different forms of interdisciplinarity in the field of humanitarian knowledge: multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity as such, and transdisciplinarity. A brief description of them is given. The authors examine some manifestations of interdisciplinarity: interdisciplinary research, associated disciplines focused on the pedagogical process. There are different kinds of transdisciplinarity in the humanitarian knowledge. Transdisciplinarity can serve as an attempt to create a unified humanitarian science, a unified anthropology, humanistics, a new direction in the philosophy of science, meta-analysis of the humanitarian research, etc. The article criticizes the idea of humanitaristics as a common methodology for the humanitarian knowledge, particularly for its tendency to mix scientific and non-scientific components. The authors believe that social sciences and humanitarian ones differ in the object, the subject and the relation to values. The paradigmatic distinction of social and humanitarian sciences is critically assessed. The article emphasizes that the humanitarian knowledge has a technological dimension, which is manifested in the development of the subject of humanitarian technologies and humanitarian expertise in literature. Some of their features are considered. The scientific novelty of the article lies in description of the phenomenon of expansion of the humanitarian knowledge, which includes not only the Humanities, but also a variety of interdisciplinary research, transdisciplinary formations, applied and technological humanitarian studies, various unscientific views. The emergence of such a phenomenon makes important the problem of distinction between social and humanitarian sciences, as well as the distinction between scientific and non-scientific components in the humanitarian knowledge.

Memoirs and Notebooks as a Source for Studying A.V. Vampilov’s Work

Ostroumova Tatiana O.

The article is devoted to the issues of studying the dramaturgical heritage of Alexander Valentinovich Vampilov, his creative laboratory, the histories of his plays’ promoting onto the pages of printed publications and the stages of central theaters. Three periods of A.V. Vampilov’s creative activity are considered within the framework of the theme. The first two are his student days and working in the newspaper: those are the time of absorbing the riches of literature, early prosaic experiments, accumulation of life experiences and mastering the literary skill. The third period is the work on plays. The article underlines the role of his attending playwrights’ seminars and higher literary courses in the formation and development of A.V. Vampilov’s dramaturgical gift. An attempt is made to view his work in the historical and cultural context of the time the plays were created. There were some contradictory trends in the development of culture during the Khrushchev thaw and Brezhnev social stagnation. The revival of cultural life was combined with the authorities’ desire to keep it within a rigid framework. The censorship’s impact on the culture is shown. The characteristic of the literary environment of Irkutsk of the 1960s is given. There is also revealed some specific features of A.V. Vampilov’s work. It is proved that a fact of life always serves as a basis of A.V. Vampilov’s plot. This article is relevant, due to the fact that A.V. Vampilov is the most gifted playwright of his time; his dramatic heritage is one of those central in the history of our literature. The novelty of the article is in the fact that the sources for the study of the above-listed issues are the memoirs of direct participants of the events, and the playwright’s notebooks as well. There are analyzed the memoirs of A.V. Vampilov’s classmates, of Irkutsk writers and journalists, heads of the creative seminars for young playwrights, theatre and publishing workers. The novelty of the work determines its scientific and practical value. The conclusions and observations made in the article can be used for studying A.V. Vampilov’s work. The memoirs will help the interested readers to plunge into the atmosphere of those years.

OLD RUSSIAN ICONOGRAPHIC MONUMENTS OF THE 15th CENTURY AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION ON BOWED INSTRUMENTS

Ustyugova Alexandra V.

Studying Old Russian art sources gives valuable historical and everyday material that allows us to fill and clarify our ideas about musical instruments: the features of their design and functioning. Frescoes and miniatures from manuscripts are of particular importance among the extant information on Old Russian bowed instruments. The article deals with the images of bowed instruments on the fresco “Ant Skomorokh” of the western wall of the Assumption Church near the village of Melyotovo in the Pskov region (1465) and the miniature “King David Speaks with the Singers” from the first part of the Sacred Psalter (1470-1480). The iconographic sources under examination contain not only images of bowed instruments, but also inscriptions, which increases their importance for the study of Old Russian instrumental culture. For the first time, the article attempts to complexly analyze bowed instruments in the Old Russian art of the 15th century, comparing them with medieval Western European and Byzantine illustrations and with Old Russian written and archaeological materials. The comparative-typological and historical approaches form the methodological basis of the study. They allow identifying and relating the main types of medieval bowed instruments, their similarity in form and performing techniques. As a result of the comparative-typological analysis of the Old Russian iconographic monuments of the 15th century, it is concluded that the images of bowed instruments represent some transitional pattern - they still demonstrate links with the Byzantine canon, contain signs of Western European instruments, but already incorporate specific national Old Russian features. In the 15th century, some inscriptions began to appear on Old Russian miniatures and frescoes, explaining that there were folk musicians on them. In the same period, the vertical playing arrangement of the instrument was introduced for the first time in the Old Russian art, which corresponded to the Russian tradition of performing on bowed instruments. A number of design features unite these instruments with the gudoks of the 12th-15th centuries from the Novgorod archaeological excavations (the shape of hull, lack of a prolonged neck, presence of three strings and the form of bow).

Practical Philosophy of Communication Management in the Context of Time Culture

Kashirina Olga V.

The article is devoted to construction of the practical philosophy of communication management. The timeliness of the topic is determined by the exigency to ensure Russia’s information security in the emerging multipolar world, as well as by the vital need for coordinated development (co-evolution) of the society and nature. The author introduces the basic category of communicative time, which is for the first time considered in a broad and narrow meaning. In the broadest meaning, it acts as a universal ability of matter to provide remote interaction in the universe not only of parts of matter and energy, but also of their forms possessing unified physical (biophysical) properties, as wave (field) structures. The narrow understanding of communicative time is used as a regulator of the process of interaction between the biosphere and the sociosphere, which form the noosphere. It characterizes the process of noospheregenesis, which, in its essence, provides the co-evolution of the human, society and nature as a process of intensification of the synergetic and energetic links that system-wide organize and coordinate the speed and density of communication flows, the culture level of the communication management. There is first analyzed the dialectical-trialectical paradigm as a matrix of communication management culture. In this paradigm, the dialectical (binary-pole) semantic control systems of meanings (“knowledge - understanding”, “challenge - response”, “modern-day - to-day”, etc.) represent soft coordination through the “language of the masses” - the synergy of communicative time; and the trialectical control systems: “mass - elite - power” exercise strict control through the “language of power” - the energy of communicative time. This research uses the context of time culture, in which the practical philosophy of communication management is manifested as a philosophy of human and society’s responsibility for the state of noospheregenesis, for the development and implementation of the strategy of mankind’s survival.

The Documentary Essence of Museum Object: Culturological Approach

Andreeva Irina V.

The article considers the problems of using the documentary approach for disclosing the essence of museum object and museum documentation. There is substantiated the need for the concept of “museum do- cument” and for the culturological approach to its studying. A short excursion into the history of museum objects studying shows that museum studies equate the concepts of “document” and “museum object”, the aspectual dependency between the two is not considered. The term “document” is used as a nonspecific general concept that does not have a sectorial definition, but differs from the notions of documents in other areas of information exchange and museum documentation systems. The documentary essence of museum object is to this day determined by the ability to reflect reality through a set of properties that have semantic, axiological and communicative aspects. These provisions form an empirical basis for the theory of museum object in the structure of museum institution that helps to develop the technology and practice of working with scientific collections. The problem of museum document ontology requires at this level neither formulation nor solution. Before the theory of any science, including museology, at the post-non-classical stage of development, prognostic problems are posed. Therefore, theoretical generalizations and terminological abstractions have great significance for knowledge of the science’s subject. The article examines the expediency of introducing into the conceptual apparatus of museology the term “museological document” as an abstract concept of a unit in the museum documentation process. Based on the theory of document and the properties of the metasystem of documentary communications, its working definition is given. The importance of the new term for maintaining the theoretical connections of the science is emphasized, which allows to preserve the traditional adherence to the “museum object” in the legislative, normative and daily practice of the museum industry. Further research in this direction requires addressing to the methodology of culturological approach, since the museum is an institution that marks the document status of a real-world object, and the recognition and “reading” of a document is carried out within certain cultural norms.

THE GOVERNMENT, THE CENTRAL COMMISSION FOR IMPROVINGTHE LIFE OF SCIENTISTS,AND THE CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE 1920S: POSITIONS, STATUSES, DECORATIONS

Dolgova Evgenia A.

The article studies the problem of interrelation between the government and the creative intelligentsia in the 1920s. It analyzes the documentation of the Central Commission for Improving the Life of Scientists (TSEKUBU) concerning the division of artistic intellectuals into ca­tegories, the issuance of rations and benefits, the materials on social and welfare institutions - the Homes for Elderly Scientists of Moscow and Leningrad (Petrograd), the sanatorium “Uzkoe”. The task is set and solved to investigate the examples of interaction (instead of conflict) of the government and intelligentsia, the features of their mutual positioning. The author concludes that the relationship between the authorities and the creative intelligentsia of the first post-revolutionary decade cannot be clearly defined as “winners-losers”: the need for coope­ration dictated certain compromises that were made by both sides. The work of the Central Commission for Improving the Life of Scientists serves as an example of such a compromise, the intervention of the party and Soviet authorities in it was minimal before 1929. It is no­ted that the TSEKUBU’s positions were not weak: using the system of client-patron relations with the government, it managed to preserve the “fragments” of the old, outgoing way of life, protecting and supporting those who, due to their social origin, political position until 1917 and further life strategy, were not close to the new political regime. The author identifies the reasons for this in the preservation and operation of the system of corporate relations, established before 1917. This system could not be destroyed in a short time and was implemented through the work in the TSEKUBU’s expert commissions of the persons who had been familiar, since pre-revolutio­nary time, with the principles of its operation and the ba­lance of power; through a system of sureties and patronage; through the approval of the TSEKUBU’s lists and decisions by the new government. It formed the specifics of the position of a narrow circle of intellectuals and the features of its positioning in relation to the government. Inclusion in this circle was determined not by the political position and loyalty to the regime, but by the personal fame (scientific reputation) of representatives of the creative intelligentsia, their corporate ties and, possibly, their belonging to certain creative associations and institutions.

The Heritage of Rudolf Otto in Phenomenology of Culture

Timoshchuk Elena A.

1917 was a turning point not only in histories of many countries but also in the spiritual culture cognition, because in that year the book “The Idea of the Holy” (Das Heilige) of the Lutheran theologian Rudolf Otto became known. This book interprets the religion, in a Kantian-phenomenological way, as a stable relation of a living entity and the being, and it cannot be explained, for it is a mystery. R. Otto is a key figure not only in philosophy of religion but also in phenomenology. His phenomenological teaching is considered as a methodology for cultural stereotypes transcending. The relevance of the topic is determined by theoretical, practical and global aspects: 1) a hundred years is a significant period for summing up the results of the work’s intellectual history; 2) Otto’s method can be recommended for managing the ethnoconfessio-nal diversity; 3) the ethos of intercultural communication requires today a vision of unity, rather than differences. The novelty of the study is in generalization of the impact of Otto’s book on the subsequent philosophy and cultural studies. The author follows the position that Otto’s phenomenology has not reached its limits, and actualizes this theoretical method as a means of intercultural communication. The article gives an assessment of Otto’s teachings by Russian and foreign thinkers, and examines the concepts of the numinous and the Other.

The Religious Factor Influencing on Charity and Philanthropy in the Vladimir, Kostroma and Yaroslavl Provinces (The Second Half of the 19th - Beginning of the 20th Century)

Plekhanova Anastasia S.

The author examines the features of influence of the religious factor on the development of private philanthropy and patronage of art in the second half of the 19th - early 20th century by the example of the Vladimir, Kostroma and Yaroslavl Provin­ces. Gui­ded by the Orthodox ethical principles and va­lues system, entrepreneurs, often coming from the Old Believer environment, paid special attention to phi­lanthropic activities. They provided substantial funds for social protection of the workers of their enterpri­ses and the po­pulation of the provinces: construction and maintenance of hospitals, kindergartens and orphana­ges, homes for the elderly, schools and colleges, libra­ries, almshou­ses. The history of the Vladimir, Kostroma and Yaroslavl Provinces includes the activities of the following philanthropists: the brothers P.M. Tretyakov and S.M. Tretyakov, the Morozovs, Gorbunovs, Maltsovs (Yu.S. Nechaev-Maltsov), Zotovs, Vakhrameevs, Karzinkins, and others. The article considers the charitable activities of the Old Believer of the Kostroma Province G.K. Gorbunov. His charitable work was connected with the improvement of Sudislavl (he financed the construction of the water supply system, asylum for the mentally ill people, city magistrate buildings and the reconstruction of the Transfiguration Cathedral of Sudislavl). The Maltsov dynasty was among the most prominent philanthropists of the Vladimir Pro­vince. In the Yaroslavl Province, almshouses and hostels were the most common type of charitable institutions, such as the almshouse of the Pastukhovs, the almshouse of A.I. Vakhrameev, the almshouse of M.M. Vakhrameeva, the Nicholas Orphanage for children of both sexes (Uglich, Yaroslavl Province), the Educational Orphanage (opened at the expense of the widow A.G. Baskakova and the merchant N.I. Tyumenev).

The Synthetic Method in I.I. Ioffe’s Historical and Cultural Researches of the 1930s-1940s

Sychenkova Lidia A.

The article discusses little-known publications of the Soviet scholar I.I. Ioffe of the late 1930s - 1940s, which have almost never been discussed in the acade­mic community and are a bibliographic rarity. Pheno­mena of the history of the Western and Russian culture were considered by I. Ioffe using his own synthetic me­thod. He successfully applied the developed methodology of research in the analysis of specific historical and cultural eras. The scientist paid attention to the phenomena of “synthesis of arts” in the French culture of the 18th - 19th centuries, exemplified by the works of J.L. David and M.J. Chenier, E. Zola, and also in the Russian culture of the 19th century, by the example of the works of N.V. Gogol and P.A. Fedotov. The interpretation of the iconography of “Dead Souls” made by I. Ioffe allowed him to identify the time of turn in the Russian painting. In the study context of the author of the articles “David and Chenier” (1939) “Zola and Naturalism” (1941) “Dead Souls and the Russian Realism” (1842-1942), “The Russian Renaissance” (1944), there were involved all spheres of artistic culture in their complex interaction. The topics and subjects of I. Ioffe’s articles are demanded again in the modern art history, literary stu­dies and cultural studies. The materials from this article allow filling the unfortunate gap in the national historio­graphy and cultural studies, and determining the true place of I. Ioffe’s conception and methodology among the studies of Russian historians and cultural theorists.

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