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ОБСЕРВАТОРИЯ КУЛЬТУРЫ

2588-0047

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение Российская государственная библиотека
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=25173

Content

Additional Education as the Main Resource for Developing the Sphere of Culture

Bakina Olga V.

Actualization of the role of the system of art edu-cation, aimed at identifying and teaching gifted children in the field of culture, the goal-setting of additional educational programs in the field of arts is caused by conceptual documents adopted at the highest state level over the past five years, as well as by sectoral bodies of state executive po-wer. Measures to implement the state cultural policy determine the reform of the system of art education for the long-term period and are aimed primarily at solving the problem of recreating the interaction vertical between regional cultural management authorities and municipalities concerning the functioning of children’s art schools and the prospects for their development, which is absent in a number of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. In the situation of management decentralization, which arose as a result of the division of powers between federal, regional and local government bodies, as well as the weakening of creative and methodical links between children’s art schools, professional and higher educational organizations, the root cause of which is, among other things, departmental disunity, some coordination of the activities of additional education institutions and cultural authorities of subjects of the Russian Fede-ration is assigned to regional educational and methodical (resource) centers. The article considers the modern problems of functioning and interaction of the institutions of additio-nal education in the sphere of culture (children’s art schools according to the types of arts) and additional professional education (educational and methodical centers). Particular attention is paid to the historically established relationship between the children’s art schools (according to the types of arts) and the educational and methodical centers (metho-dical offices), which are tasked with the scientific, methodical and information support of the activities of children’s art schools. On the basis of a retrospective analysis of the state of regional educational and methodical centers, a forecast is given for their development in the context of implementation of the state cultural policy at the stage of implementation of the Action Plan (“Road Map”) for the Perspective Development of Children’s Art Schools According to the Types of Arts for 2018-2022. This document, approved in January 2018, aims to bring together the efforts of the Ministry of Culture of Russia and the constituent entities of the Russian Fe-deration, emphasizes the task of preserving and developing the network of children’s art schools, which are the first link in the Russian three-tiered system of art education, which has no analogues in the world educational space. Based on the examples and performance indicators of children’s art schools in the Kirov Region, the author makes a forecast of the va-riability of decisions of the founders of regional educational and methodical centers in the post-reform period, emphasi-zes the importance of understanding the role of the arts education system, especially the additional, as the main resource for developing the cultural space of regions and whole country.

Artist’s Visual Representation of the Portrait of Hermann in A.S. Pushkin’s “Queen of Spades”

Kapitsa Vera F.

Among the Russian emigrants of the 1920s-1930s, there was a specific community of the representatives of artistic world who supported the tendency to preserve the national culture and at the same time sought to bring it into the world context, taking into account the creative sear-ches conducted at that time. One of those representatives of emigration was the painter, graphic and scenographer V.I. Shukhaev (1887-1973). It was in France where he deve-loped the conception of artist’s books that were perceived as special pieces of art, in which all elements of the book had their meaning. Two significant works of V.I. Shukhaev in the field of book graphics are associated with the name of A.S. Pushkin: those are the illustrations to the story “Queen of Spades” and the tragedy “Boris Godunov”. This article uses the French edition of 1923 of A.S. Pushkin’s “Queen of Spades” as a material for research. This edition was chosen because in there V.I. Shukhaev not only performed the illustrations, but also presented his own original vision of the work. He clarified and specified different individual features of the narrative construction of the story, using his inherent artistic language. The subject of this specific study is the originality of V.I. Shukhaev’s vision of the story’s main character - Hermann, the peculiarities of his portrait characteristics, and the methods of its organization. Consistent reading of the work is, undoubtedly, reflected in the illustrative space of the story. The artist almost creates his own perspective of the text vision, focusing on the dramatic component of the work. He uses the visuality of Pushkin’s image to bring out his own reader’s conception of reading the “Queen of Spades”. The article demonstrates basic working methods of the artist, who proved to be the successor of traditions and the innovator. As an illustrator, V.I. Shukhaev not only withstood the competition with French artists, but also made his own findings: he proposed the principle of installation in gra-phics, developed a new method of ink drawings, created a single artistic complex of the book from its cover to the last ending. V.I. Shukhaev proved that the design fully adequate to the author’s idea is possible only if the artist creates all the parts of the book’s image, subordinating them to a single creative conception.

Commemoration Phenomenon: An Experience of Culturological Analysis of Public Commemoration Practices (By the Example of Chelyabinsk Streets Naming)

Shub Maria L.

The notion of cultural memory is popular and rather well developed today. However, that cannot be said about the forms of its visualization - commemoration practices. The commemoration phenomenon, though drawing attention of scientists-humanists, is mainly comprehended in the practical plane (as a set of concrete memorial events and reactions to them). The article attempts to add a theoretical studying aspect to this research perspective. Several significant features form the basis of commemoration, distinguishing it from other ways of cultural memory visualization. Those features are publicity, collectivity, rituality, retro-orientation, axiological orientation and emotionality. Its structure is constituted by three interconnected elements: a core (the occasion of commemoration - a significant person, event, set of events, place, etc.), a symbol (the mythologema, which creates around the core a certain figurative-value space and is addressed to society, modeling the forms and ways of its existence) and a function (whose task is integration, identification, socialization, compensation, accumulation, etc.). On the basis of this three-part structure, a technique of analyzing specific commemoration practices is developed (by the example of Chelyabinsk streets naming). As a part of implementation of this technique, a number of criteria for analyzing the commemoration core are highlighted: territorial localization (regional, national or global), chronological localization (before the 20th century, the 20th century, the post-Soviet period), type (personality, event, place), subject (presentation of different spheres). The content analysis of empirical material (the names of 260 streets), conducted in accordance with the specified criteria, allows to allocate the most demanded commemorative symbols (“heritage” and “hero”) and to draw not only particular conclusions on specific directions of cultural memory preservation and promotion, but also the conclusions of a wider scale - on the value strategies of the modern cultural policy.

Contemporary Ways of Development in Visual Anthropology

Oganezov Aleksandr E.

Visual anthropology is a modern and perspective scientific discipline, involving a big number of researchers. Interdisciplinarity of visual anthropology involves the researchers from other different adjacent scientific disciplines and agents from different kinds of fine arts. New challenges for modern social and humanitarian sciences expect not only modernization of existing theoretical and methodological basis, but also a search of different new concepts for solving actual problems. The article presents specific themes of research in modern visual anthropology, such as anthropological cinema, anthropology of art, anthropology of design, applied visual anthropology. The article analyzes the main features and ways of development of scientific discipline, as well as theoretical and methodological conceptions. The most perspective ways of visual anthropological research among the social and humanitarian sciences are pointed out. The relevance of the article is in the structuring of the modern visual anthropology research theory and the analysis of the current ways of methodological practices and actual problems. The article appeals to modern theories and is based on relevant conceptions of development in visual anthropology as a scientific discipline. The article includes the literature of modern visual anthropologists, studying theoretical and practical aspects of scientific discipline. The research allows to confirm that the main specific feature of modern visual anthropology is interdisciplinarity, tendency for the collaboration between humanities and fine arts, expansion of visual sources and spheres of practical use. The most perspective ways of scientific discipline development are conditioned by these specifics.

Cultural Capital as a Driver of Art Consumption

Ushkarev Aleksandr A.

Modern sociology considers cultural capital as one of the essential factors of cultural consumption. However, using this concept in cultural-oriented empirical research is still very difficult because of the conceptual ambiguity of the term and the impossibility to measure cultural capital by methods traditionally used in the sociology of culture and art. The article considers the methodological problems of conceptualization of the concept of “cultural capital” from the point of view of cultural studies as one of the key drivers determining the volume and nature of cultural consumption. The semantic dominant of the article is substantiation and presentation of the practical experience in determining the quantitative measure of cultural capital, with the use of modern analytical methods, which was carried out by the author in the course of a large-scale concrete sociological study of the audience of visitors of the State Tretyakov Gallery. In the course of the study, several hypotheses were tested on the connection between the measure of cultural capital and the individual characteristics of its transmission and accumulation, as well as on its impact on the nature and extent of cultural consumption, in particular, the attendance of cultural and artistic institutions. The obtained results refute some well-established stereotypes about the influence of education and age on the consumption of art and clarify the ideas about behavioral characteristics of the audience of art museum. The findings of this study do not represent a particular result of an individual empirical experience; they reveal some common patterns of cultural consumption and fully fit into the broad context of the world practice of scienti-fic study of the audience of art. The results of the research clearly show the potential and high explanatory capacity of cultural capital as a driving factor of art consumption.

E.E. Lanceray’s Creative Work in the Georgian Democratic Republic (1920-1921)

Pavlinov Pavel S.

The article covers the beginning of the Georgian period in the life of the famous artist Eugene E. Lanceray (1875-1946), an active participant of the exhibitions “World of Art”, an academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts (1912). His work is divided into three periods: the Petersburg manor one (including his studying in Paris and trips abroad, in Dagestan in 1912 and the Caucasian front of the First World War), the Caucasian one (after moving to Dage­stan in November 1917) and the Moscow one (after the final move to Moscow in 1934). The Caucasian period, full of works of different genres and techniques, remains the least studied, because in the Soviet times, for ideological reasons, many of its episodes were concealed. Thus, almost nothing was known about E.E. Lanceray’s trip to Baku in July 1919, about his work in the Propaganda Department under the Government of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia from September 1919, and his stay in Novorossiysk in January-March 1920. Many documents, letters, portraits were withdrawn from public collections after the repressions of the 1920s-1930s. The article shows the active cultural life of the artist before the Sovietization of Georgia in February 1921, which was not fully covered either in O.I. Podobedova’s basic monograph about the creative work of the master (1961), or in generalizing studies on the history of Georgian arts. The picture is restored taking into account E.E. Lanceray’s diary entries and correspondence, stored in different archives.

Ethno-Cultural Identityas a Reality of Social Self-Understanding

Shvedova Irina V.

The article presents the ethno-cultural identity as a reality of social self-understanding. It is no-ted that the processes, associated with the globalization of cultural practices and erosion of the ethno-cultural identity of modern societies, actualize the question of the prospects of historical preservation of the very foundations of public life. The social meanings of human existence are preserved not only due to the new cultu-ral production; this production itself becomes possible, reliable and historically effective with ongoing comprehending of the roots of tradition, from which novation grows, including the one of visual forms of everyday and festive folk culture. The postmodern man of the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21st century has a weakened ability to perceive the value-visual codes of tradition, which causes the global simplification and individualization of social self-understanding. The absence of a natural practice of creative reflection on the particular visual material - directly or in the creative process - eliminates the perception of the value foundations of culture within the boundaries of the world of things, that as a result become valuable in themselves, as objects of sa-tisfaction of basic needs. The issue of historical preservation of the foundations of social life becomes, in essence, the question of ethno-cultural identity, actual reformatting of modern ethno-cultural practices, new initiatives of preservation of the traditional foundations of culture to save the “human capital” in the global world, which seeks, as far as possible, to preserve its humanitarian nature and historicity.

Hyperrealistic Body in the Modern Culture

Stroeva Olesya V.

The article analyzes the phenomenon of hyperrealistic body in the context of the phenomenological discourse of “corporeality”. In the non-classical aesthetics of the twentieth century, the interest in the body, considered as a philosophical category, was formed under the influence of phenomenologists of the second wave, and so the “corporeality” is remaining an actual problem of the postmodern discourse. Modern Western and Russian researchers strive for a synergistic synthesis of philosophy, neurophysiology and psychology, while analyzing the formation of subjectivity in the context of post-humanism trends growing. Especially important things are the understanding of the body category in the context of virtual reality’s influence on the modern man, the correlation of the virtual body and the real one, from which, in the opinion of the author, a new phenomenon of “hyperrealistic body” appears. On the one hand, virtuality is an impulse to the hypertrophied sensuality implemented by contemporary artists; on the other hand, it generates a “new vision” changed under the influence of virtual experience. Thus, the article considers the concept of “hyperrealistic body” in two aspects: as a phenomenon of consciousness, and as a genre of contemporary art - hyperrealistic sculpture. Due to the development of technology and the trends of post-humanism, the “hyperrealistic body” becomes a schizophrenic desire of hypersensitivity, a limit of the hypertrophied visibility of reality, a simulacrum and illusion of the integrity of the body without organs, a degradation of the perceiving subject’s imagination. From the perspective of futuristic cultural studies, it is a significant phenomenon, another key step in the aesthetic activity of humanity to create their own artificial reality; the next step of this will obviously be the animation of artificial body, which brings us back to the problems of post-humanism. The author concludes that the illusion produced by a robot simulating a natural body endowed with some artificial “I” can be quite naturally built into the perception of modern man.

Media Communications in the Promotion of Art and Artists

Kartseva Ekaterina A.

For successful work, people need to be able to build communications with their audience in the conditions of constantly changing, highly competitive environment. In today’s world, which has become a global media space, art business and culture are no exception. The art market has a need to create a special information field. Starting from the era of modernism, the information function of the art market has been getting increasingly important. In art, the name expresses the brand, and this tendency can be already found in the promotion of impressionists by the marchands Paul Durand-Ruel, Georges Petit, Ambroise Vollard. Today as well, the demand for the artist largely depends on the information support of their life and work. The article analyzes the growing role of media in the promotion of artists, with an emphasis on the cultural analysis within the evolution of various artistic and aesthetic concepts from the late 19th to the early 21st century, as well as the issues related to the understanding of new media, and their role in the art process. In the Russian applied cultural studies, this seems to be a promising direction, which has not yet been properly developed. The author comes to the conclusion that media communications play an important role in promoting artistic trends and artists, no matter what aesthetic direction we are talking about. The artist’s appearance on the covers of reputable publications, their citations in the media, interviews with them are a part of this artist’s career, along with their exhibition portfolio, representation in collections and auction statistics. In some cases, media are also a way to legitimize art directions. At the turn of the 20th - 21st centuries, with the development of multimedia technologies and the Internet, it is possible to say that the system of art market with a vertical hierarchy, developed in the twentieth century, has shifted to horizontal connections and convergence between various participants of artistic communications. At the same time, the use of media technologies in the modern art process has no connection with the quality of artistic product, but is equally important for everyone.

Monograph on the Origins of Book Culture

Dulikov Vyacheslav Z.

The article presents a review of the monograph by Yu.N. Stolyarov “The Origins of Book Culture” (Che-lyabinsk, ChGIK Publ., 2017, 500 p.), which opens a new direction in cultural studies and book science. The four main origins of book culture are investigated: myths of different peoples of the world about writing being divinely sent down, folklore, religion, and epos. The author formulates the initial scientific approaches that allow to answer the key questions concerning the subject of the study: the oral word preceded the appearance of writing; the word and writing are the result of human mental activity; writing is the grea-test invention of mankind, bright and most significant factor of a “homo culturae”; the oral folk art is an inexhaustible source of data on the pre-writing period and first elements of written culture; the concept of “book” should be considered widely, as any carrier of information on something; myths of different peoples of the world, works of oral folk art, basic theological primary sources allow to find out the approximate time of origin of any given people’s writing; the East Slavs had had at least some elements of writing before the introduction of the Cyrillic alphabet. The article highly appreciates the fundamental monograph by Yu.N. Stolyarov, which introduces a new direction in studying the history of the world book culture - the background to its emergence, reflected in mythology, folklore, religions, and epics. Bringing evidence of the existence of writing and literacy among the Slavs in the pre-Cyrillic era is a special merit of the author.

Policy in Relation to the Other: Between Functionalism and Structuralism

Shemanov Aleksey Yu.

The article discusses the changes in interpretation of the policy in relation to the Other in education system, which are connected with the transition from integration to inclusion. On the one hand, studying these changes is relevant due to the recent legislative consolidation of the policy of inclusion in Russian education after the ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the adoption of a new law on education in Russia. On the other hand, the theoretical context of this shift from integration policy to inclusion remains insufficiently clarified in its philosophical bases, which was the task of this work. These shifts are considered in the context of transformations in social sciences of the dominant theoretical context for interpretation of the Other and its place in society. This transformation is interpreted as the transition from functionalism to structuralism and to social constructionism, based on the linguistic metaphor of culture proposed by structuralism. The dichotomy of functionalism and social constructionism, based on the linguistic metaphor of culture, is considered in the context of Ch. Taylor’s conception of the theories of modernity (cultural and acultural) and the conception of culture as openness to the Other (L.S. Chernyak). This approach determines both the method of studying the research problem and the novelty of the results. The interpretation of a norm, rationality, relation to the Other in the framework of integration or inclusion policy depends on understanding of culture either rather as a continuity of reproduced and transformed lifestyles (dominance of time paradigm) or rather as a variety of self-contained life-worlds with their own customs, cultural codes etc. (dominance of space paradigm). Moreover, the transition from integration to inclusion and, accordingly, from functionalism to social constructionism can be understood as an expression of the spatial turn in social sciences and humanities. The key point of the approach to solving the problem of cultural foundations of the policy in relation to the Other in education is the understanding of culture as a project of human freedom, in which human beings implement their openness to the Other.

Pushkin as a “Connoisseur of Life”: The Main Profiles in the Amalgam of Pushkin’s Philosophical Preferences

Krasikov Vladimir I.

The article studies the outlined by previous researchers range of statements and characteristics from A.S. Pushkin’s works, which relate to the worldview ideas, principles and meanings taking place in Pushkin’s period. The subject of the study is their philosophical component. The author carries out a value differentiation of A.S. Pushkin’s philosophical preferences in the context of the worldview interests of his era, and defines their main profiles as “familiar”, “unacceptable” and “neutral”. The article uses analysis and scientific reflection as metho-dological tools, and for its empirical material, it takes works of the specialists in different areas of the Humanities, devoted to this topic. The provided analytical and reflexive material is structured by means of typification and classification, which allows the author to investigate the lo-gic of the worldview and ideological evolution of the poet and the role of philosophy in it, and to offer his own interpretation of this. The author also contributes to the deve-lopment of this topic with the argumentation of the hypo-thesis of originality of the artistic reflection and reflexivity (in comparison with the philosophical reflection and reflexivity).

The Fate of the Main Iconostasis of the Church of Three Hierarchs at the Red Gate

Maksimova Galina A.

The article is devoted to the history of rescuing from destruction in the 1920s, during the era of re-volutionary transformations in Russia, of a magnificent work of the Old Russian art, six-tiered baroque ico-nostasis, created by icon-painters of the circle of the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin for the Church of Three Hierarchs at the Red Gate in Moscow in the beginning of the 18th century. The names of the specialists related to preservation of the main iconostasis of the destroyed Church of Three Hierarchs were newly revealed, and the dates of the Church’s closing and demolishing, the iconostasis’ transportation and handover were ve-rified as well, using the results of research work and archival searches, based on the analysis and comparison of numerous archival documents. The main moments of the dramatic struggle for salvation of the Church of Three Hierarchs, the Red Gate and the main iconostasis of the Church are reflected in the article. There is shown how, in the difficult and dangerous conditions of confrontation of the church and the Bolshevik power, the process of transferring of the main treasure of the Church was organized, as well as who and when transported the iconostasis to the Church of St. John the Warrior in Yakimanka Street. The article reviews the selfless work and the heroic deeds of the art historians, architects and restorers, thanks to whose efforts this remarkable monument of carving and painting was saved.

The Literary Myth of Facundo Quiroga in the Cultural Worldview of Argentines

Larikova Yulia A.

By the time of declaring their independence, Latin American countries had formed an enlightened class that was fundamentally different from its predecessors in terms of autonomy in relation to state power. Despite ideological differences, their common mission was to draw up a “symbolic map” of the newly formed republics, endowing the vast, ethnically and socially heterogeneous space of the native land with new cultural meanings. On American soil, writers, poets, historians and publicists of the second half of 19th century had first to rethink such political concepts as “state” and “nation”, established in the European consciousness. To solve this problem, the writers borrowed formal methods and techniques longstanding in Europe. Thus, within the framework of Latin American social romanticism, the search for national identity was accomplished by turning to myth. The article deals with the experience of literary myth-making in the works of Argentine followers of romanticism. The main material of this linguoculturological study is the program work of the educator and statesman Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1811-1888) “Civilization and Barbarism: The Biography of Juan Facundo Quiroga, and the Physical Appearance, Customs and Mores of the Argentine Republic”. Published in 1845, in the midst of a longtime civil strife in Argentina, it gained success among the compatriots as a cruel pamphlet against the leader of that time, Governor of Buenos Aires Province J.M. de Rosas, whose personal authority in the regions had been based on the brute force of the Caudillo. Meanwhile, the deep meaning of the text is embodied in the central figure of the narrative, “the evil Gaucho” Facundo Quiroga. On the historical material of the civil war of the first third of the 19th century, the writer created a mythical epic hero, designed to personify the underlying movement of the young Argentine nation. During the structural analysis of the myth of the charismatic people’s leader Facundo, the article highlights the mythological hypostases of this complex artistic image, which organically combines the features of a primal ancestor, a totem, a trickster and a hero. The author concludes on the role of literary myth as a cultural mediator of Argentine society.

The Song Liturgical Hymn and the Ways of Developing the Genre in the Modern Practice of the Roman Catholic Church

Fidenko Yulia L.

The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) formulated the principles of parishioners’ active participation in the liturgical and pastoral life of the Church. The introduction of congregational singing into the Catholic Church service led to a significant rethinking of the cult repertoire. The hymns of Proprium, which have not yet received a unified name in the Russian liturgical practice, became one of the leading genres of collective performance in the mass. In connection with the significant changes in hymnography that took place in the twentieth century, the concept of “song liturgical hymn” is introduced. It refers to the liturgical chanting in the national language for communal performance in the procession sections of the reformed mass. The article analyzes the hymns of the modern composers G. Gsel “You Are My Good Shepherd” and P. Bebenek “Glory to You, Lord”, deeply rooted in activities of the Russian Catholic parishes.In the song liturgical hymn the traditional signs of Church chants are supplemented by attributes of secular culture. The indissoluble connection with the Church environment and the subordination to the liturgical tasks bring the new hymn-creating closer to the temple practice. The modern hymns are stylistically distanced from household music, but at the same time absorb some attributes of song. It is emphasized that the genre dominant of Church chants is constant; it has not changed for centuries. In the song liturgical hymn, the new conditions of performance influence the reintonation of the genre heritage.The Second Vatican Council marked the beginning of the integration movement and gave impetus to the expansion of the musical vocabulary of the service. The official permission of national idioms in the Church practice played a significant role in changing today’s repertoire. The definition of “song liturgical hymn” reflects the new position of the Holy See regarding the direct participation of parishioners in the mass.

V.V. Rozanov about “The Last Times” of Russia at the End of the First World War

Lomonosov Aleksey V.

The article reveals the actual significance of V.V. Rozanov’s thoughts, recorded in his archive heri-tage. Those thoughts are relevant to determine the objective assessment of the events that took place in the theater of operations of the First World War and their impact on the future of Russia. It is noted that the attitude of the thin-ker was changing while moving to the final of the combat campaign. These facts are reflected in his famous “Apo-calypse of our Time”. In the process of increasing the number of military defeats at the front, V.V. Rozanov in his texts less and less believed in a successful outcome of the war. His first thoughts about what had happened did not see the light during the life of the writer and survived only in his literary-epistolary archive, part of which is stored in the Manuscripts Department of the Russian State Library. For the first time, a significant fragment of V.V. Rozanov’s letter to his eldest daughter Tatyana is published, telling about the imminent tragedy that threatened the country after the army’s defeat. V.V. Rozanov saw that a significant role in Russia’s military failures was played by the corrupting liberal and revolutio-nary press, its influence on the public consciousness. It was not only he who foresaw the catastrophic finale. In this regard, the article gives an analogy with the ideas of his newspaper colleague, journalist M.O. Menshikov, who entrusted his thoughts in the last months of the war only to his Diary. The studies reveal much in common not only in their individual lives, but also in the attitudes and views on the historical process in the last literary creations of the thinkers.

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