ОБСЕРВАТОРИЯ КУЛЬТУРЫ

2588-0047

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение Российская государственная библиотека
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=25173

Content

Aleksandr Tvardovsky’s Journal “New World” in Memoirs

Ostroumova Tatiana O.

The article is devoted to the history of the journal “New World” of the second half of the 1950s - the 1960s, and the work of its chief editor A.T. Tvardovsky. It focuses on the second period of Tvardovsky’s editorship, the first part of which fell on the era of “thaw” (1958-1964), the second one - on the era of early “stagnation” (1965-1970). The article assesses the professional qualities of A.T. Tvardovsky as an editor. There are considered his literary preferences, attitude to the editorial work, and the factors that influenced the radical changes in his worldview. The author examines the editorial policy of the journal in the context of political changes in public life. Within the topic, the article shows the impact of various party and state bodies, including censorship, on culture and, in particular, on literature. There is traced the outline of events around “New World” journal, the publication history of the novel “One Day of Ivan Denisovich”, and the relations between A.T. Tvardovsky and A.I. Solzhenitsyn. There is analyzed the controversy surrounding A.I. Solzhenitsyn’s book “The Oak and the Calf”. The article notes the different level of publications’ information content of the “stagnation” and perestroika eras.The purpose of the study is to determine the place of Tvardovsky’s “New World” in the literary and political struggle of the second half of the 1950s - the 1960s, and the journal’s impact on the worldview formation of the generation of intellectuals, who played a significant role in the restructuring of the 1980s. The article is relevant because the journal “New World” of the second half of the 1950s - the 1960s occupies one of the central places in the history of Russian Soviet literature and journalism. A.T. Tvardovsky’s “New World” was the most consistent conductor of the policy of de-Stalinization in the “thaw” era, and continued the chosen course, despite Brezhnev’s policy of re-Stalinization, thus becoming a legal journal opposing the current government. The novelty of the article lies in the fact that this topic is studied using memoir sources: recollections and diaries of the events’ participants - famous writers, literary critics, members of the Editorial Board and employees of the journal “New World” - as well as A.T. Tvardovsky’s “Workbooks” and “New World Diary”. These sources allow to supplement the known facts and to reconstruct events related to the legendary journal’s history. Conclusions and observations made by the author can be used to further study the history and work of “New World” journal.

A.S. Pushkin’s Works in the Graphics of M.V. Dobuzhinsky

Zavyalova Anna E.

The article introduces into scientific discourse, and examines a number of M.V. Dobuzhinsky’s works: it traces the process of working on them, identifies their sources (literary and visual), analyzes the stylistic features and the specifics of the graphic techniques. These tasks are performed within the context of interaction between literature and fine arts. This topic is relevant because M.V. Dobuzhinsky’s illustrations to the stories “Stationmaster” and “Squire’s Daughter”, the play “Covetous Knight”, and the poem “Magnificent City, Poor City...” by A.S. Pushkin are studied as works of fine art for the first time.The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that it introduces an experience of defining the stylistic affiliation of the said works, and reveals a number of their visual sources. The author uses the method of complex analysis, combining the source analysis of M. Dobuzhinsky’s memoirs and his letters, the works of the artist’s contemporaries devoted to the Russian art of the beginning of the 20th century, and the traditional formal analysis of his works in comparison with those of Rembrandt, A. Benois, A. Dürer, F. Tolstoy, Japanese engravings of the 18th - beginning of the 19th century. This allows a significant expansion of existing ideas about visual and literary sources of the artist’s works.The article reveals that Rembrandt’s etching “View of Amsterdam from the Northwest” influenced the artistic solution of the illustration “In the Carriage” for the story “Stationmaster”; Hiroshige’s sheets influenced the illustration “Vyrin at the Entrance of Minsky’s House” for the same story. A. Dürer’s woodcuts influenced the solution of the illustration “Scene 1” for the play “Covetous Knight”; F. Tolstoy’s silhouettes influenced the vignettes and the artistic solution of the illustrations and decorations for the story “Squire’s Daughter”. The article also finds that H.Ch. Andersen’s tales “The Old House” and “The Old Street Lamp” had predetermined M. Dobuzhinsky’s appeal to the story “Stationmaster”, and the graphic solution of St. Petersburg in the picture “View of the St. Petersburg House”. The author concludes that M. Dobuzhinsky’s illustrating of Pushkin’s works was in line with his intense creative experiments: searching for a new solution to the image of St. Petersburg in book graphics, rethinking and “quoting” the masters of the past.

Chinghiz Aitmatov’s Humanistic Principles in On-Screen Interpretations: A Dialogue of Cultures

Kirillova Natalya B.

The purpose of this article is to actua­lize the humanistic principles of Chinghiz Aitmatov (1928-2008), one of the brightest writers and humanists of the 20th century, whose 90th birth anniversary is being celebrated by the world community. The article considers the problems of on-screen interpretations of Chinghiz Aitmatov’s works in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The author considers interpreting of literary classics not only as a “translation” of a work from the language of one art into the language of another, but also as a “dialogue of cultures” (according to M. Bakhtin) - in this case, the book one (culture of the word) and the screen one (audiovisual culture). The article uses the historical-comparative and interdisciplinary methods: the artistic and cultural approaches are combined with the method of lite­rary analysis of texts. The chosen research topic is relevant due to both the revival of interest in Ch. Aitmatov’s works, which raised the problems of “cultural me­mory” and “cultural identity” to the rank of universal, and the increase of scientific interest in the issues of on-screen interpretations. The article analyzes the films by A. Konchalovsky, G. Bazarov, L. Shepitko, I. Poplavskaya, S. Urusevsky, T. Okeev, B. Shamshiev, K. Gevorkyan, B. Karagulov, and other directors who filmed Aitmatov’s prose. The author concludes that on-screen interpretations are able to “actualize” and “moder­nize” the classics in the era of globalization; and the task of the interpreter is extremely complex and responsible.The article has three main sections. The first one, “In Line with the ‘Sixties’”, considers the proximity of young Aitmatov’s works to the search and discovery of the artists of the “Thaw” period. The second one, “How a Man Can Be a Man...”, reveals the features of the worldview of the writer who rethinks the Soviet reality, which changes the atmosphere of the films based on his works. In the third section “From Drama to Philosophical Parable”, the author focu­ses on the strengthening of moral and philosophical problematics in Aitmatov’s works, which complicates the artistic image of on-screen adaptations and makes them a kind of mirror of the era of social upheaval.

Culture in the Digital Civilization: A New Stage in Understanding the Future Strategy for Sustainable Development

Astafyeva Olga N., Nikonorova Ekaterina V., Shlykova Olga V.

The current situation is determined by a plurality of uncertainties of social, economic, environmental and technological nature, which cause instability of development and form a new stage of social development conventionally called digital civi­lization. The ambiguity of interpretation of this term is also reflected in its derivatives, and this fully applies to the concept of digital economy.Development of the digital infrastructure, transition to the network principles of communication, and personalization of the Internet, are the factors that change the ethical principles and foundations of social and cultural interaction. The issue of individual and collective cultural practices and behavior models based on the new hierarchy of values is of particular relevance in social and humanitarian knowledge. In the information society, the dramatization of trust and the vulnerability of freedom testify to the society's transition to a new quality - “normal anomie”.Basing on the analysis of scientific projects, documents, some forecasts and development scenarios of the digital economy and its social consequences, this study aims to trace the reflection of the relationship between the digital economy and culture, and to identify the ways that reflect the inclusion of culture in digital economy development programs. In this case, culture can be considered in the context of these programs as an element of infrastructure, and an institutional contour, representing a part of human and technological capital.The authors' ideas are concentrated around the search for the grounds of the transformational changes taking place in scientific research, educational and cultural practices that have potential to form a sustainable cultural context of the digital civilization, which will be supported in order to prevent the pressure of the processes generated by technology that lead to “dehumanization” of development.The applied part of the study reveals one aspect of “digital culture” - its ability to saturate network multimedia spaces with meanings and values. This increases the requirements for the quality of information on open national cultural resources - websites of libraries, cultural and recreational centers, museums, departmental portals.The article pays special attention to the analysis of consistency of the tasks on scientific-technical and technological “breakthrough” with the humanistic values of development at the initial stage of implementation of the project of “digital economy of Russia”. These transformations require community to formulate a clear and intelligible position on the humanistic imperative of developing the digital economy and digital civilization in Russia and the world. At this stage, it is still possible to identify what kind of adjustment this project needs, partial or thorough, in order to avoid ending up in a situation of value-semantic chaos, losing the main thing - socio-cultural human component of the next stage of epochal changes. There is a need for a public examination of the Digital Economy Development Program in Russia, and more coordinated, targeted civil society activities to preserve cultural and human capital.

Gothic Revival and the Possibility of “Gothic Survival”

Degtyarev Vladislav V.

The notion of “Gothic survival” is still prevalent in literature on Gothic revival architecture in England. This concept implies the possibility of the unreflexive survival of Gothic architectural tradition in some distant provincial regions, where architects, searching connections with the past or folk traditions, could find it. This notion, dating back to the literature of the beginning of the 20th century, can be convincingly refuted by analyzing the meanings and purposes of different stages of Gothic revival. The article aims to demonstrate that the use of Gothic architectural forms in the second half of the 17th - beginning of the 18th century was initiated by intellectuals and had no connection to the preservation of artisan traditions.The courtiers of Elizabeth I, re-enacting mediaeval romances and Arthurian legends, conducted the earliest known Gothic revival. The relation between Eli­zabethan architecture and Gothic tradition has been discussed many times. And in later decades - du­ring the Stuart era, the Commonwealth and after the Restoration - Gothic colleges and churches were extensively built.Basing on the sources available, it can be assumed that, though there was not any chronological break in Gothic architectural tradition, Gothic revival had been ideologically biased from its very beginning. We can also say that the spread of classical architecture in England not only was unable to destroy the Gothic tradition, but also gave it new meanings and almost immediately made any appeal to Gothic forms an ideological statement.

Human in a Dystopian World: The Approaches of W. Golding and C. McCarthy

Sapozhnikova Yulia L.

The article compares the views of the English writer W. Golding and the American novelist and playwright C. McCarthy on the human in a dystopian world. This work is relevant due to the undying interest in this genre and the lack of research on this topic. It is possible to compare the novels Lord of the Flies by W. Golding (1954) and The Road by C. McCarthy (2006), since in both the works the main characters are children / a child, and one of the key themes is the theme of road / movement. The chronotope of these novels is si­milar: the authors do not specify neither the cause of the catastrophe, nor the time of the events; the past is represented by a series of flashbacks. The space in the texts is limited and mainly cha­racterized by words from the same thematic groups. The characters, finding themselves in extreme conditions, almost completely lose their humanity and, in their behavior, are likened to animals.However, the authors’ views on the human are different. According to W. Golding, the good constantly struggles with the evil within a person, and you can cope with the evil beginning, if only controlled by some restraining public settings. C. McCarthy believes that love helps people to preserve humanity. In order to fully reveal their own vision of the topic, both the writers resort to a symbolic interpretation of the fire, which W. Golding transforms from a tool of salvation into a means of destruction, and C. McCarthy, on the contrary, makes it a means of not only guaranteeing physical survival, but also helping to preserve the soul and faith.

Incentives for Reading in the System of Socio-Cultural Regulation of Reading Activity

Askarova Violetta Ya., Sinetsky Sergey B., Tsukerman Vladimir S.

The intensity and content of reading activity largely determine the objective processes of social development; at the same time, it is affected by the system of social regulation of reading behavior, which is carried out by institutional and non-institutional spheres. The lack of significant results testifying to the effectiveness of the program-project activity that has been intensified in recent years in Russia in support and development of reading is largely due to the lack of a system of ideas on the incentives that encourage people to practice certain actions that promote reading.Institutional regulation, represented by a system of power structures, official social and communicative institutions, is implemented through directive, regulatory, normative and legal documents, cultural policies that define the cultural landscape, as well as positioning of reading infrastructure institutions. The latter ones are currently characterized by a tendency to use soft methods of inducing reading on the basis of subject-subject interaction with real and potential readers using their specific means of influence. Advertising and propaganda technologies, methods and means of social technology and social engineering, social planning and forecasting, elements of management psychology are increasingly used. In the non-institutional sphere of regulation, the stimulation of reading activity is realized on the basis of traditions, customs, habits, moods, value representations. The dominant role is played here by the social environment: family, circle of direct communication, reference and subculture groups, networked readership communities.The institutional and non-institutional spheres interact, reflecting each other in their own way; knowledge of the processes taking place in the sphere of public initiative will enable reading infrastructure institutions to harmonize their activities, bringing it into a state corresponding to the real needs of various groups of potential or real readers on the basis of socio-psychological mechanisms of communication, recommendations of “significant others”, various manifestations of fashion in reading.The article shows that, in the system of reading support and development, it is necessary to identify and name the most effective incentives determined by the socio-cultural context; the incentives generated by the sphere of institutional regulation at the level of power structures and reading infrastructure institutions, as well as the incentives spontaneously formed in the sphere of non-institutional regulation of reading activity. What is happening in the non-institutional sphere should become an important guideline for the institutional sphere to adjust its own activities and find the most effective management decisions and means of interaction with readers.

Paradigm Shift: Libraries in the Context of Digital Humanities (Foreign Experience)

Savitskaya Tatiana E.

The article analyzes the new status of Western libraries within the framework of Di­gital Humanities (DH), a volumetric trend coup­led with a radical change in the existing scienti­fic para­digm. The concept of DH, connected with the use of the methods of computer-aided text ana­lysis, processing of large data sets, digital mapping and 3D modeling in historical, linguistic and cultu­ral studies, affected libraries in the whole range of their inherent functions: custodians of cultu­ral heritage, providers of scientific communication, and centers for know­ledge organization and dissemination.The article aims to compensate the lack of publications, existing in Russian library science, both on the conceptual grounds and the practice of productive cooperation of libraries and DH-projects. The author reveals the content of the cardinal reform of the essence of library work under the auspices of digital science (e-science), associated with the growing complexity of the information environment, the large amounts of heterogeneous data, the interactive potential of modern information and communication technologies, and the personalization of user interfaces. The article classifies the types of cooperation between libraries and DH-projects, reducible to three main models: service, laboratory and network. The range of services provided by libraries to DH-project developers is analyzed: from initial consulting, access to electronic storage infrastructure, management of digital projects, finding grants and applying for them, to promotion, marketing and professional computer assistance.The article presents positive examples of library rebranding as a place for avant-garde scientific research, synergy of methods and research strategies for exact and human sciences. The list of responsibi­lities of library DH-centers is considered: building digital collections for scientific or educational purposes; creating tools for databases identification, formation, and analysis; management of research process, support of websites, digital publication and storage of research results; organization of training in the field of DH, creation of lecture courses and programs, organization of seminars and conferen­ces, cooperation with similar structural units of other institutions.

Philosophical and Ethical Intensions of the Category of Heroic in L.N. Tolstoy’s Early Works

Berestovskaya Diana S.

Texts of culture, which act as “generators of meaning”, are associated by Yu.M. Lotman, in his work “The History and Typology of Culture”, with the problem of memory that makes possible the reconstruction of the history of culture from its synchronic slices.The study of L.N. Tolstoy’s early works allows to judge the figurative character of the philosophical ethical intentions of the category of heroic that were embodied in the topic of “man and war”.The category of heroic is reflected in the concept of ancient philosophers - Plato (“Dialogues”), Aristotle (“Ethics”, “Poetics”), in the treatise by G. Bruno (“The Heroic Frenzies”), in the philosophy of G.W.F. Hegel (“Aesthetics”), and others. In the context of developing the idea of “man and war” and revealing Leo Tolstoy’s interest in ancient philosophy, the article aims to explore the embodiment of these intentions in the works of the great writer and to note the peculiar “echoes” of his thoughts about justice, courage or cowardice in battle by the examples of his works (the story “Raid”, “Caucasian Stories”, and others). Special attention should be paid to “Sevastopol Stories” created during the Crimean (Eastern) War by L.N. Tolstoy, an artillery officer who served in the most dangerous place of the Sevastopol defense (the 4th bastion). They reveal the essence of “true” and “false” courage, the relations between artillery soldiers and junior officers, the theme of the feat and other problems, which was later developed in the epic novel “War and Peace”.The article actualizes the issue of traditions (from Plato to Hegel), the development of Leo Tolstoy’s ideas, the analysis of human behavior in a situation of mortal danger, the problem of the heroic and the tragic, reflected in the “military” prose of writers - participants of the Great Patriotic War: Yu.V. Bondarev, V.V. Bykov, G.Ya. Baklanov, V.O. Bogomolov, K.D. Vorobyov, K.M. Simonov, and others.

Small Historic Town as an Object of Cultural Heritage

Belozor Alina F.

The uniqueness of a historic town lies in its ancient origin (the middle of the 18th century and earlier); in the preserved historical, cultural and architectural environment; in the relationship of the town with significant historical events of the country; in the traditional folk crafts and arts that exist to the present time. It is positioned as a unique heritage site containing the main socio-cultural characteristics of the nation.Since the 1980s, some authors’ works have been attempting to scientifically substantiate the phenomenon of small historic town as a potential of cultural heritage in the context of its socio-cultural significance for the state, society and local community, with its advantages and problems.The purpose of this study is to show the potential of small historic town in the state cultural policy implementation. An analysis of various scientific approaches to the content of the concept of “historic town” is presented. The terminological chain “cultural resource”, “cultural resource of economic activity” and “object of historical and cultural heritage” is also included in the context of the article.The importance of historic towns in the training, education and enlightenment of citizens is invaluable. Scientifically based conclusions and official documents state that the majority of small historic towns cannot solve the accumulated problems on their own. A significant number of historical and cultural monuments require restoration.The inclusion of the potential of small historic town into the socio-cultural space should be carried out on the basis of programs of heritage preservation, development of tourism, folk arts and crafts, publication of the results of historical and cultural studies, creation of a complex of scientific documentaries and TV programs.The experience of Great Britain in protection of cultural heritage is considered.The article analyzes the Russian legislative acts over the past 50 years in relation to architectural monuments, historic towns and settlements. The author focuses on the recent evolution of approaches to the management of historical and cultural heritage of Russia.The obtained data demonstrate that regional executive authorities can become the coordinators of activities in the field of cultural heritage protection and tourism; and local authorities can be the organizers.

The Reader’s Interest of Seminarians during the Period of Social Rise in the Second Half of the 19th - Early 20th Century

Popova Olga D.

The article analyzes the reader’s interests of students of theological seminaries of the second half of the 19th - early 20th century. Libraries were a mandatory element of the functioning of theological seminaries. Memoirs of the seminarians provided the background for the present article. The author analyzes the state policy on formation of the ideological education of children of the clergy. The article describes the content of the libraries of theological seminaries and the mechanisms for their replenishment. The study is aimed to demonstrate that the library collections did not meet the interests of seminarians, and the reading circle of young people was being influenced by the social rise in Russia in the second half of the 19th century. Revolutionary populists were greatly affecting the reader’s interests. The students of seminaries were willing to read the works of leading authors of that time: H.T. Buckle, H. Spencer, N.K. Mikhaylovsky, N.G. Chernyshevsky, D.I. Pisarev. An analysis of archival documents demonstrates that the government attempted to monitor what students read in theological seminaries. Books of the leading authors were banned and withdrawn. The seminarians sought to create their own reading circle. Therefore, many students made attempts to visit city libraries, to take books from friends and acquaintances, to create their own secret collections.The article reveals the history of secret libraries in Kostroma and Vladimir. The study helps to understand that the authors of the memoirs shared their reader’s interests in order to show the impact of reading books by progressive authors. Most of the memoirs’ authors claimed that the interest in the clandestine circles had been caused by a desire to diversify the monotonous daily life in seminaries. Seminarians read forbidden literature because of their interest in current problems of Russia and society.

Unknown Pages of Pyotr Staronosov and Nikolay Kotov’s Artistic Trip to the Pamir Mountains in 1932

Abbasova Galina E.

The article is dedicated to artistic trips of Soviet painters and graphic artists to Central Asia - a bright and, at present, practically unknown phenomenon of the Soviet Union’s artistic life. The article aims to fill, at least in part, the gap existing in the study of the USSR’s artistic life of the 1930s. It focuses on the trip of Pyotr Staronosov and Nikolay Kotov, as members of the Academy of Science’s expedition to the Pamir Mountains, in 1932. According to previously unpublished archival materials and soviet periodicals, the author reproduces the route of the artists, shows the specifics of creative work in the expedition, describes and analyzes little-known paintings of Pyotr Staronosov and Nikolay Kotov.The article deals with technical and artistic problems faced by Staronosov and Kotov in the Pamirs: from the choice of tools and paints to the problems of spatial perspective construction and color transfer. The artists’ creative experiments were largely due to the specific nature of the Pamirs: the variety of landscapes with plains and rocks changed the perception of space, and the Eastern sun transformed colors, opening a vast field for experiments with the palette. In addition, the appearance of local residents, their way of life, clothing and jewelry were strikingly different from the European realities. In this regard, the painters were looking for a line between the ethnographic approach and the complete denial of the traditional East, often found among artists and writers of that time.The article also focuses on the reporting exhibition “Tajik SSR - the Pamirs”, organized on the basis of the artistic trip. Hundreds of drawings and sketches created by the artists during the trip to the Pamirs provide an opportunity for further in-depth research.

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