The article analyses the principles and rules of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus regulating local self-government. The author proves that the constitutional provisions determine the constitutional and legal essence of local self-government, they are fundamental for establishing the procedure of individual’s participation in state and public affairs at the local level, they establish the legal basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies as a kind of public authority, they define the tasks of local self-government for the exercise of the constitutional human rights and freedoms. The requirements for the legal regulation of local self-government that follow from the Constitution are also considered in the article.
GORBONOS F., PAVLENCHYK N., PAVLENCHYK A.
The article presents the economic essence of the principles and considers their importance and meaning in the process of the establishment and activity of cooperatives. Scientific novelty of the paper lies in its methodological approach, which, unlike the existing one, discovers the mechanism of cooperative principles in managing the establishment and functioning processes, and represents cooperatives as carriers and regulators of internal relationships. Mechanism foundation development elaborates the operation of the principles and provides the opportunity for optimal relationship modeling for well-defined organization and cooperatives’ efficiency enhancement.
New legislation in the sphere of civil service of Ukraine requires new mechanisms to evaluate the performance of a large number of officials of various public agencies. At the same time, the implementation of this assessment assumes a Standard procedure, which should provide a quantitative performance evaluation of civil servants. At the same time, there are certain remarks and limitations to the methodology that underlies the design of the Standard procedure. The article proposes to consider the issues of defining the indicators for assessing the performance of civil servants on the basis of performance indicators of government authorities.
VISHNEVSKAYA V., MEDVEDEV A.
The article deals with the topical issues of professiography and considers the variety of definitions and the polemic character of the designated problem. It also provides the results of a social-psychological research aimed to identify the dominant psychological characteristics of the specialist individuality that contribute to the effective task performance under extreme conditions. The authors develop recommendations on psychological occupational selection of candidates for positions in the national security system.
The article provides information about the main directions of the activities of the local councils of deputies, including the increased energies of the local public self-administration authorities, their role in solving social and economic problems in regional development and the issues of the population sustainment. The dynamic cooperation of the Parliament with the bodies of local self-government is realized by improving the legal framework of their activities, promoting regional interests and coordinating the activities of all government agencies. Parliamentarians regularly participate in the sessions of local Councils; collaborate in conducting a dialogue with society on all matters fundamental for both the country and its distinct regions.
The article analyzes the essence of commercial tenancy agreement. Since most of the norms of housing legislation are mandatory, it is justified that the subject and term of the contract should be added to the essential terms of the contract. The article also points out the defects in current housing legislation regulating commercial tenancy, and makes suggestions for its improvement.
SIMCHANKA Ed., SHABAL Yu.
The study is based on the analysis of global trends in the development of factoring, information on the activities of factoring companies and approaches of OECD experts in methods and tools of financing small and medium-sized businesses. The article shows that factoring is a range of financial services to ensure reliable payments and stabilize cash flows between trading counterparties, including invoice discounting, provision of funding, collection of receivables, implementation of financial management functions. It also considers the preferred uses of factoring services for small and medium business and its benefits for exporters and importers. It is proposed to analyze the possibilities and effectiveness of factoring for each of the participants-suppliers, factors and buyers, as well as assess the impact of factoring on the stability of trade and financial flows and on the economic situation of the companies at the national level. The authors make a conclusion about the great potential of the development of domestic and international factoring for small and medium-sized businesses, especially for fast-growing companies and companies with a short credit history, insufficient collateral for bank lending, a poor knowledge of customers and little experience of risk management.
The article presents the most significant results of practical realization of scientific-technical programs in the Republic of Belarus in the last five years. It reviews the main shortcomings of the currently existing schemes of commercialization of scientific activities and ways of their elimination. It is shown that it is necessary to increase the role of the innovation infrastructure subjects with the involvement of innovative small businesses for the effective changes in the enforcement mechanism of the inventions.
IN THE VITEBSK REGION The article discusses the activities of local councils of deputies as the organs that express the will of the citizens and make decisions on their behalf. Among the main priorities of their activities conducted together with government bodies are: raising the standard of living of the population of the region through sustainable, dynamic and effective functioning of the economy; stimulating investment activity; supporting the subjects of small and medium enterprises; creating new jobs; resolving funding issues and (or) repaying the budget expenses on the objectives set by the citizens of the region and discussing the forms of participation of citizens in government and public affairs. For a fuller involvement of citizens in the solution of socio-economic issues, they practice holding a general meeting of deputies of all levels and bodies of local administration and the agenda is formed on the basis of the analysis of citizens ' proposals. The article also provides specific examples that demonstrate the various forms of interaction of local authorities and self-government with the population.
The article shows the importance of public associations’ participation in public life of regions in the Republic of Belarus at the present stage. It substantiates the necessity to develop a legal mechanism of interaction of local authorities and self-government with public associations in solving political, socio-economic, cultural and environmental issues of local significance in national interests and interests of citizens and the features of the administrative-territorial units’ development. Special attention is paid to the problem of legal support of interaction of local authorities and self-government with public associations as a necessary condition for the formation of public-private partnerships. It proposes amendments to the Belarusian law on local self-government, political parties and other public associations.
The analysis of the competences of local public authorities at various levels allowed presenting legal monitoring as an effective tool, able to identify the needs of society and the state in the new legislation, to unify it, to demonstrate the negative and positive factors of influence on the legal system, and to relate normative activities and law-enforcement practices with the socio-economic conditions of the development of society. The competences of local public authorities at various levels have been analyzed. The research also revealed that there is no concise systemic work on legal monitoring in the bodies of local government and self-government in the country: the activities conducted by national and local governments in this area are fragmented and are not focused on the comprehensive study of all areas of public relations, the detection of the efficiency of their legal regulation and improvement of legislation. The author makes a series of proposals on the necessity of normative consolidation of legal monitoring mechanisms and offers the ways to implement it in the activities of both national bodies, and the bodies of local and self-government.
YASKEVICH Ya., KLINOVA E.
The article reveals structural and functional features and values of local government and self-government in the Republic of Belarus. It is shown that the dialogue and collaboration of state, local government and self-government must be based on such values as moral responsibility, personal and civic interest, flexible mobility in decision-making, harmony and tolerance, innovation and creativity.
KASTIUK M., TRATSIAK S.
The article describes the history of local government and self-government in Belarus. It shows that their present state was mostly influenced not so much by the historic experience of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Russian Empire as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the inherent specific Soviet model of democracy, which denied the principle of separation of powers and the professionalization of politics and governance in one-party system and a centrally planned economy, which put the local community at the mercy of the Union and national governments and excluded the autonomy of local authorities. Lack of experience of local government in the Soviet period has largely determined the low level of local government and self-government authority in the political system of the independent Republic of Belarus. However, increasing the role and significance of local government and self-government and the transfer of the main center of gravity from the capital and regional centers to municipalities is the focus of the modernization of the national political system.
The article analyses two conceptual approaches to the nature and causes of disability in modern society. It defines the particularities of the medical and social models of disability and their role in modern employment policy formation. It also expresses the opinion about the need of using the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and methodological foundations of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health when developing the national employment policy of persons with disabilities.
The article discusses the current state of industry of the Republic of Tajikistan, the problems faced by industrial enterprises and ways of their solution. The analysis conducted in the study shows that the country reduced the share of industry in GDP. The total industrial output declining share of machine building and metalworking.
The article notes that the Republic of Belarus situated in the Eurasian geopolitical space, being the point of contact of the Western Christian and Eastern Christian civilizations and the border of the two most important geo-economic associations is a transit country. The paper emphasizes that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) should be considered as an important geopolitical subject, one of the main objectives of which is the structuring of the Eurasian geopolitical space. It is noted that the new status of the Republic of Belarus in this organization opens new opportunities associated with the formation of one of the full-fledged «designers» of the modern Eurasian geopolitical space.
The article presents topical research analysis results of modern Belarusian and Russian political science. The analysis was carried out based on the materials of the reports presented at the All-Russian Congress of Political Scientists, as well as the articles of Belarusian scientific and practical journals published over the past six years. The information about the changes and preferences in the range of issues concerning young and seasoned political scientists is presented. Tendencies and differences in the research themes of Belarusian and Russian researchers in the field of modern political science are described. The article also traces back the scientific results presence of such a research area as «Political Communication: Agenda, Media, Internet Technologies», as well as a new political research method of political media discourse called «political mediametry».
The article examines the historical aspects of forming local authorities and self-government as the components of the Belarusian statehood system. It also discusses the structure, competences and order of self-government formation, enshrined in legislation. It shows the place and role of local authorities and self-government in matters of life support, their system of election organization and the powers of deputies.
New major public ratio in the format of a dialogue and cooperation on the basis of subject-to-subject relationships, polyphony of subject-to-subject relationships in the field of «live communication» of each-many-all become a necessary and promising basis of the processes of self-organization including planning, organizing real economy, the principles of engineering and technical studying, self-organization of social institutions and the appropriate concepts and definitions.
Local government is seen as a major stabilising institution of total state system in any democratic state. The article substantiates the position that the efficient functioning of local self-government directly depends on the system's bodies, their structure and interaction with public authorities. It also shows the existing in this area problematic issues that require legal regulation and, in some cases, reforms. The article studies the issues of organizing local self-government system and structuring of its bodies in the Republics of Belarus and Kazakhstan and gives a brief analytical overview of local governments indicating the problems connected with them. It also proposes solutions to these problems, approaches for the development of local self-government in these countries and achieving effective interaction of state bodies and local authorities in addressing management issues.
The article deals with the problems of activating local authorities in combating corruption and analyzes some norms of legislation and law enforcement practices. It also draws attention to the need of further development of self-government as the most important condition of dynamic and civilized state development. The author indicates the areas most subjected to frequently committed crimes of corruption (public procurement, allocation of land, health care, housing and utilities, and others.). It is emphasized that law enforcement agencies, as well as the Council of the Republic of the National Assembly should provide local governments with a methodological assistance in compliance with their constitutional powers. The article notes that the methods, scope and depth of the impact on corruption depend on whether we are dealing with everyday corruption or corruption in judiciary, law enforcement and regulatory authorities. Among the most important legal anti-corruption means are anti-corruption law forecasting, anti-corruption legal monitoring and anti-corruption expertise of legal acts.
The article considers the issues of forming the system of managerial staff mentoring on the basis of a «cascade» technology training. It offers a new form of mentoring that is academic cascaded training when the education institution is an integral part of mentoring. It is based on the formation of enterprise development as a joint organizational and educational space of education institutions and state agencies and organizations.
Historical, structure functional and comparative legal analysis of evaluation approaches to Local Authorities Deputies’ work efficiency has been conducted. Strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are noted. An original classification of studied criteria system is offered. A new estimation method of Deputies and Local Authorities work has been worked out. This evaluation procedure has a complex character. Statistical data and information on social standards observance on the territory are used that allows studying socio-economic development evolution. Based on mass media contest results on better Local Authorities work coverage evaluation of cooperation of Deputies, citizens, government bodies and organizations is made. Moreover, yearly self-assessment of Deputies’ performance is studied. While analyzing the work of Local Authorities as the whole the evaluation of each particular Deputy’s work is ranked. The scientific novelty of the materials presented is connected with the author’s approach towards the way of studying and evaluation of the quality of Local Authorities Deputies’ representative activity.
ALEINIKOVA S., LUKYANCHIK A., SMOLYACHKOVA Yu.
The article considers the recruitment and selection procedure for entry into civil service in the Republic of Belarus. Based on the analysis of legal normative documents and enforcement practices, the authors point out the distinctive features of the Belarusian and foreign experience, which reflect international principles of accessibility, inadmissibility of any discrimination, combined full-time and part-time selection stages. It is noted that, in general, the existing selection process for entry into civil service in the Republic of Belarus is consistent and well established. The article provides a series of conclusions and recommendations for the improvement of this procedure. These include providing openness and transparency upon entering civil service, study of positive foreign experience, and compliance with the selecting criteria to the qualification requirements for civil servants.
Представлены результаты эмпирического исследования, отражающие практику применения наставничества в государственных организациях, а также проект методических рекомендаций по организации наставничества в органах государственного управления Республики Беларусь. В качестве методического инструментария, позволяющего обозначить направления и оценить эффективность наставнической деятельности, предлагается использовать: типовой план прохождения наставничества; индивидуальную программу (отчет) прохождения наставничества; анкету лица, в отношении которого осуществлялось наставничество; квалификационную карту, основанную на моделировании ключевых моментов профессиональной деятельности.