Nikulina Irina, Rimskaya Olga
The rating of a higher educational institution depends on the way the problem of securing the quality of training experts is solved. Besides, a new market participant, the employer, who formulates his cadre requirements, becomes even more visible on the educational market. After analyzing the situation in the area in Russia and in a series of Western countries the authors come to the conclusion that professionalism, research activities and innovative teaching methods are priority criteria for evaluating the quality of work done by the lecturers.
Partnership of business and the state is aimed at raising the quality and efficiency of national priority projects. The author analyzes problems of this interaction and focuses on the example of the agroindustrial complex (AIC) with its originality and specific features of historic development. Besides, commercial bases are stronger developed in AIC, the sector has retained, more than the spheres of education and health care, preconditions appropriate for private-state partnership.
Aglitsky Igor, Kuzmin Valeri
In commercial organizations the delegation of tasks and powers is determined by the need implied by labour division up to the point that some subdivisions are detached in form of legal entities with the right of economic independence. The transfer of market principles on intra-company relations caused the surge of network entities as a relatively new type of organizational structures. Instead of successive commands a chain of orders for products (services) supply is used here, and coordination is achieved with the help of contract methods.
The term 'brand' has several meanings depending on the goal it is used for. To manage the brand useful accounting indicators and methods of their interpretation have to be enumerated. According to the author hierarchical efficiency measurement devices can be applied here, such as metrics, diagnostics, derivatives, secondary derivatives. If required conditions are observed the proposed approach is applicable to organizations of different property forms and representing different economic branches.
Cluster as a form of spatially-based concentration of interconnected enterprises allows to identify additional opportunities for their sustainable development without competition distortions. The author cites the example of the Nizhni Novgorod region and shows that a relevant approach efficiently provides for higher labour productivity without lessening competition intensity.
In the framework of the administrative and economic reform, the regulating impact of the state on innovation processes implies legal, administrative and economic aspects; methods which help solve the problem can be subdivided into direct and indirect. The major levers of governmental investment policy are: legislation (which envisages the design, adoption and publication of normative acts), development of state-run programs, and mechanisms of their implementation.
Integration of health resort services, medicative treatment and healthful tourism, the use of alternative medicine and health-improving methods allow to raise the capacity level of sanatoria and health resorts from 40 to 90% during a low-demand period - these are the main outlines for their development. Problems can be solved by means of selecting, training and stimulating the personnel, by permanently offering services of higher quality than those of the competitors, the author holds.
Economic agents are compelled to accumulate reserves to avoid eventual unfavourable situations. The principal aim in forming bank reserves consists in retaining part of the profit from immediate allocation and holding it intact to solve future financial problems. With this aim in view the banks found special and general reserves which help neutralize contingent negative manifestations of individual and integral risks.
Stanislavchik Elena, Shumskaya Natalya
A financial equilibrium means securing current liquidity and solvency, a balanced capital structure and a balanced return required on invested funds. On the basis of analysis of these components made in a functioning company the authors proposed a methodology which, in their opinion, can be fundamental for decision making aimed to improve the financial status of an enterprise and design targets and norms of its operation for the following period of time.
To achieve enterprise's goals under conditions of a destabilizing impact of various factors of exterior and interior environment every participant of a technological chain must manifest an adequate and concerted reaction, and the call for innovative development has to be met by required adjustment of production functions and coordination of interacting agents' interests.
In the process of management target formulation is regarded in combination with categories like planning, strategy and policy. In regional systems the former takes place in the framework of strategic planning and entails two goals have to be attained: securing the necessary standard of living and quality of life for the population, and fulfilling a certain 'social order' which stems from the social division of labour.
Competitive advantages as a concentrated manifestation of superiority over other market participants can be measured by economic indicators but cannot be identified as potential opportunities of an economic agent. In construction advantage is gained thanks to low production costs, rational market segmentation, strategic thinking, efficient management, implementation of innovations.
A systemic approach to planning the communication activity of banks enables to comprehensively model resources and the timeframe of works to be done depending on their complexity and degree of novelty, which cannot be carried out with the help of traditional methods. The 'target-resources-time' model proposed by the author, which combines positive characteristics of network and morphological models, helps, in particular, coordinate the requirements set to the results of solving individual tasks, on the one hand, and the dates of their accomplishment. When applied, the formula enhances the credibility of planning of communication projects, their balance level and helps rationally use available resources.
Vanyurikhin Gennadi, Repina Olga, Tikhobaev Vadim
The method proposed by the authors is in its role analogous to the complex of laws of conservation existent in natural sciences; it secures conservation of necessary proportions under real changing conditions of an operating organization. Further search for the best solutions is linked with finding optimal correlations between intra-production opportunities and external economic instruments.