Latfullin Gennady Rashidovich, Novichkov Nikolai Vladimirovich
The article reveals the essence and content of the concept of anthropology in the context of culture as a social system. The article highlights the role and importance of anthropology in the sciences, the basic directions of study of anthropology, the characteristics of the content object and purpose of anthropology as a science, including interdisciplinary and comprehensive anthropological research. The authors pay attention to the fact that the anthropological problem is currently engaged in more than 200 sciences. The paper highlights two main areas of anthropological science which are physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. The subject of the first is associated with the natural characteristics of the person, and the second thing is formed around the social characteristics of the people who, in one way or another are connected with the culture as a basic human activity. The article notes the components of physical and cultural anthropology, highlighting the most interesting problems associated with these areas. Separately considered is the fact that the man, anyway, is always connected with the surrounding culture, and that the man, anyway, a cultural being. The paper presents 12 anthropological characteristics, formed in humans as a result of interaction with the culture. So, the following cultural aspects of human life and activity are stressed: education, socialization, purpose, self-realization, creativity, self-development, procreation, creating own cultural trail and others. The work is based on the author's research through the study and synthesis of scientific information. The article may be interesting and useful to the scientific activities of anthropologists and cultural scientists as well as economists. The article may be of practical interest for the leaders of organizations in the management of personnel and formation of organizational culture.
Halimbekov Hadzhimurad Ziyavutdinovich, Shakhbanova Zaira Rashidovna
The article analyzes the impact of tourism on improving investment climate in the region. The main factors of investment attractiveness of the developing areas of tourism are considered, among which the ability of the tourism industry to develop on almost any site with a variety of conditions and resources of activity that is related to diversity of tourist activities; and the multiplier effect of tourism development which contributes to the development of related sectors of activity. The article presents the results of a study of various aspects of the formation of the national innovation system for the development of tourism. In particular, characterized are the features of the implementation of the cluster approach to the development of tourism in the territories of the Russian Federation, among which the most outstanding are: the lack of experience in the implementation of the cluster approach or unsuccessful attempts to copy foreign experience; priority areas in the development of only one type of clusters - the territorial-production; imperfection of the regulatory framework. These problems, according to the authors, exist along with the typical problems of tourism clusters, which include inadequate specialized infrastructure and services; the poor state of the key tourist sites; failure to comply with quality standards (or their absence) for services offered to tourists. According to the analysis of the legal documentation in the tourism sector of the Russian Federation and monitoring of the development of tourist areas in the article substantiated is the conclusion about the need to tough public policy, defining legal boundaries and strategic guidelines for the development of tourism on the innovative type, as well as the need to adjust the existing practice of tourism territories, which currently does not increase the investment attractiveness of regions.
Ganebnykh Elena Viktorovna
The paper studies the features of the development of the tourist industry in Russia focusing on franchising in tourist services. The tourism services sector worldwide is undergoing big changes associated with the development of information technology and a general increase in competition. Today we can observe two opposite processes: on the one hand, tourism services are accessible from year to year by an increasing number of individuals, on the other hand, the tourists are moving away from the services of tour operators. There is a general expansion of the tourist market, increased competition, increased spending on marketing, there is a need for continuous updating, trade secrets and know-how are developing, while there is a decreasing the life cycle of the participants of the tourist market. All this creates the need to bring together organizations and the creation of cooperative relations in their various forms and types. The article considers the brief history of the development of tourist franchising in Russia, reflects the structure of franchising market of tourist services, the organizational structure of the franchise in the tourist industry, as well as the place of tourist services franchise in the general classification of the forms of franchising. The article discussed in detail the specifics of the type of franchise-related features of tourist businesses in Russia. Special attention is paid to the issue of pricing in the activities of tour operators, as well as its impact on the effective functioning of franchise networks. On the whole franchise is regarded as one of the most viable areas of diversification in the field of tour operator and travel agent services. The relevance of such issue raises due to the crisis in the Russian outbound tourism, the occurrence of which can lead to a significant reduction of professional participants of the tourist market, the reduction of employment in the sector, reducing tax receipts.
Lapochkina Victoria Vladimirovna
Thematic presentation of cultural specificity of a destination can become a cultural link between culture and a tourist destination of unfamiliar culture, facilitate interpretation of the cultural features of visited sites. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that the thematic tourism offers a new way to look at both popular and obscure objects of display, the market for thematic tours is very broad as wide and diverse in range are human interests. The article describes the range of issues related to the identification of the literary aspects of the emergence of tourism in the structure of contemporary thematic tourism. While traveling, man strives to gain new knowledge, which, without the written fixation would have been lost andforgotten. Russia as a country known for its rich literary heritage, has great potential for the development of literary tourism. Literary and memorial museum preserve the memory and tell about the life and work of the best representatives of world and national literature, pass the baton to the spiritual heritage of future generations. A large number of literary museums are concentrated in Moscow and St. Petersburg, where the life and work of writers and poets of different eras took place. In addition, there is tourism demand for literary estates, which significantly expand literary tours. The objectives of this paper is to identify the main reasons consumers take literary tours, to designate sites of literary tourism, consider the specificity of the organization of literary tourism products, as well as to analyze the characteristics and differences of cultural tourism.
Evdokimova Yulia Viktorovna
The article describes and analyzes the methodology of rating institutions of higher education according to the Times Higher Education. The most significant indicators are the total citation of scientific publications, scientific reputation of the university in certain areas and academic reputation of each higher educational institution, including research activities and the quality of education. Analyzed are programs of educational crediting of leading Russian banks. The main problems of education in Russia: insufficient equipment of educational institutions, the need for restructuring and the creation of an independent quality control, alignment of business conditions for state and non-state institutions. The possible solutions to these problems are suggested. They are attributed the development of specific criteria for equipment institutions, differentiated by the type of educational organizations and their activities. As part of financing of equipment organizations is making the cost of equipping of educational institutions according to normative per capita funding. Considered are positive and negative effects of restructuring of educational institutions. In particular, globalization different levels of education institutions. Identified are obligatory components of independent quality control systems of education. The criteria by which subsequently will be monitored the quality of education should be developed centrally, go through public debate and be adopted by an open vote among teachers, that is, direct executors. Analyzed and summarized the results of public opinions about the quality of education in Russia. Revealed is dissatisfaction with the education system in Russia by a large percentage of the respondents. The options of the implementation of network forms of education with the creation of specialized classes in the third stage of secondary school are stressed: in-depth study of certain basic general subjects, or an introduction to the core curriculum subjects of specific areas of training for bachelors.
Zvorykina Tatyana Ivanovna, Silcheva Lyudmila Vladimirovna
One of the rapidly developing at the present time segments of the economy in the beauty industry in the regions of the Russian Federation is the spa industry. Most professionals working in the hospitality industry celebrate the new mandatory component in the "portfolio needs " of tourists, which are wellness and spa treatments during the journey. The article focuses on the development of spa services in the Crimea as one of the most important segments of the economy of the beauty business in the region. On January 21, 2015 in Crimea at the business forum "South of Russia 20:15. Time to rest in a new way" there were addressed issues of a competitive SPA product. The forum was attended by representatives of the business community and the Ministry of Resorts and Tourism of the Republic of Crimea. It is noted that the traditional leader of innovative development of spa industry in Russia is the Crimea. This is due to the natural features of the region, its medical resources, as well as the development of technological and technical content of this type of service. There was presented a catalog of spa facilities and spa products at the forum, which is formed by the union of professionals «SPA-professionals Crimea." The article states that an effective instrument to ensure the quality and safety of spa services, as well as the way of fair competition among market participants is standardization. The authors present a conceptual model of one of the fundamental standards in the field of spa services - GOSTR 55317-2012 "Public services. Spa services. Terms and definitions" and assess the feasibility of its application in the territory of Crimea.
Ogneva Svetlana Vasilievna, Nisht Svetlana Aleksandrovna
The article is devoted to the theory and practice of state regulation in the sphere of tourism. The article considers the concept of state regulation, main tasks, functions, and objectives; the main elements of the system of state regulation. Confirmed are the need to change the forms and methods of state regulation in a market economy while maintaining the significant role of the state. The classification of measures of state regulation is proposed. The authors describe characteristic instruments of state regulation applied in accordance with Russian law, in relation to the tourism industry, the peculiarities of application of measures of state regulation of tourism at the regional level and the possibility of transferring some of them to the federal level, and the fixing of these legislative measures. Such measures may include the creation of material safety of organizations of the tourism industry, the classification by security category. It is proposed to form a national system for the protection of tourists aimed at increasing the responsibility of all executive authorities involved in this process. Special attention is paid to interaction of executive authorities and business on the basis of state-private partnership and regulation, in order to reduce administrative burden on tourism and hotel activities. Proposals are made on the transfer of authority to carry out the classification of the objects of the tourism industry bodies self-regulation of business in order to reduce public costs for the implementation of this activity and accountability of hotel organizations for the quality of services provided. Identified are measures to improve the quality of regulation: assessment of alternative ways of achieving this goal (to overcome the flaw of the market) at the stage of development of the draft of regulatory solutions; procedural restrictions on the adoption of measures requiredfor implementation by business entities; providing public procedures of regulatory decision-making.
Agamirova Elizaveta Valerevna, Agamirova Ekaterina Valerevna
The article deals with the formation programs of individual tours. Based on the selection of specific features of individual tourist programs the authors define individual tourism stating that the main specific features of the individual tour is that the product is developed based on the desires and preferences of a particular tourist. It is shown that the individual tourist product allows meeting the needs of the tourist. Topicality is determined by the characteristics of the tourism market at the moment. The crisis that characterize Russian tourism today force to seek new approaches and new content in tourist activity in order to suggest possible ways to diversify the tourist offer, one of which is the individualization of tourist programs. The article also examines the specifics of individual programs, tours, given comparative characteristics according to different characteristics of mass and individual tourism products. Identified are the main advantages and disadvantages of acquisitions and trip planning of the individual program for tourists. The authors cover the basic steps and principles of formation and promotion of individual tourism products. Revealed is a difference in the sequence of the process of its development over the standard tour. Based on the study of offers of tourist companies categories of the most popular destinations of individual tourism are identified on the basis of which a classification of individual programs is proposed. On the basis of the study in the article suggested are the main characteristics of the different categories of consumers of individual tourism products. The article shows the prospects for the development of individual tourism products in the Russian tourist market. Based on the analysis of the actual supply of tourist services identified are the advantages and disadvantages of individual tours. The necessity of developing specific standards of service is explained. Due to the fact that the individual trip of tourists have special expectations, it is necessary to ensure the highest quality level of service in accordance with the program of travel. Characterized are the features of the technology of individual tourism, which aims to create a unique product.
Sarancha Mikhail Alexandrovich
The article presents the results of a study of the tourist route network of the Russian Federation, which was first carried out in such a large scale. At the initial stage of the research methodology was developed, which became the basis for a comprehensive review of the properties of the destinations of 11 units: basic details, consumers, the frequency of operation and limits of the means and methods of transportation, food and accommodation services, personnel, cost parameters, notes and other information. On the basis of the questionnaire was developed (consisting of 61 questions), which was sent to the regional tourist offices. From completed questionnaires information on tourist routes was reduced in a single database in the context of the federal subjects and the federal districts. Information on inter-regional routes was collected and processed separately. All information was collected for six thousand tourist routes. Separately, was developed and tested form of gathering information on tourist routes through the Internet portal "Living Map". The results show that in the Russian Federation a marked predominance of intraregional routes. Inter-regional routes, despite their small amount, perform important functions of the integration of tourism potential of the area and are the basis for the deepening of these processes. Most developed route network is in the Central Federal District, the least one is in the North Caucasus. Most of the network formed in the 2010s. According to the subject areas are dominated by cognitive, educational, environmental and sport routes. In working with the customerfrom the tourist firms observed is weak segmentation, and the only class that acts as a support, is students of schools, universities and other institutions. In Russia there is a dominance of short-haul routes and those lasting one or two days, seasonality is a characteristic for only 19% of routes. There is an extremely low utilization of services in food and especially in accommodation, thereby greatly reducing the effectiveness of the impact of tourism activities on territories.
Rzhepka Elina Anatolievna, Novichkova Tatiana Rabfailovna
Article is devoted to the actual topic which is the study of various aspects of business tourism in the context of the current economic situation. The authors conducted a study monitoring business travel market over the past five years and outlined their main theoretical conclusions on the opportunities and challenges of business tourism in the city of Irkutsk, the center of the Asian business activity. Particular attention is given to the systematiza- tion and categorization of concepts and forms in this area. Business tourism is organized in different variations: congresses, exhibitions, fairs, talks and seminars. All participants in activities have different purposes of visiting, depending on their interests, capabilities and types of business. When considering Irkutsk as a center of business tourism can be noted that it has a great potential for the development in this direction. The article provides a reasonable argument on the basis of conducted studies of Irkutsk as a core center for business of tourism communication for the Asian part of the Russian Federation. The main arguments are the following: 1) the city is a major transit center in which there is a redistribution of tourist flows, following from West to East and back; 2) Irkutsk has a distinctive competitive which is undoubtedly strategically distinguishes it from other cities in the Asian part of Russia; 3) Irkutsk has the basic infrastructure for the development of various forms of business tourism: congress, exhibition, business meetings, corporate events, and so on. In the context of marketing research the conclusion is made about the potentialfor diversification of products and services in the period of reconfiguring the market for domestic tourism through development of appropriate infrastructure and range of offers. In particular, highlighted is the necessity for consolidator agencies and event organizers in Irkutsk in the form of Convention Bureau.
Mosalev Anton Igorevich
В статье представлен анализ роли сектора средств размещения в структуре созданных туристских маршрутов в субъектах РФ. Объём выборки составил 6 тыс. маршрутов во всех федеральных округах РФ. Проблема низкого сервиса предоставляемых гостиничных услуг в России является одной из существенных проблем, тормозящих развитие внутреннего и въездного туризма. Цена и качество порой не соответствуют друг другу. Отчасти положение могла бы спасти нарастающая конкуренция с отелями, включенными в международные цепи, у которых созданы свои правила корпоративной культуры, высокие стандарты обслуживания чётко определены для каждой отдельной категории гостиниц (по уровню звёздности). Однако это обстоятельство не служит основанием для пересмотра маркетинговой стратегии независимых отельеров. Важно обратить внимание и на средства размещения, аналогичные гостиницам, а также иные средства размещения. Они также широко представлены на туристском рынке. По мнению автора, низкий уровень сервиса в средствах размещения определяется не столько нежеланием руководства его совершенствовать, сколько структурой спроса со стороны туристов и туроператоров, создающих продукты. Большая часть маршрутов, которые включают в себя необходимость размещения туристов реализуются в среднем в районе одних-двух суток. При этом туристы не задерживаются в средствах размещения надолго, а продолжают свой маршрут далее. Такое обстоятельство не служит побудительным мотивом к изменениям качества услуг. Более того, в статье определено, что прочие и индивидуальные средства размещения широко представлены в маршрутах таких крупных федеральных округов, как Центральный, Уральский, Сибирский, Дальневосточный. Размещение в гостиницах чаще встречается в маршрутах Северо-Западного, Приволжского, Крымского и Северо-Кавказского федеральных округов. Коллективные средства размещения в данном случае выступают пассивными операторами предоставления отдельного формата услуг. Однако эта стратегия не может быть использована всеми игроками индустрии гостеприимства во всех федеральных округах. Специфичность регионов, их отдалённость друг от друга, уровень цен на местах должны стать ограничивающими условиями, в которых отельеры могли бы развиваться. Именно поэтому предлагается необходимость им активно предлагать идеи собственные туристских маршрутов туроператорам, либо активно взаимодействовать с последними, привлекая к себе всё новые, в том числе и неорганизованные туристские потоки.
Sakharchuk Elena Sergeevna
Based on the theoretical analysis, the results of which are described in the previous publications of the author on the topic of international comparative educational research [8, 16-26], substantiated is structure of the model of the education system in the tourism sector, which is the unity of four interrelated subsystems: content, functionality, industry regulation and consumer. The model of education in the field of tourism is based on an integrative approach  to the analysis of factors of internal and external environment of education, it allows to search the determining changes in factors of the education systems [17, 18], identify patterns, to explain the possibility of borrowing pedagogical models, processes, phenomena, develop mechanisms of adaptation of pedagogical models, processes, phenomena, as well as to design useful pedagogical models of processes and phenomena. The author stresses the necessity of the use of scientific instruments in the research and development of training models that take into account the structural characteristics and process of education. As the properties of the model are determined by integrating the conceptual mainstream; for the purposes of the study of national models of training in the field of tourism as a mainstream concept adopted is the principle of integration of the national professional education in the global professional and educational space. In order to address the structural and process characteristics of the education systems the author proposes the relationships between the subsystems of the education system (functional, consumer, industry regulation and content) as the features of the system and the principles of the educational system as a social institution that ensures the reproduction and development of human potential as attributes of the system. In the article the subject of pedagogical analysis of educational systems is determined by the purpose and nature of the education system in the field of tourism as a sustainable set of integrated or integrating interacting elements which are subsystems. Developed is a heuristic model of education in the field of tourism which not only can help to carry out a comprehensive analysis of teaching, but also to compare national systems of vocational training, and by identifying their features, focus the mind on its own problems and bottlenecks and find points of growth of the potential and to develop mechanisms of adaptation of useful foreign experience.