Sakharchuk Elena Sergeevna
This article is the latest in a series of publications on international comparative educational studies of the structure and content features of different national models of training for tourism. Based on the analysis of the degree of knowledge of the structure and content of tourism education, its specific features, especially foreign models, the basic methodological concepts and content of comparative educational research the article proves the conclusion about the necessity of applying the principle of accounting for processes of globalization as a leading principle of comparative pedagogical analysis for tourism education. Globalization processes affecting the socio-economic development of all countries are treated today as a catalyst for the development of world tourism, which is probably more than any other branches of economic activities develops in a constant mainstream development of advanced technologies and innovations. The degree of integration of national tourism in the world tourist area, and the level of development of the world standards of basic tourist services determine its competitiveness in the world. Thus, training for the tourism industry to a greater extent is aimed at studying the development of technology and quality standards recognized at the global level. Studies of professional education in the context of globalization processes have been carried out by many scientists, however, for the first time in this article fundamental accounting for processes of globalization in tourism education is suggested: national education system has integrated into the global education space  at the level of standardization of the structure, and this provision applies to the formation of any professional field; professional education in tourism, along with integration at the level of the structure has all the prerequisites to synchronize to a large extent the content of education as it relates to technology and organization of tourist services and the tourism product development.
Sarancha Mikhail Alexandrovich
The article reflects the results of a study of sectoral and integrated strategies, concepts and programs for regional development in order to identify the situation in the field of regulation of development of automobile tourism in the Central Federal District. At the first stage considered are the place, functions, activities and prospects of automobile tourism in socio-economic development as the Central Federal District, as well as individual regions of the Russian Federation; at the second phase highlighted are strategies, concepts and programs of development of tourism from federal to regional level, at the third stage in the focus placed highway and transportation development programs in the Federal District and its regions. Materials for each document are systematized in the summary table by region and district. According to comprehensive industry and tourism documents, at all levels and in most parts of the county there is understanding of the role, functions and problems of development of automobile tourism, and transport infrastructure and services which are closely associated with it. Respective program activities are laid down. However, in the highway and transportation development programs Tourism issues have yet not received attention. Thus, there is a major problem in the development of one of the most promising and popular public areas of tourism associated with the inconsistency of industry regulation in the country and regions which harms tourism as a cross-industry complex phenomenon. A separate place is reserved for field monitoring of the state of roads and roadside services in major highways of the county, which revealed the existence of serious problems with: infrastructure, service, compliance with the rules and organization of road safety. Regulations on requirements to infrastructure along the highways is more formal than essential, which is expressed by appropriate equipment requirements for highways, but having actual problems. Based on the detected situation, conclusions and suggestions are made on the ways of solving problems.
Shvets Irina Yurievna, Shvets Yurii Yurievich, Czyź-Gwiazda Ewa
Sustainable development is one of the main paradigms of contemporary society's development. Important and yet not sufficiently developed is the creation of systems for the assessment of sustainable development indicators adapted to national environmental priorities, national and regional environmental, economic and social policies; evaluation of environmental impacts of productive systems throughout the life cycle of man and environment; the use of metrics for sustainable development in the limited local area (enterprise, city, region, etc.). Today, it has become apparent that management system at the national and local levels should include the use of a set of indicators that cover all dimensions of sustainable development of the regions: the social, economic and environmental. However, the analysis conducted and based on such indicators as the integral index of sustainable development will make it possible for managers at various levels of government to find out the strengths and weaknesses of modern domestic regional policy, and to identify priority areas for their future endeavors. The article presents the results of the study that allow us to speak about the need for a differentiated approach to regional development and a unified state strategy based on the conceptual principles of sustainable development. Evaluation of sustainable development is based on an analysis of several areas of economic sustainability of socio-economic systems: economic, environmental and social. Evaluation of economic, environmental and social areas requires the use of specific indicators. The integrated assessment indicator of sustainable development of the region in the use in administrative activities is the best. It is effective to assess the current situation and forecast trends in the development, and this indicator characterizes the degree of stability of the system and the balance of its development. Integral indicators of innovative development can intensify the processes of comparative analysis of the dynamics of economic systems in the region, and they are universal indicators of balanced growth for the most important aspects of socio-economic system.
Agamirova Elizaveta Valerevna, Agamirova Ekaterina Valerevna
The article summarizes the experience of technology to create artificial motivations for the formation of client flows in the context of solving problems: 1) the development of areas with a weak tourism and recreational potential; 2) extending the life cycle of tourist products; 3) management of client flows. In this paper the concept of artificial motivation is examined in three aspects: from the point of view of psychology, economics and marketing. In particular, the marketing aspects of the concept of artificial motivation are considered in the context of the region’s attractiveness as a tourist destination. As the main purposes of marketing highlighted are formation, maintenance or alteration of customer behavior in relation to a particular locality, region or country as a whole. Territory in which distribution occurs is treated as a set of opportunities for implementation of the different needs of tourists. If the tourist-recreational opportunities (resources) of the territory are limited, great importance is placed on artificial creation of motives for travelling. The article focuses on the description of the main approaches to the creation of artificial motivation at different stages of the life cycle of tourist products; examined are the key factors for creating an artificial incentive to intensify visits to tourist areas; highlighted are the psychological mechanisms of motivation formation, as well as major stimulants, such as: fashion, prestige, imitation authoritative personalities, creating a legend. The study highlights two main ways of solving the problem of formation of artificial motivations: first, due to the existence of unconscious needs and / or the lack of motive on the part of potential consumers of travel services; the second is related to the perceived needs and motivation of the consumer directed at another tourist attraction. The study describes in detail different possibilities of creating artificial motivations at different stages of the life cycle of the tourist product. The article cites numerous examples of artificial motivation in tourism.
Lagusev Yuri Mikhailovich
In connection with the launch of the “Strategy of development of tourism in the Russian Federation until 2020”, approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation on May 31, 2014 № 941-p, opportunities for coordination of tourism activities of municipalities have increased significantly. The complex of effective mechanisms is presented in the Strategy and Action Plan for its implementation, and they have opened up great opportunities for municipalities to develop the potential for domestic tourism. The primary purposes of the current step for the coordination of tourism activities in municipalities are to assist in the promotion of tourist resources of small cities, towns, and villages, programming event-tourism activities taking place in towns of Russia, participation in festivals of Russian towns, development of measures to support efforts to promote tourism services in small cities of Russia, including through public-private partnerships. This corresponds to the documents of Federal Target Program “Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011-2018 years)” in terms of solving the problem of the development of tourist and recreational complex of the Russian Federation. The article is based on materials of the research carried out with the direct participation of the author, the main result of which is the development of the program content of the subject “Management of tourism in at state and municipal levels” in the programme of master training 43.04.02 “Tourism”. The article deals with the organizational support of the process of coordination of tourism activities at the state and municipal levels, aimed at obtaining a specific socio-economic result of the introduction of innovative technologies. The results obtained directly by the author are based on a fairly extensive empirical basis, which consists of the legal documents developed in the regions and municipalities for tourist activities coordination, as well as the programs and subprograms of tourism development in regions and municipalities. Technology developed to improve the efficiency of tourism activities in municipalities take into account the requirements of government agencies, businesses and social forces aimed at the development of tourism in the Russian Federation, and they are conducive to the processes of self-identification and promotion of domestic tourism. Tourism in Russia today is more than an economic phenomenon; it is, above all, an opportunity to carry out educational activities by means of tourism, to educate the historical memory of the population.
Leifa Andrey Vasilevich, Sivukhin Andrey Aleksandrovich
The authors discuss the role of interdisciplinary integration (interdisciplinary connections) when filling the content of the English language in order to create a regionally-oriented communicative competence for bachelors of tourism. Interdisciplinary integration allows content to fill the features of professional work and professional activity peculiarities of the region, all of which prepares young specialists to perform professional tasks in the region. Practice shows that currently travel agencies reoriented to the Russian regions and CIS countries, which in turn causes the need for professional training of the tourism industry in regions for tourism development in the field. Accordingly, the objective of training is to train specialists on demand for regions’ tourism industries - solving this problem contributes to the formation of a regionally-oriented communicative competence of bachelors of tourism. This article describes how interdisciplinary integration of the content of disciplines from the professional cycle in foreign language teaching of undergraduates in tourism on the example of the English language. In particular, identified are the following characteristics of the study: 1) the formation of a regional and linguistic competence occurs in the process of learning material, reflecting everyday life, especially in the region and specifics of professional activities. Working with similar material, bachelors of the tourism industry master professional vocabulary, learn grammar of the English language, learn the correct pronunciation with the realities of the region’s language, learn to build theirr own grammatically correct phrases aimed at communication in professional activities and that contributes to the formation of regionally-speech competence; 2) the formation of regional-speech competence occurs in the preparation of dialogue and monologue sentences using vocabulary that reflects the professional activities and cultural characteristics of the region, in discussing problems, discussions, when writing an essays; 3) the formation of a regional and socio-cultural competence is carried out during the development of the content of the English language that reflects the characteristics of the region for professional activities: for the development of inbound tourism - knowledge of the customs and traditions of the peoples of the Far East, tourist objects of Far East, attractions, history and geography of the region; for the development of outbound tourism - knowledge of cultural traditions of China, China’s attractions, geography, China’s history.
Kuleshov Vladimir Nikolaevich, Sakharchuk Elena Sergeevna
The article presents the author’s vision of the ways of resolving the crisis situation in the tour operator and travel agency sectors of Russian tourism. The authors believe that the industry needs to return a significant degree of consumer confidence which is lost. The loss of confidence (along with the currency unstable market) has a negative impact on the overall situation in the market sales of tourism products and services, leading to a reduction in business activity, curtailment of tourist programs, reduction of income and therefore the tax base, and eventually to the exit of a significant number of tourism enterprises, loss of staff by travel agencies and so on. Analyzing the current conditions, the authors of the article as professionals “inside” highlight the major problem areas of the Russian market of tourism sales and offer concrete measures for its stabilization, including the example of emerging positive trends. Russian tourism as an institutionalized structure is in the process of formation of institutional values, norms and rules of intersubjective interaction. Thus, the role of professional associations becomes more prominent. Such associations as the Russian Union of Travel Industry (PCT), the Association of Tour Operators of Russia (ATOR), the Alliance of Travel Agents (ATA), whose task is seen among others as creating and promoting a positive image of the tourism industry. However, the authors’ position is expressed in relation to professional ethics, which should be manifested in the daily practice of each employee of tourism. According to the authors, the current situation related to big shocks and bankruptcies of tour operators in the summer of 2014, exposed the problems of moral and ethical nature, professionalization in tourism has not reached the level of maturity where the quality of work is connected with the concept of professional honor, and the employees in tourism would develop a view of themselves as part of a professional community. As ways to improve the image component of the tourist market the author proposes to develop professional-social self-regulation, to integrate and consolidate agencies into professional agency networks.
Novichkov Nikolay Vladimirovich
The article discusses the features of the concept of cultural policy as a social system. In particular the authors notes that the culture as a system has six major manifestations: as an element of the quality of life of modern man; as part of creative economy; as a system of spiritual values, attitudes, orientations and motives of a human and other elements of society; as a creative process and the whole set of artistic activities; as cultural heritage; as an entire population of people who identify themselves with a particular social system based on common cultural traits (“cultural codes”). The article also provides an analysis of some of the definitions of cultural policy. Marked are milestones in the history of cultural policy and formulated are the basic features of the past seven cultural revolutions as qualitative changes in the role of culture in society. In particular noted that, currently, the culture is going through a period of “self-realization” and is on the verge of becoming a total social phenomenon. The article notes the connection of cultural policy with “high politics”, as well as with innovation policy. The aspects of ideology as a cultural phenomenon are also considered. In addition, the paper focuses on the role of cultural policies in the modern economic development. In particular noted that the implementation of cultural policy stimulates the emergence of more creative people, which clearly leads to their interaction with entrepreneurs who, in turn, too, as a rule, are creative people, and entrepreneurship has all the necessary features of creative activity. In general, we can make a clear conclusion that cultural policy as a social system is manifested in all spheres of human activities, and culture as a system is gradually acquiring a comprehensive character.
Anan'eva Tatyana Nikolayevna, Ilyuhina Galina Ivanovna, Kobeleva Olga Viktorovna
The article examines the processes of professional adaptation of graduates of specialized universities in the labor market of the service sector. Based on the analysis of core competency orientation of the service sector’s activities it is concluded that more meaningful and effective for successful professional activities of graduates in the service sector is not fragmented knowledge but generalized competences, manifested in the ability to solve social, professional and life goals. The main features of professional activities of the service sector are related to the availability of the necessary professional functions, the significance of which is that the professional activities of the service sector are carried out in direct contact with the consumer. This implies the need to make the formation of knowledge, abilities, and features of training in the service sector initially humanistic and socially significant orientation. To solve the problem of effective professional adaptation of graduates in areas of training of the service sector defined are the following basic vectors of professional education: the integration of the national high school in the international educational space, ensuring the close connection of the education system and the labor market, the creation of conditions for effective interaction with employers and professional communities. The paper defines the nature and significance of the competency approach, allowing to objectively assess the suitability of each graduate to future activities (whether work or further education), as well as to develop clear criteria for the quality of these activities, allowing organizations to implement targeted educational training for graduates to meet the requirements of the employer. In the same context, the competence model is defined as the system of requirements for the training of graduates to specific educational level and profile of the educational program.
Minaev Vladimir Aleksandrovich, Rassokhina Tatyana Vasilevna, Seselkin Alexey Ivanovich
The article deals with rural tourism as a rapidly growing sector of the tourism industry associated with the use for marketing purposes natural, cultural, historical, ethnographic and other resources in rural areas and their specific features for the creation and implementation of an integrated tourism product that reflects the image of the rural way of life and rural culture and customs, traditional rural labor. The article highlights the main problems impeding the development of rural tourism market, reveals the leading trends and factors associated with it. The authors analyze the main reasons that slow down the development of rural tourism in Russia. Based on a market research of the consumer market of Moscow identified are the basic needs of tourists in the market for rural tourism. Highlighted are the features of the market development of rural tourism in regions, in particular related to the network-centric model where the most important focus is placed for rural destinations. The authors draw attention to the role of tourism in sustainable development of rural settlements. Discussed arelegal and regulatory frameworks, incentive programs for rural tourism market. Highlighted are the priority factors for rural tourism development in regions of the Russian Federation: the legal framework of rural tourism development; support for small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of rural tourism; a network-centric unified regional marketing strategy to promote rural tourism products; formation and promotion of rural tourism products; the involvement of the population in the movement for healthy lifestyle; training for rural tourism; skills of the rural population in the field of tourism services.
Afanasiev Oleg Evgenyevich, Afanasieva Alexandra Vladislavovna
The paper proposes the concept of substantiation for the notion of “tourist legend” and describes its place in the modern tourist and sightseeing industry. Tourist legends are important intangible resources, attracting tourists even in those cities where “nothing to see and nothing to show”. Tourist legends are an integral part of the tourist areas in terms of branding, attracting tourists and creating a positive tourist image for individual cities and entire countries. Despite the long tradition of using tourist legends in recreational areas, in theory this subject remains poorly understood. Therefore, this article represents a theoretical generalization, which results in a definition of the concept of “tourist legend”, marks its basic properties: a plot and tourist excursion value, territorial binding to a tourist site (area), the implementation of social and tourist functions (attractant, didactic, motivational, information, entertainment, warning) and a positive influence on the formation of geographical and tourist cognitive and attractive images of a territory. All variety of tourist legends can be classified according to the principles of: case-with a plot (or style of presentation), chronological, territorial, ethnic, cultural and social, the object of “legend creation” degree of reliability and autochthonous. The article presents the classification scheme of tourist legends which describes various groups and gives examples from world practice. The paper describes the experience of studying tourism legends and creating a tourist guide for the city of Dnepropetrovsk, which is selected as an example of a typical post-Soviet industrial center with an underdeveloped tourism industry and a significant tourist and recreational potential.
Ilkevich Sergey Viktorovich
This article analyzes the current state and prospects of mainstreaming sustainable tourism in the basic educational programs of Russian universities, as well as identifying obstacles to the expansion of research topics in the field of sustainable tourism in Russia. The overview of Russian works in the field of sustainable tourism demonstrates that the most studied are natural, environmental aspects of sustainable tourism development in terms of long-term interests of society, while the social and economic dimensions of sustainable development of tourism are presented by a limited number of fragmented works. This situation in the domestic tourism science greatly contrasts with the ways of international tourism research in this area, where can be found a more balanced mix of studies, as the share of socio-economic research in the total volume of works on sustainable tourism is much higher. A significant lack of research on the socio-economic aspects of sustainable tourism development is established by content analysis of domestic and foreign publications, and by their comparative analysis. Thematic focus of international projects on sustainable tourism in Russia is also analyzed to arrive to some indicative conclusions. The only comprehensive project in the field of sustainable tourism is currently under way between the Russian State University of Tourism and Service and Telemark University College (Norway), and in many ways it is still the first and only one. The main reason for the observed bias in domestic research, according to the author, is a strong starting position of natural sciences in comparison to social onesl. Another reason may be the rigidity of domestic tourism researchers of the humanitarian and economic profile in relation to the issues of sustainability, when Russian economists and specialists in humanities are under the influence of more successful researches in natural science and they underestimate the whole palette of concepts and approaches of socio-economic nature, relevant to the issues of sustainable tourism, and that is the reason why they are mentally limited to just the recognition and enumeration of the most obvious and basic socio-economic aspects of sustainable tourism (such as local employment, infrastructure development, replenishment of local budgets, integration into the world economy), and do no not go further, do not proceed with conducting specific studies within broader and more concrete settings of sustainability issues. The issues of sustainable tourism in domestic tourist education are even less represented than in science. Over the past few years, only six Russian universities as part of their basic educational programs offered individual subjects to study sustainable tourism. To this can indirectly be added another dozen or so universities that offer disciplines in eco-tourism, and about two dozen universities offering courses on sustainable development, including some problems of tourism development. And only one university in Russia offers modules in sustainable tourism at the Master level, and that institution delivers three subjrects on sustainable tourism. It seems that the main problem in the Russian tourist education in the context of sustainable tourism is in some sense too “respectful” attitude to the subject of sustainable tourism, when it is believed that students should “grow” up to some level to get acquainted with this concept at a Master degree course of studies. In Europe, the concept of susyainable tourism is more culturaland widespread, and it is brought to bachelors just in more simple words and then at the Master level it is just taught with a higher academic rigor. This approach is in general culturally and professionally more productive. The second advantage of the European way of teaching sustainable tourism is that there is a much greater linkage between the concept and the context of small businesses, in other words sustainable developed not necessarily linked to the context of destination development and planning. Therefore, sustainable tourism is quite often studied in business schools. In his publication the author tries to draw the attention of the national scientific community to the problem of conceptual and epistemological backwardness of the Russian tourism science in comparison to the international tourism science when it comes to sustainable tourism issues. Present deficiencies in socio-economic research and educational programs can be eliminated within a few years if the national scientific and educational communities duly appreciate the whole range of issues of sustainable tourism and the promising outlook for research and educational programs in this field.
Vapnyarskaya Olga Igorevna, Kharitonova Tatyana Viktorovna, Krivosheeva Tatyana Mikhailovna
Management of tourist destinations abroad over many years is the subject of research and practical elaborations. The key aim of destination management is ensuring its competitiveness. To achieve this goal, experts offer a variety of approaches, methods, mechanisms. Based on the composition of the management system for tourist destinations, the article presents the trends in this field which are pertinent to Russia. First of all, to such trends can be related development of tourist resources as creation and promotion of conceptual tourist resources. A relatively new trend is the development of private and corporate museums. To Russian trends in destination management can be attributed integration of tourist sites in the tourism industry due to a more comprehensive utilization of tourist technologies in display and interpretation. Of course, an important trend is the development of information technologies in tourism, tourist navigation systems. To the list of trends should be added diversification of tourism products of destinations through the development of new types of tourism. The article shows the transition to the tourism product customization by offering tourists the opportunity to form desired tour packages. The article presents the results of the analysis of governance in the management of tourist destinations. The article substantiates the conclusion that tourist destinations are transformed from usual tourist regions into territorial structural units of the tourism industry, with extensive capabilities to meet diverse needs of tourism; resulting in: development of new types of tourism and forming conceptual tourism products; improvement of tourism infrastructure, including its information and service components; improving the quality of services provided. For businesses also uncover some opportunities in terms of entrepreneurial initiatives.