ВЕСТНИК АССОЦИАЦИИ ВУЗОВ ТУРИЗМА И СЕРВИСА

  • Publisher Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Российский государственный университет туризма и сервиса"
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=26671

Content

Experience of teaching social and political Sciences at the pedagogical University

Skvortsova Tamara V.

The article is devoted to the analysis of political education of students. The experience of studying the peculiarities of political education in Germany during the joint seminar devoted to the analysis of democratic processes in Germany and Russia is given. The tasks of social and political education of the future teacher are determined. Three interrelated problems are formulated. The first is the formation of a civic position (education solves state problems here), and secondly, it is the formation of a culture of democratic behavior (this is more important for social activity), and the third task relates to the personal significance of political education. The article defines the content of political education, which is formed primarily from the heritage of culture and science. In transforming Russia, when the values of the previous stage of development are rejected, this problem has become the most difficult. There has been a need for a new social and cultural paradigm, the fullness of education with new content. But for the stability of the social system, it is necessary that each generation inherits at least the basic social and cultural values of previous generations, of universal significance shared by most people. The article explores the social and cultural foundations of modern political education, where the notion of social justice, polyphonic thinking and tolerance occupy a special place. Particular attention is paid to the formation of a tolerant personality. The article analyzes the possibilities of applying the project activity in the preparation of the future teacher, in the formation of both professional and personal qualities. The author of the article, based on his personal experience with working with students, showed that limiting the study of a political science subject only to its content side, without including students in active work, significantly reduces students' interest in the subject. The inclusion of students in active cognitive activity through the method of projects helps informed and interested acquisition of new knowledge, allows to form such competencies as informational, communicative, creative

History for an engineer (the issue about the content of the course "History" in a Technical University)

Rybina Mariya V.

The article analyses the possible ways of the educational content formation of classes in terms of the competence-oriented approach on the example of the course "History". Modern educational standards of higher education do not regulate the content of Humanities in technical universities, and general cultural competence, which Humanities should develop, as a rule, are aimed at teaching a kind of cross-professional (interdisciplinary) skills directly unrelated to any specific knowledge and therefore not involving the strict theme of the lectures or practical classes. Under these conditions, the specific content of courses is not just creative task of the individual teacher, it is transformed into the broad and principled for humanitarian knowledge discussion about the need for the development of the Humanities for a future engineer and about the possible specifics of the teaching these courses in technical universities. The author considers it is necessary to allocate a special kind of an engineer’s activity as design and to form the content of the Humanities based on the specifics of the engineering profession. Elaborating on this thesis, the author identifies the following objectives of the course "History" in a Technical University: classes of History should give a future specialists a clear understanding that his activities has the conditionality of the social context. Classes should generate the positive perception of engineering and the engineering profession, and finally they should contribute to the methodological training of the student. The macro-explaining model of historical development underlying the content of the course can serve these tasks. This model can actualize a historical material with the best for the future engineer's perspective - modernization theory, the stages of economic growth, etc., the achievements of the new social history, including biographical or local history, aiming at the reconstruction of the past from a position of studying including various professional groups and interdisciplinary approaches (synergetic approach), the expansion of the international context of the study of native history.

Methodical peculiarities of translation on the classes with foreign students

Panova Elena P.

The article discusses the peculiarities of translation of Russian and English texts on the classes with foreign students studying Russian language. There are identified the main difficulties faced by the translator at different linguistic levels, including vocabulary, grammar and syntax. The author shows the main methods and techniques to overcome these difficulties. For this purpose, there is developed a number of exercises, the implementation of which helps to overcome students ' difficulties of translation on lexical, lexical and grammatical, and syntactic levels. It includes the system of aspect and tense relations, the pronoun “it”, the translation of the infinitive (in English), modal verbs. The difficulties of the Russian language traditionally include participial and adverbial clauses, the system of tenses, verbs of movement, modal verbs, and prepositional-case system. Student masters in this case, the following methods of translation of collocations: a full translation, partial translation, functional replacement, descriptive translation. Translating sentences students are taught not only the technique of zero translation, but also such types as functional substitution, permutation, distribution, contraction, omission, and addition. The cause of the above difficulties faced by the student in the translation process is generally the inability to distinguish between properties of linguistic units at the lexical-grammatical and syntactic levels of the source text and the translated text, and this can serve not only linguistic, but also intercultural difficulties in learning Russian language. The author therefore offers the following way of the development of translation activities: exercises developed so that students have the opportunity to compare the world view of an English fairy tales author and the world view of a Russian translator, and also to correlate his translation from a classic translation. This approach differs from the traditional, but it is effective because the student has the opportunity to focus on model translation in the learning process. The article presents all the examples from the textbook by E. P. Panova and N.

Military-historical reconstruction as a social and cultural phenomenon and a means of Patriotic upbringing of student youth

Maksimov Sergei N., Stepina Elena G.

The article discusses the military-historical reconstruction as a form of tourist study of local lore and a means of Patriotic upbringing of students. This social phenomenon has a significant potential from the point of view of spiritual and moral development of a student's personality, because it brings together the most significant components of these processes: cognitive, moral, spiritual, emotional and activity components, corresponding to selected stages, which are selected by authors, of formation of Patriotic consciousness of the student youth as spiritually-moral qualities of students' personality. Historical reconstruction, which is researched in the context of a tourist study of local lore, expands the boundaries of tourism as object of activity and science. The object of the research in tourist study of local lore is the native land, with its geographical, economic, historical and cultural characteristics through the lens of the tourist identity. In the process of participation in the historical reconstruction as a form of regional activities students produce and accumulate knowledge of the history and culture of their native land; this activity contributes to the formation of such basic values as love for the native land, interest in its history and culture, which ultimately contributes to young people's ethnic and cultural identity, Patriotic consciousness and desire to know their native land. Military-historical reconstruction is the form of tourist study of local lore, which reflects the characteristics of local history as an integral system functioning in the world of three-dimensional models generated by space components, time and society.

Patriotic upbringing of young people with the historically and commemorativly oriented means of social and cultural activity

Molchanova Natalia V.

The article describes the possibility of using the social and cultural activities in institutes of higher education and there is identified its impact on patriotic upbringing of modern youth; is considered the value and actuality of patriotic education of young people is examined ; there are determined pedagogical conditions, optimizing the process of patriotic education; it is tested the systematic work, directed to the formation of patriotic feelings of modern youth. Modern social and cultural paradigm of Russia requires increasing the level of patriotic upbringing of youth. To educate deserved young generations and responsible citizens of the country, who will be able to prove themselves as in rotecting their motherland, as in the peace labour, to educate moral, educated, cultural, tolerant people who know and respect their culture, you need to form spiritual and moral qualities of a personality, to educate ethical standards, to develop patriotic attitude and involvement. In this regard, the attention to theoretical and empirical problems of patriotic upbringing is increasing today. So it is especially important to form the attitude to our Motherland basing not so much on its military power, but on emphasising the works by outstanding domestic architects, poets, artists, musicians, glorifying the identity of the Russian culture, the beauty of Russian cities, the power and the depth of the culture, impersonated in folklore and spiritual heritage of Great Patriotic War. With the aim of identifying the formation level of patriotic feelings of modern youth there was made a study among students Volgograd state institute of arts and culture and arts. The work on the formation of patriotism with historically and commemorativly oriented means of social and cultural activity means was organized. The results of the study and the total of the work are presented in the article.

Pedagogical concept of forming cross-cultural competence of the student while working with the text in the process of professional training

Demina Viktoria A.

In this article the author gives the analysis of dissertations in the field of cross-cultural competence, an educational potential of texts and the development of an interpretative activity of students. The author evaluates and analyses the situation in higher education and gives the grounds to the necessity to modernize it in a social and cultural field and to orient it on developing cross-cultural competence as the major factor of competitive performance of a modern man. The thematic justification is caused by onrush of science and technology together with transformations of the society into a post-industrial and information oriented one, by the transition of a technological era into a systemic and technological era and by changing the requirements to the man to be an active and free personality. In the first rate these changes demand a creative activity, creative consciousness to be developed so as to be able to work with a big flow of information. In this turn the author investigates a text ( educational, literary and so on) as a means of developing cross-cultural competence as an ability to communicate successfully with partners from different cultures in a extra linguistic and professional context. The author also gives thematic justification, deduces contradictions, gives the ground to the pedagogical perspective of developing cross-cultural competence of students while working with a text. In her pedagogical concept the author elaborates criteria, factors, conditions, backgrounds and descriptors of the process under study as well as deduces logical relations. The target audience is PhD candidates, researchers, lecturers at higher institutions, secondary school teachers.

Preparation of foreign students for mastering the basic educational programs of higher education in Russian universities

Tyumentseva Elena V., Kharlamova Natal'ya V., Ionkina Elena S., Gor'kovskaya Valentina D., Kharlamov Oleg S.

This article analyzes the experience of the faculty of training foreign specialists of the Volgograd State Technical University for the last three academic years in order to identify conditions conducive to the qualitative development of an additional educational program that provides training for foreign citizens and stateless persons to develop professional higher education programs education in Russian, and further successful education at the main faculties of Russian universities. The authors of the article believe that the activity of the preparatory faculty for foreign citizens can be considered successful if certain conditions are met, including: the duration of instruction is at least 9-10 months and good basic training at home in the framework of complete secondary education. In support of this conclusion, statistical data on the performance of foreign students for the last three academic years (2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017 academic years) are given, depending on the length of time for the development of an additional educational program providing preparation for mastering the basic educational programs i.e. time of "arrival" of students for training). These statistics are presented in the form of dependency graphs. In addition, the authors of the article attempt to analyze the dependence of the progress of foreign students in the development of an additional educational program preparing for the mastering of the basic professional programs of higher education in Russian, from basic training of foreign students at home in the framework of complete secondary education, and also on the degree of motivation of foreign students in obtaining Russian education.

Role-playing games in teaching foreign languages: theory and practice

Chudaikina Galina M., Loginova Nataliya Yu., Kostovarova Valentina V.

The article is devoted to the topic of using the method of role-playing games / simulations in teaching students a foreign language. Special attention is paid to the question how this method can be used in universities to encourage students to use maximally the foreign language in class. The authors pay attention to the fact that the types of role-playing games can be different depending on the level of difficulty and language skills of the students, and that the correct choice of role-play appropriate to the level of the group knowledge is required. The article demonstrates that role playing games are extremely useful and can help students to root their knowledge and to learn a foreign language for professional purposes. The practical significance of the article is that role play is methods of teaching focused on students and it develops their communicative competence. The authors have the opinion that role-playing games contribute to apply theoretical knowledge in practice, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice. Role playing is also extremely effective to learn the real world and to improve professional skills. The authors note that the working out role-playing games requires a good organizational training. The author focuses on the fact that the gaming method contributes to the development and improvement of skills of communication and improves the skills of cooperation and team work. This paper shows that the classes with role-playing games put students in real situations, teaching them such skills as the ability to follow phone calls, to book hotel, to order food in restaurants, talk with the seller in the shop, to negotiate, to be interviewed for employment, to exchange opinions and to debate in a foreign language.

Russian as a foreign language in the context of interdepartmental integration in Medical Higher school

Fomina Tat'yana K., Goncharenko Natal'ya V.

В статье рассматривается проблема обучения иностранных специалистов для зарубежного здравоохранения и роль русского языка в освоении будущей специальности. Показано, что необходимым условием приобретения будущей профессии иностранными студентами в медицинском вузе является межкафедральная интеграция. Авторы изучали необходимые условия подготовки иностранных специалистов в медицинском вузе, среди которых система факторов, формы обучения, методы обучения и самостоятельная работа. Установлено, что успешному включению в учебный процесс вуза препятствует отсутствие учебных навыков и умений, которыми владеют российские студенты, неумение работать с первоисточниками, низкий уровень общеобразовательной подготовки, полученный в школе на родине и т.д. Отмечается, что приобретение будущей профессиональной роли для иностранных студентов связано с решением лингвистических и психолого-педагогических проблем, которые для российских студентов не являются актуальными. Эффективность процесса обучения иностранных учащихся в медицинском вузе зависит от многих факторов, среди которых осознанное отношение иностранных учащихся к выбору профессии, степень усвоения учебного материала, качество преподавания общетеоретических дисциплин и учебных предметов. Проведённые исследования подтверждают, что на всём протяжении обучения в медицинском вузе плохое знание русского языка в той или иной мере затрудняет приобретение специальных знаний, формирует устойчивый стереотип сложности коммуникативной компетентности. Авторы делают вывод, что для успешного освоения медицинской специальности в инонациональной среде необходима межкафедральная интеграция кафедры русского языка и профильных кафедр как необходимое условие приобретения качественных знаний и навыков для овладения будущей специальностью.

School for social success in the accelerating world

Bessmertnova Nataliya A.

The article describes the conditions and factors of modern education change-over from knowledge to competence-based paradigm. The most important component of this process is to focus on the success of the student and the teacher. The article critically analyzes the pedagogy of progress and the pedagogy of success. The author compares two social and pedagogical strategies: «received success» and «acquired success». There is also a separated question about the success of the teacher. The relevance of the pedagogy of the success is due to the contemporary social and cultural requirements. They are most suited to the model of "success - overcoming," in which success is achieved through the personal efforts of the man, in spite of unfavorable circumstances making the achievement of goals more difficult. Successful people change social reality, overcome the difficulties on their way, and organize themselves around the needed social environment, therefore, they are always lucky and create the feeling that the results of their activities are easily got. It seamlessly combines individual and social, because the activity of the individual is impossible without a social field, which would implement personal characteristics and social environment is incapable to change without such poles of activity. Modern society forms and approves the doctrine of social success. Focus on success, commitment to its achievement in different areas, adherence to and demonstration of certain standards of success became a factor, structuring the educational process and transforming it into the mode of project activities.

Social and humanitarian technologies in the teaching of Humanities in the University

Pozdnyakov Maksim V.

The article discusses the place and role of social and humanitarian technologies in the system of higher education of the Russian Federation, specifically in the teaching of Humanities like: philosophy, logic, psychology, history, Russian language, etc. The author takes into account the broad understanding of technology as it is used in the current research literature. So technology is a sequence of steps to transform the starting material into the final product, in this case the social and humanitarian technologies is the totality of rational influence methods on individuals and social groups with a view to their transformation in the desired direction. Basing on this understanding, the author makes the conclusion that the teaching of the Humanities, first, is a technology itself, and secondly, it should provide the student with this kind of technology. The article analyzes the causes leading to the increased need to provide students with these technologies, as well as the problems associated with the current state of teaching humanitarian disciplines, in particular the impact of the increased pragmatism of students on the perception of humanitarian material, the increased availability of information, the obsolescence of some teaching formats. The author outlines his experience in the field of teaching philosophy, which interprets as one of the components of social and humanitarian technologies. The main technology, which the philosophy should teach, is the technology of persuading an individual or group. It should be stored as a tool and a result of course. He thinks key methods of demonstration and of forming this kind of technology to be the analysis of philosophical dialogues, philosophical debate and interpretation of texts with an opaque meaning unknown for students. Consideration of these methods is provided with recommendations to improve their effectiveness.

Special aspects of teaching students business communication for future work in foreign language environment

Kovtunovich Liliya M., Prilukova Yekaterina G.

The article does attempt to view special aspects of teaching students business communication for their future work in foreign language environment. The subject of research is the university education of students of Bachelor’s programme of Foreign Studies (specialization: Asia). The issue being analyzed is the development of business communication competence of students for their future work in foreign language environment. We anticipate that teaching students business communication will be effective if: a)business communication competence is developed in the education process; b) the fundamentals of business communication development are synergy-and-system-based theory of education, individual-oriented teaching approach, socio-linguistic and communicative approaches in foreign language teaching; c)business communication competence is considered as readiness for business communication that comprises professional, psychological, cultural and linguistic elements; d) a pedagogical model of developing communication competence is established and implemented in the education process. Methodological basis of research includes provisions of the synergetic paradigm, the conceptual system of personality-oriented teaching system and activity approaches. The pedagogical model that includes prioritizing elements of the syllabus in accordance with main research objective is being implemented in the education process. The results of the research can be applied in foreign language teaching of students of other Bachelor’s programmes and can also be a subject of other research into university education quality issues.

The experience interaction of the creative industries with tourism and hospitality industry as basis of the training of masters

Shkuropat Svetlana G., Kharlampieva Alla S., Gadzhieva Elena A.

The article is devoted to the issues of the training of masters to work in the nowadays market conditions of hospitality industry and it is particularly shown using creative industries’ methods. Creative industries are presented as an activity for the management of tourist infrastructure. At the same time they create a new format for recreation, work and communication. Federal state educational standard (FSES) determines the formation of professional competencies to a graduate master. The tourism and hospitality market is developing based on the needs of the individual, labour market, sectors of the economy, society. The state and managerial strategies in the field of service and tourism need to be innovative. The traditional interpretation of competence is changing. Competencies of masters should include creative management thinking. The creative management thinking is formed with all elements of the main educational programs: disciplines, practices and graduation qualification thesis. The publication focuses on the didactic aspect of the content creative industries. The authors discuss the possibility of using creative industries’ methods in disciplines of variable part, in the graduation qualification thesis. The describe the development of creative industries and development of tourism and hotel industry in the unified field of research. It helps students to search possible solutions of the problems of social and economic development of cities as tourist destinations. The target of the research is to study the features of the experience of the creative industries in the implementation of the basic master educational program of "Hospitality", providing formation of students’ creative management thinking. Objectives of the research are to identify the main space types of creative industries; to introduce a typology of the art infrastructure in hospitality as a part of creative urban spaces; to examine the features of the creative industries’ experience in the implementation of the basic master educational program of "Hospitality". The object of the research is the study of the development of creative industries and their impact on the functioning of tourism and hospitality industry. To achieve the objectives of the study the authors apply the complex of theoretic-methodological and scientific-methodological approaches, first of all, problem-analytical, systematic, personal, operational, philosophical and cultural and economic approaches. The main methods used in the study are: theoretical analysis of scientific and periodical sources; summarizing the experience of the creative industries which are traditionally regarded as activity that creates new forms of space; modeling method, etc. Research results show that it is necessary to use the creative industries as a method in the implementation of the basic master educational program of "Hospitality". The use of new pedagogical techniques, technologies and methods of training allow to change the function of the teacher, which makes him the head of the independent creative work of the student and promotes the student's creative management thinking. This approach will allow specialists, masters, to think flexibly, think outside the box and respond to changes that occur in the professional sphere.

The organization of lexicographic work on the classes of Russian language and speech culture with students of non-humanitarian specialties

Isaeva Nataliya V.

The article examines the role of dictionaries in the process of formation of linguistic, communicative, cultural, and professional competence of students of non-humanitarian specialties. The formation of lexicographical competence of students is one of the important directions of the development of linguistic, speech and General culture of a modern student. Ability to work with information, organize it, search, analyze words, and apply them depending on the situation of communication can be formed in the course of work with reference books, particularly dictionaries of the modern Russian language. In the course of the discipline "Russian language and speech culture" students not only get acquainted with different dictionaries of the Russian language, learn to work with them, but you can try your hand in the process of compiling academic reference dictionaries for their future profession. The participation in linguistic projects related to lexicographical description of professional vocabulary facilitates not only application of knowledge in practice, but can help develop the skills of work with reference books, will contribute to the awakening of cognitive activity of students, teach them how to respect heritage dictionary, lexicography in General and to its object - word. Work in self-compilation of dictionaries, reference books also expands the students ' knowledge about the language for specific purposes, facilitates the process of entering in professional communication. As examples of successfully implemented lexicographical projects the author cites the dictionaries prepared by the students of the Moscow Polytechnic University.

The process of regress in the system of education

Morozov Vasilii V.

The article describes the main elements of the education system, including the history of education as a direction of state social policy and its main points from ancient times to the present day. It also describes the elements of progress and regress in the education system, starting with school education. The author presents the main problems appeared in the last decade in the education system with the emergence of new types of education and educational institutions of different levels. The article touches upon the main aspects of Russian education of the last few years - such as a possible alternative to the Centralized State Exam (CSE). The article lists the disadvantages of the Western system of education, appeared in recent years in the Russian education; implemented "innovative" ideas of education, which often have a negative impact on the rules of the Russian education existing for many years. Also the author lists possible methods of fighting with the Pro-Western elements of education, their advantages and disadvantages at different levels. The key positive and negative elements of innovation in the education system, as well as the possible consequences of such action are identified. It is concluded that the solution to the problem of regression in the education system is a very important component of the state policy in this sphere and the main aim of it is to prevent the degradation of this sphere of human activity. The author specifies the possible directions and ways of solving most of the problems arising in the educational field with possible using innovations implemented in the past few years.

The teaching of reading and translation as teaching the mediate cross-cultural communication

Filimonova Nataliya Yu., Panova Elena P.

The article is devoted to questions of formation of cross-cultural communication on the classes with foreign students studying Russian language.. The authors propose to include reading of literary texts and their translation in the system of foreigners’ training with the aim of developing students’ practical skills of cross-cultural communication. Authors pay attention to the fact that the literary text helps to understand another culture and to overcome cultural distance. To facilitate the cultural perception of the text, the authors propose a system of reading of the adapted English literary fairy tale by Lewis Carroll " Alice's Adventures in Wonderland " in a literary translation of Boris Zakhoder. The proposed approach differs from the traditional one because, foreign readers have the opportunity to compare the world view of the English fairy tales author and the Russian translator, and also to correlate his translation from a classic translation. The article focuses on the fact that in connection with the identity of the tales author, the author of literary translation and for the foreign reader to different cultures and different national consciousnesses, the teacher together with the students-foreigners, must overcome cultural and language barriers for successful cross-cultural communication. The authors consider that the task of grammatical, lexical and communicative approach aim at achieving the text comprehension. Additional tasks of translation, that extend the capabilities of traditional work, also help. Tasks presented in the article help the student to understand the main thing: the ignorance of some of the cultural backgrounds of native speakers of a particular country does not mean that we should avoid translation work, because this work helps to learn a different language culture.

АСПЕКТЫ ПОДГОТОВКИ ВЫПУСКНЫХ КВАЛИФИКАЦИОННЫХ РАБОТ В ВИДЕ СТАРТАПОВ БАКАЛАВРОВ «ГОСТИНИЧНОЕ ДЕЛО» И «ТУРИЗМ»

СКАБЕЕВА ЛАРИСА ИВАНОВНА

The article studies the basic approaches to the project activities in the preparation of "Hospitality" and "Tourism” bachelors’ graduation qualification thesis (GQT). The study revealed that trends in tourism and hospitality associated with the concept of the experience economy, which requires not only an integrated knowledge of basic training, but also knowledge from various related scientific fields. Author’s approach to the concept classification of the hotel companies was proposed for GQT in the form of a startup. This classification includes theme of hotels, where it can be implemented in the form of development on the territory of tourist and hotel complexes, private museums, comprehensive centers, (archaeological, ethnographic, architectural, natural landscape), museums in the open air, the Park hotels, village houses, ecological farms and all forms of private, family business. For projects there was proposed to use the model of the concept development including tourist areas and tourist and hotel complexes, compiled by the author. It consists of the following stages of design: development of a themed space, separated areas and exhibitions; means of formalization-themed space and the creation of interactive zones; development of interactive programs of theatricality, role-playing games, reconstruction of historical and cultural situations of different periods; development of art and craft workshops and learning crafts, traditions, rituals, dances etc. The article proposes the structure of the GQT in the form of a startup in the following content: marketing research of the investment attractiveness of the region; design solutions and feasibility study; development of measures to launch tourist and hotel enterprises; calculations of the efficiency of the project. A group of universal competencies can be implemented in the development of a startup at the GQT. These competencies are "UK-2 - development and implementation of projects" identified in the new Federal state educational standard (3++) in Hospitality and in the new Federal state educational standard (3++) in Tourism. The article proves that the future graduate needs to understand not only basic technologies but also in the concepts of development of tourist and hotel complexes as from the point of view of the development of space-planning decisions, interior design, as from the point of view of quality development of interactive, entertainment and corporate programs; theatrical process; promotiton through the use of innovative technologies, etc.

HOMO PEREGRINATIO, ЧЕЛОВЕК ПУТЕШЕСТВУЮЩИЙ – ФОРМА ИДЕНТИЧНОСТИ И СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНОГО БЫТИЯ СОВРЕМЕННОГО ЧЕЛОВЕКА (РАЗМЫШЛЕНИЯ НАД КНИГОЙ: МАККАНЕЛЛ ДИН. "ТУРИСТ: НОВАЯ ТЕОРИЯ ПРАЗД- НОГО КЛАССА". М.: МАРГИНЕМ ПРЕСС, 2016. 280 С.)

ШИПУЛИНА Н.Б., ЩЕГЛОВА Л.В.

UPBRINGING RESOURCE OF FOLK TALES ABOUT TREASURES AND TREASURE HUNTERS IN FICTION FOR CHILDREN (BASED ON THE NOVEL BY A. N. RYBAKOV "BRONZE BIRD")

ПАНОВА ЕЛЕНА ПАВЛОВНА

В статье рассматриваются проблемы взаимоотношения литературы и фольклора, а также роль народных преданий о кладах и кладоискателях в художественной структуре текстов для детей. Писатели часто обращаются к жанру преданий не только с тем, чтобы создать приключенческую интригу, но и с идейно-воспитательными целями и задачами. Обращение к фольклору помогает автору возродить народные идеалы и народную мудрость на новом витке, соответствующем его идейно-художественным, этическим и эстетическим предпочтениям. П. Бажов вторит народной мудрости преданий о кладах и кладоискателях в своих «Сказах». Бедный вознаграждается, как правило, за свои лучшие качества: терпимость, кротость, трудолюбие и добросердечие. В «Бронзовой птице» А. Рыбакова клад распределяется в соответствии с другими идейно-художественными целями и задачами, которые стремится решить автор. Кладом овладевает новое советское государство, поскольку в соответствии с новой идеологией богатеть должна не конкретная личность, а общество в целом. Отдельный человек осознается нравственным в том случае, если он заботится не о личном обогащении, а процветании и строительстве нового Советского государства. В американской повести для детей Марка Твена «Приключения Тома Сойера» обретение клада ребятами носит иное значение: прагматически распорядившись деньгами, ребята обеспечивают себе благополучное будущее. В целом обращение автора к жанру о кладах и кладоискателях в детской литературе носит не только гедонистический, но и воспитательный характер.

ФИЛОСОФИЯ КАК ПУТЬ ВЗРОСЛЕНИЯ

АНАЩЕНКОВА ИРИНА ВСЕВОЛОДОВНА

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