In this article the author examines the interdependence between innovations and competitive advantages in the most developed countries, formed the information society, at different levels of management - at the firm's level, the cluster's level, the regional, national and global level. Indicators of competitiveness and innovative development depend on the system of different factors with the key role of the only factor at the every concrete level of management. This factor forms the type of competitive advantage, and regulatory bodies must focus their efforts on the establishment the strong reciprocal action and interconnection between this concrete competitive factor and the dominant innovative factor - the human capital. This approach allows to save financial and human resources and to take optimal decisions on competitive innovative achievements.
In contrast to monosemantic word «cost» connected with commodity production, complex word «value», which is ahistoric concept, has always been used not only for identifying material value, including commodity value, but also for identifying intangible values (national, cultural, etc.). To differ these types of value, it is offered to use the term customer value, but not user value, as it is used in economic literature.
Energy foundations of labour value theory are treated according to variation principles of classical mechanics. Statistical methods of classical thermodynamics are used to affirm energy conservation within labour processes. Thermodynamic entropy is related to information transfer in labour transactions.
Dissemination of poverty is alarming problem in Kyrgyzstan. The poverty in the southern part is caused by arid climate, lack of fresh and irrigational water, economic collapse, fast increasing of population, has a huge scales. Low standard of living is the reason why thousands of people leave Motherland for looking for the best life and create opportunities for good life.
Stulov O.V., Chevychelova N.E.
Technoparks creation is one of the most important parts of innovation development which is an up-to-date question for the modernization of Russian economy. Authors describe and analyze main stages of evolution of different technoparks models.
The author shows the influence of age and status on decent labor criteria, based on data gained from provided researches.
This article contains the comparative analysis of the normal tax system and the single agricultural tax. In addition, this article evaluates the effectiveness of the single agricultural tax formulated goals and agricultural policy goals achievement and analyzes second order effects of the single agricultural tax implementation.