Kalabikhina I.E., Smulyanskaya N.S.
Current trends in fertility are similar in most countries of the world. To reduce the level of fertility, actively manifested since the second half of the last century, important changes in the calendar of births were added. The classical indicators of demographic statistics are more often dealing with the intensity of fertility, to a lesser extent - with the timing of fertility. The authors made an attempt to compile a system of indicators for the timing, which was then used to study the stages and types of ageing of fertility.
Conventional banking, focused on profit maximizing, shows its inefficiency. The urgent search for alternative models of banking is needed. One of them is a model of social banks. However, the framework of their business practice and principles remain poorly understood. This paper aims at determining the nature of social banking, its distinguishing features and the level of financial sustainability. Inductive and deductive methods of analysis and synthesis, systematic approach, comparison are used. Academic literature review covers the evolution of ideas about social banking. The paper contains the social bank’s definition as a special type of commercial bank aimed at maximizing its positive contribution to the development of society through the provision of mainly traditional banking services and based on the principles of sustainable development, transparency and cooperation. The empirical results confirm a high level of financial stability of social banks. The article states the hypothesis about the key role of shareholders’ and managers’ motivation to create a social bank. Further research requires the development of measurement tools to evaluate social banking. social banks, corporate social responsibility, model of banking
Sheresheva M. Yu., Berezka S.M., Oborin M.S.
The article is devoted to the creation of Russian small cities’ tourist product. The model of consumer behavior with respect to tourism products and the concept of tourist product value for consumer are considered; the necessity to form complex value propositions for target audiences segmented by their needs is substantiated. The offer of small cities’ tourist product in three regions - Perm Krai, Vladimir Oblast and Tula Oblast is carried out. The possible ways of developing and improving small cities’ tourist product in these regions are determined. Particular attention is paid to the most promising areas for today - event tourism and cultural and educational thematic routes; high importance of gastronomy as part of the tourist experience is highlighted. The analysis leaded to identification of some problems, including insufficient use of event marketing potential to ensure a stable tourist flow throughout the year, as well as poor awareness of target audiences outside the regions. Recommendations proposed to improve the offer for target audiences.
The article considers factors of customer loyalty to Russian commercial banks. The research conducted by the author shows that interest rates on deposits, bank reliability and orientation towards raising funds from individuals are the main factors determining the choice of a bank. The article presents a comparative analysis of the significance of these factors for March 2012 and September 2017. In March 2012, an increase in deposits rates had a positive influence on a bank market share; in September 2017, the influence was negative. Trend reversal is due to the Bank of Russia policy of banking sector cleaning that started in 2013 and implied revocation of bank licenses, bank sanitations, and control over interest rates on deposits set by banks. The higher level of bank reliability and client orientation have a positive effect on the bank’s share in both periods.
Demand and supply - categories with a rich history, introduced into scientific circulation250 years ago, comprehensively investigated from the positions of quantitative analysis. But it turns out that the glossaries of microeconomic textbooks do not give either the definition of demand (there is a reference - see the demand curve) or the units of demand measurement (there are no units of measurement between the price and quantity) and, accordingly, supply that restricts their practical application. The model of the general economy - the synthesis of the “Capital” of Marx, micro- and macroeconomics - allows us to supplement the quantitative analysis of all market categories with qualitative analysis and, in particular, to define demand and supply through two factors of the commodity-use value and cost. The definition of categories and units of their measurement makes it possible to expand the field of application of theory (the demand for a set of goods and the supply of a set of goods) and formulate an algorithm for their use in business practice.
Taranukha Yu. V.
The article is devoted to the study of the current position of the schumpeterian competition. Interpreting schumpeterian competition as a struggle of entrepreneurial ideas, the author shows how the results of checking and developing Schumpeter’s ideas in contemporary neo- Schumpeterian literature. Focusing on the conditions that determine the innovative nature of competition, the author outlines the main features of the Russian economy, which prevent its transition to an innovative competition.
The author defines outsourcing not only as a business-tool, but also as one of the most important indicators of the health of the national economy and its competitiveness. Methodology to define the volume of outsourcing in the economy proposed by the author is new to the Russian economic science. By using a range of econometrics of personal design - namely methods of «statistics», «industries» and «outsourcing» (explained hereinafter) the author defines the share of outsourcing as 19% of GDP. At the same time, the author proves that the current volume of outsourcing is insufficient to secure stable growth of the economy. Industrial behemoths and state owned companies - so called national champions - are weakening, not strengthening the competitiveness of the Russian economy with their size. Because of the very overconcentration in the Russian economy, the share of small and medium enterprises is too small. The number of workers hired by SMEs is also less than in other comparable economies. The insufficient share of outsourcing also to the lack of innovations, because innovation breeds not inside large state owned corporations but amongst entrepreneurs. In the end of the article summarizes factors that will contribute or otherwise hamper the development of outsourcing in the Russian economy, influencing its competitiveness worldwide.
The interaction of the state and business in industrial sphere is growing up with a rebirth of role of manufacturing in the first-quarter of XXI century. This broadens the economic content of public-private partnerships and involves in their activities the growing number of different partners, i.e. research institutes, scientific centres, technological consortia, universities, nongovernment organizations, etc. Such multipartnerships for their evaluation need a new strategy, aimed at reaching not only efficiency, but also fair distribution of outcomes of joint activities. The Gini coefficient is conventional applied in statistics for measuring inequality in society, but in this article this coefficient has been used for defining the degree of equal distribution of benefits and costs between members of the partnership. For this purpose there has been elaborated an integrated financial model, which displays the interaction of cash flows of project and particular participants in the framework of benefit-cost analysis of PPP. The essence of such an approach is illustrated by the abstract case, which is not bearing the complexities of actual projects, and firstly, demonstrates the interaction of benefits and costs between the partners at two levels, i.e. financial and economic ones, secondly, unites the basic stages of project efficiency evaluation and the calculation of the modified Gini coefficient. Analytical capabilities of such an approach have been examined by the concrete case of nanoceremic manufacturing in Novosibirsk as this enterprise has obtained the effective and rather well-balanced mechanism of partnership. Gini coefficient can serve as the indicator of achieving well-balanced partnership in the successfully, in economic point of view, projects, when a number of members is more than two.