Blashchuk Svetlana, Lavelina Zhanna
The article analyzes one of the most vivid works of the twentieth century - Cello Concerto by A. Tchaikovsky. On the one hand, research interest in this composition is caused by insufficient knowledge of the work of Moscow composer who has recently celebrated his 70th birthday, on the other hand, the musical form of the specifics still does not have a settled name in musicology: «variations of the theme», «inversion variation», «reverse cycle variation» and others. However, among the modern composers the variations to the theme at the end have already received sufficient spread. Besides A. Tchaikovsky, this form was used by R. Shchedrin, A. Schnittke, S. Gubaidulina, D. Krivitsky. In his Cello Concerto, the composer combines dynamic means of individually interpreted variation form with the other forming features - sonata, cyclic, etc. The musical theme at the final stage of the form creates a special continuously unfolding drama of «the ultimate goal», which is subject to the process of the composition development.
Vavilov Stanislav, Tkalenko Yaroslav
В статье приводятся сведения о деятельности симфонических и оперных дирижеров, работавших в Томске на рубеже XIX-XX веков. Особое внимание уделено творчеству местных деятелей музыкальной культуры А. А. Ауэрбаха, М. И. Маломета, А. А. Вивьена. Приводятся новые факты об их жизни и творчестве. Показан существенный вклад в развитие музыкальной культуры Томска дирижеров гастролирующих театральных трупп. Материал работы содержит сведения о деятельности провинциальных дирижеров, малодоступные и малоизученные в отечественной литературе.
Ivanchenko Ivan, Shershov Sergey
While recording the piano music in studio or at a concert, a lot of factors may influence a spectrum (timbre) of a sound. It can be the quality of the performance of a composition, the quality of the instrument, the sizes and the form of the room where the record is being made, the installation place of the grand piano and microphones. The article is devoted to the analysis of construction peculiarities of the piano and grand pianos of various companies of manufacturers. In the article several features were found out. Firstly, qualitative distinctions in the instruments sounding, connected with the use of various materials in their manufacturing. Secondly, the instruments construction peculiarities, connected with the fact that companies-manufacturers introduce sound unique technologies. Thirdly, characteristics and physical parameters of the grand piano strings are considered and such visual methods as diagrams and pictures are also used. The basis of the article is the dependence of the grand piano sounding spectrum filling on its individual construction constituents, without taking into consideration acoustic peculiar features of the rooms. Moreover, the article analyses the construction peculiarities of the grand piano and the degree of their Influence on the sound tinge as well. Furthermore, the article reveals the reasons of developing process of the grand pianos sounding uniqueness, their sound timbre tinge at various companies-manufacturers. Undoubtedly, all the information given can exert an essential influence not only on creative activities of sound producers, but also on performers, tuners and composers.
The article is devoted to peculiarities of the performing interpretations of the six piano concertos by Rodion Shchedrin, which have already established in the repertoire of different pianists in the world. The article discusses the performing style of modern pianists -permanent performers of Shchedrin’s works. Among them are Nikolai Petrov, Ekaterina Mechetina, Oli Mustonen, Denis Matsuev, Alexei Volodin, Yeol Eum Son, and the composer himself, who, being a virtuoso pianist, was on premieres of his First, Second and Third piano concertos. In Rodion Shchedrin’s piano concertos, significant insights and original ideas get bright design; his music is virtuosic, richly ornamented, and full of technical difficulties. These qualities make his concertos immensely attractive to modern artists. This article explores the essence of Shchedrin’s innovation in the genre of piano concerto, the composer’s ability to show clearly the soloist and their art of instrument proficiency, without neglecting the depth of the semantic quality of music. On the example of Shchedrin’s piano concertos created in different creative periods, the author traces the evolution of the composer’s concerto style in the direction of increasing virtuosity, more meticulous detail texture and subtle nuances, enriching orchestral phonism. The article notes that in recent concertos Shchedrin focused on technical equipment and the performing style of individual pianists.
There exists extremely little authentic information about life and concert performance of Alexander Ivanovitch Slepushkhin, a great Russian harpist who was the founder of the Russian harp performance school. Not a single document written by him was known until recently. The reason for this article has become a letter to the famous Russian singer L. V. Sobinov that contained a request for help. The letter was found in the Central State Archive of Literature and Art. The facts found in the press of the beginning of the XX century concerning their combined concert performance and their friendly relations make possible to fill partially lacunas in the harpist’s biography. Thanks to newly found names from his immediate surrounding these facts help to widen the area concerning additional information of Slepushkhin’s performing art and teaching activity.
The article historically examines different approaches to implementation of requirements to improve the successive relations between parts of the system of music education and various sides of musical performing activities (intonation, rhythm, volume dynamics, etc.).
The article is devoted to the description of ontology of ritual Ostyak folklore. Ontology is understood in line with the engineering knowledge as a system of interrelated concepts. The author marked stable elements (poetic formulas) in the folklore material, which tire presented in the form of hierarchically systemized concepts divided into classes.
In the art of music, there has been a number of genres - opera, romance, song cycle - capable to respond to the embodiment of the given subject. Due to the lack of verbal texts and visual series exaggerating the content, composers rarely used instrumental genre to translate global issues related to the «individual - society» problem. The emergence of the genre of instrumental compositions with a word has become a solution to the problem. The article describes one of the main aspects of the content of a new genre, i.e. the image of personality with its awareness of themselves as part of society and the acceptance or rejection of a personality by society that composers put in the basis of their instrumental works. The inclusion of text that an instrumentalist must sing, talk or whisper requires a new approach by the artist. The works of L. Lebich, T. Takemitsu, H. Lachenmann, В. Globokar, L. Andriessen are analyzed as examples. The considered instrumental compositions with the word show different views of the authors on the issue of creativity freedom and its manifestations in the framework of public (social) organization as a whole. The main «character» of each of the works is personality, manifesting the freedom of creativity or the possibility of their own opinion to exist.
Four sources - competitions, festivals, concerts, web broadcasting, audio and video recordings - present the peculiarities of performing the modern interpretations of musical pieces. These sources contain specific formats of modern performing art, each having its own idea, ideal, style, form. To define the formats of the above-mentioned sources, the author considers and analyzes in detail the performing functions of a musical piece such as reproduction (piece reconstruction), competitiveness, interpretation novelty, pithiness, virtuosity, expressiveness. Interaction of these functions defines the forms of the modern performing art existence. In competitions, the competitive function of a music piece performance is realized most vivdly. The history of musical competitions dates back to Ancient Greece. «Pair» competitions of musicians were held before the first musical competition in its modern understanding. In the «pair» competitions participated I. S. Bach - Louis Marchand (1669-1732), D. Scarlatti - Handel, Mozart -dementia, Mozart - I. V. Gessler, Beethoven -Genzelt, F. Liszt - Talberg; Lafond - Paganini. Theoretical and intonational knowledge about specifics of modern forms of performing art is necessary for professional musicians.
The most famous composition by A. Schoenberg due to the complexity of musical and linguistic resources, content depth and ambiguity confronts performers with difficult interpretation tasks. In the opinion of the author, religious motives constitute an important ideological, imaginative, and dramatic element of the «Bible of musical expressionism» and concentrate the philosophical, aesthetic, musical, and creative ideas of Schoenberg. For the first time this opus is illuminated in the aspect of features of the religious worldview of the composer. The inconsistency of the latter is determined by the situation of the conscious and difficult choice of religion (Christianity and Judaism), which could not be reflected in musical and poetic text and the subtext of the cycle, expanding its established boundaries.
The article considers the multidimensional influence on composer’s activity of the great J. Brahms and his artistic professional contacts with an outstanding violinist J. Joachim. The creative «portrait» of Joachim is reconstructed, and his place in the violin performing art of the XIX century is determined. The general characteristic of cooperation of two artists is given; the role of famous Hungarian violinists in the creative fate of young J. Brahms is studied in more detail. The work is focused on the first attempts of the composer in the sphere of violin art; among them, one can find scherzo c-moll and sonata a-moll for the violin and the piano. Little-known circumstances accompanying its creation are tracked. The article disputes the fact that Brahms composed scherzo c-moll as the third part of a collective sonata for the violin and the piano, created by R. Schumann, A. Dietrich and J. Brahms. A particularly deep concern of Joachim to the early-lost violin sonata a-moll by Brahms is determined. The fundamental questions of creative cooperation of two masters in the creation of a wide range of significant Brahms’ compositions within the composer’s whole lifetime are analyzed separately. In the process of analyzing, the author of the article critically evaluates the statements of major scholars of Brahms’ works concerning this cooperation and states his own view of this problem.
Based on unpublished archival documents, this paper considers the development of performing arts as a part of the system of academic musical culture in the Yenisei province in the second half of the XIX - early XX century. The analysis of local history materials from the socio-cultural perspective provides new results in understanding the musical and historical events. Self-organization and institutionalization - two basic dialectically interrelated social processes used for creating musical culture - are explored. Selforganization processes are defined by the guiding principle of the performing traditions formation, as well as by the evolution of the whole academic performing art system in the Yenisei province during the above-mentioned time period.
The development of the Yakut ethnomusicology at the Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North The article describes the history of formation and development of the Yakut ethnomusicology at The Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North (IHRISN) of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences when the institute had the art studies section from 1947 to 1951. The section was organized by the first Yakut composer M. N. Zhirkov. He raised questions on various aspects of the traditional Yakut music studies. During this period, the huge factual material on the Yakut national songs was collected. In the following years, the ethnomusicological science was developing at the institute within folklore research, including research on the music of the Yakut heroic epic olonkho, in connection with the UNESCO declaring it a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The article presents the analysis of the works carried out by ethnomusicologists at different times at the institute. Now problems of ethnomusicology are studied in the section of the Yakut folklore within the styles and genres systematization and the textual aspect. The article also raises the question of the Art Studies section revival. The directions in which the art science could develop in this section are presented in the recommendatory plan.
The article describes the world of images of Czerny’s etudes, op. 740 - and it is the first work on this theme in russian music literature. Now the etudes are considered as only instructive. It is a mistakable opinion. Carl Czerny - outstanding composer, great piano teacher, «the King of etudes», first editor of «The well tempered clavier», pupil of Beethoven, teacher of Liszt and Leshetitsky. Czerny was a teacher of the transitional period - from positional classic technic principles to romantic free physiology principles. The etudes op. 740 are the obligate part of piano studies of every pianist in the whole world from the second part of XIX century. Minimum 16 etudes (op. 740 includes 50 etudes) are not only instructive, but must be considered as artistic - like etudes by Chopin, Liszt... The author of the article proves, that the world of etudes’ images contains next sides: Images of Vienna, where Czerny lived (№ 9, 20, 29); «salon» images (№ 9, 33); images of dance (№ 23, 42); imitation of timbres (№ 4, 18, 24); heroic images (№ 14, 46, 50); landscape lyricism (№ 6, 22, 36); nocturne images (№ 45). The article is based on M. G. Karpychev’s monography «Carl Czerny. Opus 740» (Novosibirsk, 2014) , in which every etude is separately analysed in many executive aspects.