Вестник музыкальной науки


Dancing and musical therapy

Romm Valeri j

After collapse of the USSR the Russian science is tried to be estimated through the western criteria. If the figure of education or science is published in foreign editions, officials from science will consider him worthy supports. It does harm not only the Russian, but also world science. In article it is told about preparation problems in Russia of specialists in dancing and musical therapy. New programs, textbooks and manuals are for this purpose necessary. In them the Russian experience of treatment of many diseases has to be considered by classical dance world and especially. The author points to treatment examples by dance in Ancient Greece. So Great Socrates already at mature age took dancing lessons not to have problems with health. Antique doctors dance treated many diseases. The Russian choreographers dance treated many physical illnesses, the Psychological effect was considered as inevitable additional result of such treatment. The author provides the recipe of treatment of foot given in ingenious work A.Ya. Vaganova of «Basis of classical dance». The author gives also an example of practical experience of the Yakut teacher N. S. Poselskaya on correction, by means of a classical exercise, proportions and physical parameters of pupils of choreographic schools. During experiment at graduates of ballet schools length of feet on 10-15 cm exceeded the same measurements at pupils of comprehensive schools.

Ethno-musical education in the regions of Siberia (for example, republics of Altai, Khakassia, Tyva)

Karelina Ekaterina Konstantinivna

The article is contributed to create a picture of the modern existence of ethno-musical education in the regions of Siberia. The process of entering the traditional musical art of the Sayan-Altai’s Turks in the practice of educational institutions of the Southern Siberia (Tyva Republic, Khakassia Republic, Altai Republic) has its own specific features. There is the problem of the relationship between inherent properties of folk music with the state model of musical education. The attraction of folk artists for teaching in educational institutions of culture and art is problematic, because the formal requirements of the modern education system are hindering. Ethnomusicologists and music teachers offer a variety of models preserve ethnic types of music art and create a methodological teaching on throat singing and playing folk instruments. The result of the educational methodical searches’s process was the publication of the first throat singing’s textbook in 2014, authored by ethnomusicologist Zoya Kyrgys. In educational institutions of the region creative teams actively function and then shape the professional folk groups. The new artistic standards are formed with the development of concert practice, so young musicians focus on them. The interaction of ethnic music and modern education is a kind of survival mechanism that is relevant to all gradually vanishing native musical traditions.

Functional peculiarities of modern trezvons of musical texture

Tosin Sergey Gennadievich

Trezvon is a church genre thut has a texture principle of polyfunctional bell polyphony. The polyphony of this type is characterised by several functional layers. They are presented by the sound of big, medium and small bells connected into groups. Each of them fulfills its own function. Texture peculiarities of our time were not analised before. This is the novelty of the research. Its topicality is obvious in today’s revival of bell culture. The aim of this research is finding of genetic connections of modern trezvons with their ancient musical and texture forms. The analysis of polyfunctional bell polyphony is done by means of study of the above mentioned functional layers. According to the old patterns the following types of voices are known. In the part of big bells: pedal pint and pacing bass; in the part of medium bells: archaistic, prolonged and quasimelodic; in the part of small bells: one-voice «trills» of linear type and parts consisting of harmonic orders. Texture analysis of modern trezvons has shown presence of almost all of the mentioned types of presentation. The only quasimelodic form of movement realized in a group of medium bells has not been found. In addition, today’s functional layers of trezvons sometimes have variational changes as it is often met in traditional peals. Thus it should be stated that modern bell-ringers continue an ancient tradition of bell art.

History of Lipovans as a special branch of the Old Believers

Petrov Vladislav Olegovich, Ivanova Olga Anatolievna

The article is devoted to the formation of the Old Believer belief and the main factors of influence on this process. The migration path of the Old Believers is lit from the territories of the Russian state. Further, the history of the formation of the Lipovan community is already mentioned on the territory of Romania. External factors of influence on the preservation of cultural values far from the homeland are also indicated, and the attitude of local authorities towards representatives of the Old Believers in general. The article describes the features of the isolation of lipovans, their way of life, everyday life and religious orientation. When describing representatives of the Lipovan community on the territory of the Astrakhan region, the reasons for the establishment of new villages (River and Success) in the 20th century on the territories proposed by the Old Believers by the government are noted. There are new living conditions at home, which later influenced the migration processes in the Lipovan community. The musical heritage of Lipovan is represented by a list of genres of song folklore, which describe the general and specific features of the musical culture of the Old Believers-lipovans in the light of the all-Russian culture. Changes in the cultural heritage of Romanian and Astrakhan lipovans, as well as the transfer of traditional song material to the younger generation, and the conditions for its replication in modern conditions are traced.

Intonation knowledge: essays of context and structure

Bazhanov Nikolay Sergeevich

The article describes the structure, boundaries, environment intonational knowledge. This type of non-verbal knowledge is based on the ability of a musician to memorize the intonation, remove them from memory and to operate with them in the fullness of their expressive meanings. Intonation knowledge is a large part of the intonational system of a musician. In the field of interaction of this system are: intonational hearing, intonational thinking, the intonational form of a musical work, musical and artistic consciousness. The author considers the object, the material, the subject of intonation knowledge. The object of intonation knowledge should be considered as a piece of music. Due to the prosodic knowledge we learn and differentiate this work from others. The material of intonation knowledge is the sound of music. Studying acoustic lyrics of the sound of music, we come into contact with the objective text of the intonation of the works of great performers. The subject of intonation knowledge is the intonation of a musical work by man. The subject of intonation knowledge exists in two basic types. The first type forms the intonation works at the time of its execution. The second type occurs in the form of a memory about intonation when the work is finished. The context of intonation knowledge. Intonation knowledge is impossible to imagine out interactions with other phenomena of the nature of intonational - the melodic ear, the melodic form of the piece, the melodic memory, the intonation thinking. All of these elements of the musical consciousness of a person creates the environment or context of intonation knowledge.

Musical-mathematical-astronomical synthesis in the works of ancient Greek scientists

Alexandrova Ludmila Viktorovna

The article deals with the problem of the unity of musical and mathematical and astronomical ideas of the ancient scientists of the early first Millennium - neopythagorean Nicomachos and outstanding astronomer Claudius Ptolemy on the basis of their neglected works. In the treatise Nicomachos “Manual of harmony, dictated in haste, according to the old man” written during the trip, to build a holistic theoretical concept of the occurrence of the elements of harmony to recreate the musical-mathematical Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology. The order of the planets, arrayed Nikomachos, logically identified with the ancient heptachord Terpandre. Platon’s concept of the “heavenly heptachord”, retells Nikomachos in the treatise, is represented by the symbol strict ordering of the cosmos in its spatial and temporal correlation. In the center of the treatise Ptolemy “Music” (attributed to the first publishers of the astronomer) contains the geocentric planetary system of C. Ptolemy in its unity and connection with musical phenomena, adjustable regulating function number. The order of the planets as Ptolemy of ancient music reflects a complete system, covering two octave range on the basis of “permanent” sounds very attractive as a source of philosophical substance sphere of the elements (fire, air, water, earth), the final image is the zodiacal sphere of “fixed stars”. This article is made on the basis of the author’s translations (in collaboration with T. G. Myakin) missing earlier in the Russian literature of treatises Nicomachos and Ptolemy.

Music competitions for students of different specialties on the course piano

Shevchenko Tatyana Vladimirovna

Modern research on musical competitions began to appear at the turn of the twenty-first century. But scientifically-methodical literature on contests is still small. Some problems of musical competitions is studied in the works of N. Bazhanov, M. Zilberkvit, G. Kogan. However, these studies relate primarily to international competitions in the specialty. Scientific thought has not yet really developed sources about contests for students for which piano is not the primary instrument or specialty. However, there are already a sufficient number of such competitive platforms. Just as each format for the performing arts has its own idea, style and ideal, these contests have their purpose and goal. And if the main purpose of piano competitions is to identify the best candidate, the contests of the General course piano rather draw public attention to the piano as the universal instrument, stimulate the interest among students of other specialties, raise the prestige of the subject piano. With a sufficient number of such events in Russia is seriously reputable, we can safely say that the contests for students of different specialties on the course of piano demand, bring real benefits to the younger generation of musicians and have good prospects for development.

Music for harp by Andrey Molchanov

Pokrovskaya Nadezhda Nikolaevna

The article touches upon the problem of the limitations of modern children’s and ensemble music for harp. Educational repertoire of children music schools often are artistically weak plays with monotonous emotional sphere. Their texture is often uncomfortable as composers not know tool features. In addition, they do not take into account the characteristics of children of different ages, the specificity of their perception and physical abilities. Modern plays of the rolling nature where you can develop a game apparatus of the child very little. It forces teachers to turn to the works of the harp-composers. In their compositions organic textures often coexists with poverty of musical thought. On this background a great event for harp was the cycle «10 pieces for harp» by A. S. Molchanov due to the high qualities of music. Among them are pieces of lyrical, moving and distinguishing, which can play children and in elementary school, and older students. The nature of the programme music, its melodiousness and expressiveness of intonation that make it accessible to children’s perception and easy to remember. In this opus, the author demonstrated his knowledge of the capabilities of the instrument, which led to the ease of billing and presenting the rich timbre of the harp. The uniqueness of his «Variations on the theme of Schnittke» consists in the choice of instruments - the harp and the organ - and the skill of the composer. In a relatively small volume of work he has shown proficiency in many styles and techniques of writing and created a truly Russian music.

On the role of traditional instruments in the opus of the young national schools of composition

Drozhzhina Marina Nikolaevna

The article presents a quest of category capable of reflecting essential parameters of traditional instrument’s presence in composer opuses by MNCS (young national composition schools) representatives. Preliminary analysis revealed that, in addition to providing some distinctive «cultural apperception», it is here that we find the composers’ attitude to traditional instrument as some integral personified relief object, behind which there is also its mystical story that established certain semantics in national traditions, along with capability to predefine traditional art’s intonation-modal patterns. As a result, the composer does not think with the tone but presents a particular folk instrument as a participant in the process of the form’s establishing. Relying on the works of composers and project participants of the American cellist Yo- Yo Ma “The Great Silky Way”, the author supposes that the category capable of reflecting hierarchical correlation of the instrument as an integral phenomenon and its most individualized sound property - i.e. timbre - is the artistic concept comprehended in domestic conceptology as a cluster of culture in consciousness, description of which can be given through the sphere of the musical image «living» through the period of composition’s sounding. In the end the timbre, being the most stable and prominent element of the instrument-created image, claims to be the concept’s kernel function. Therefore, it is possible to speak about the attitude to the traditional instrument as a concept - image of traditional culture with vividly expressed semantics, materialized in correlation with it in the academic music’s context.

Path in three quarters of a century: the anniversary of the Siberian composers union

Goncharenko Svetlana Sergeevna

The article covers the evolution of the Symphony, one of the leading genres in Siberian music. For the first time gives an overview of works created for the 75-years, when the Siberian organization of the Russia Composers Union exists: from the Symphony-Cantata «Vengeance» (1943) by A. Novikov to the Symphony «Positive worlds” (2016) by A. Molchanov. The analytical method hy M. Aranovsky allows to show in the article the directions, characteristic for the contemporary Russian music are converted by Western Siberia composers. The author pays special attention to music composers, who work with cyclic form systematically. 10 symphonies hy A. Murov (1961-1991) demonstrate the installation in search of an alternative to the invariant of the classical sonata cycle. 5 symphonies by K. Lakin, which catchs up the relay-race of Siberian Symphony music in recent decades, show the composer’s adherence to the idea of “updates within the Canon”. This article contains a comparative analysis of two cycles in five parts: Symphonies by E. Kravtsov in h-moll (Barnaul) and Symphony No. 3 with solo piano in D by K. Lakin (Tomsk). In the first case through the use of stylizing classical genres (symphonies of V. Mozart) and Baroque genres (Passions by J. S. Bach and Opera by K. Monteverdi) the modeling method helps to create the tragic concept. In the second case, the distribution of the models are borrowed in classic (Sonata), Baroque (Prelude and Fugue) and late romantic (in the spirit of the Mahler Adagio) music are subordinated to the logic of the dramatic conception “from darkness to light”, typical for classic and romantic music. The problem of modeling as a way of resuscitation semantic capabilities of the classical Sonata-symphony cycle acquires actuality in aspect of the classicizing trends in contemporary art and art science.

Reflections on the phenomenon of composer school of Askold Murov

Kurlenya Konstantin Mikhailovich

This article focuses on the “eternal” problem of the artistic school unity. It investigates the profound psychological influences and connections appearing among the artistic school founder, his students and successors based on the example of the professional school of musical composition established by Murov Askold Fyodorovich. The article proves the peculiarity of principles uniting Murov’s school. It also compares them with Harold Bloom’s theory of influence and speculates on ethical and didactic aspects of the artistic school unity. The article gives an insight into the most important aspect of Murov’s creative evolution. In the course of time Murov was becoming more and more devoted to the art and moral self- sacrifice as he himself had seen it. When creating his pieces, he used his predecessors’ experience as a basis and he desired it to serve not as an obligatory rule established by the senior colleagues, but as freely functioning expressive means which could reveal any of his creative ideas. Murov succeeded in uniting around himself those people who had become close to him in some ways. This altogether real and quite tangible creative union has always existed without any formal declarations or oaths. The article calls this phenomenon “creative faith movement”. Murov managed to convert his most gifted students to it. It is the vector of this movement which has created the cultural field imbued with correlating though unseen currents: this is how one inexplicably perceives the artistic school unity.

The formation of musical knowledge in the context of geographical discoveries in Siberia: experience of historical research

Shindin Boris Alexandrovich, Pylneva Lada Leonidovna

The article is devoted to the formation of musicology on the territory of Siberia within the boundaries of the 16th-21st centuries, from the beginning of the development by settlers from the European part of the Russian state to the present time. At the centre of the problem is the analysis of diverse data on the description of various aspects of the Siberian reality. Following the traditions of modern source study, the authors refer to the following typology of sources: documentary, narrative, scientifically oriented. The sources combine information of historical, geographical, economic, archaeological, ethnographic cultural character, which was a complex syncretic formation in the early stage of Siberian historiography. The development of the knowledge of music art is considered in a sequence of three périodes. The first of them is associated with the accumulation of musical information, their gradual separation from the syncretic community and the acquisition of an independent status. The beginning of the second période is determined by the appearance of separate, already independent publications, directly dedicated to music (the the middle of the eighteenth and all nineteenth centuries). The third période is expediently connected with the processes of formation of the Siberian musicology as a systemic area of knowledge represented by various scientific directions (especially second half of the 20th century). Consideration of the sequence of the proposed périodes will further reconstruct the formation of the Siberian musicology.

The ideal-meaning motives of the Vygovian service sacred confessors, new Russian sufferer

Svetlova Olga Alexandrovna

The article is devoted to the unique written monument of the Russian Old Believer Hymnography of the first third of the 18th century - “Service to the holy confessors, the new Russian sufferers” which was created by Simeon Denisov, one of the founders of Vygovian Desert. The service was revived in the liturgical practice of the community of the Russian Orthodox Old Believer Church in Novosibirsk. The purpose of the study is to examine the ideological and semantic content of the service, the main task is to identify the main motives of the service and their functional and compositional characteristics. The analysis of the text was made from a manuscript collection of the 30s. XIX century, from the Druzhinin’s Collection No. 827 of the Library of the Academy of Sciences. The article considers the features of the reflection of the historical theme of the ideological and spiritual breakthrough of Russia in the 17th century and the consequences of church reform in the service. The main motives of the martyrdom are determined and analyzed. The author reveals the following patterns in the organization of the ideological and semantic space of the hagiographie cycle. Cross-cutting motives that develop throughout the cycle and determine the type of service, are 1) martyrdom; 2) confession of ancient piety and defense of paternal traditions; 3) a petition of mercy and salvation. Three other motives are localized in specific sections of the service and have a specific function. The event-historical motive takes upon itself the exposition function in the cycle - in sticherons «Lord call to you» (‘Gospodi vozzvakh’). The dogmatic motive is connected with the exposition of the bases of the patristic - the Old Believer teaching, it concentrates in the microcycle sticherons on ‘litiya’ and 7-8 songs of the canon. The motive of joy, triumph and glorification of the deed of saints is concentrated in the magnification (‘velichanie’) and microcycles of sticherons on verse (stikhovne) and sticherons on praises (‘khvalitekh’) at the conclusion of the cycle. Thus Vygovsky master Simeon Denisov, based on the ancient Russian hagiographie canon, builds a certain order of development of the ideological and semantic motives of the service: from the event-historical motive through the dogmatic to the idea of glorifying the martyrdom and confession of the saints’s feat.

The synaesthetic interpretation of the I. Stravinsky’s opera «The Nightingale»

Mizyurkina Olga Vladimirovna

In the article a synaesthetic interpretation of Stravinsky’s first opera “The Nightingale” is offered. The importance of the composer’s choosing the text of Andersen’s fairy tale containing a rich polysensory environment is noted. The attraction Japanese engraving composite features of, which became a visual-spatial code of interpretation of the opera, is proved. The realization of the principles of the performance theater aesthetics of in the playwrighting of the opera, given in particular in the elements of montage, the objectivity of the author’s assessment, and the dramatic heat relief is traced. It is pointed out that the regularities of the non-linear perspective of composition and the precise drawing of Japanese lines engraving found in the opera an organic combination with the aesthetics of the performance theater and the synesthetic musical sound with a special timbre convexity of musical images and the saturation of the inimodal coordinates. Three analytical fragments are given: the song of the Fisherman from the 1st act, the song of the Nightingale from the 2nd act and the song of the artificial nightingale. In the analysis, a synaesthetic opposition of visually-pictorial and gravitational-kinesthetic coordinates of the musical language of characters belonging to the sphere of nature and colorless and purely graphic qualities of the sound of an artificial nightingale is revealed. The realized synaesthetic interpretation allows to reveal the embodiment of the image of the artist, the creator as the bearer of art connected with nature, and the opposing soulless mechanistic civilization more completely.

To the problem of preserving the song folklore of Crimean Karaites

Dubrovskaya Marina Yuzefovna

Specific instances of the song folklore of Crimean Karaites at the present stage is associated with the reduction and extinction of this tradition. The study of this situation in the process forwarding of the trip of the author with the support of RFBR grant No. 17-04-18017 in the framework of the project «Collection of field material on traditional musical heritage of the Crimean Karaites» helped to clarify the special problem of preserving the national musical and artistic heritage of this unique indigenous people of Crimea. Founded over fifty years ago, the problem connected with catastrophic reduction of members of this small ethnic group on the territory of Crimea and its disappearing language, reflects the dramatic historical fate of the existence of the traditional musical culture of the Karaites. Tool in promoting change in the current situation, the author sees the restoration of tradition through the phenomena of folklorization, etc. The article shows the range of outstanding educators for the Karaite people of the XX-XXI centuries, whose active years of work in the Crimea has largely contributed and continues to contribute to preservation and revival of the musical folklore of the Karaites. Author identify unfairly overlooked by researchers of the individual folk singers: A. S. Baldji and R. L. Shpakovskaya. First published data on letter from A. S. Baldji reveal a previously unknown facet of her appearance.


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