The article presents the author’s view on the dualistic situation that developed around a traditional theatre in China. Theatre Xiqu will never have the high value that was assigned to it during the period of the Chinese middle Ages. The massive changes in the country and the world that took place during the twentieth century radically affected every aspect of the existence of the Chinese. The originality and identity of traditional drama, most clearly manifested in its quintessence - Beijing Opera jingju, that allowed it to become a national symbol of Chinese culture in an international scale. Despite the fact that the stock of the artistic value of this genre, which ensures its durability, is great, China is taking active steps to ensure that this unique theatre has continued to live. Not the last role in the preservation of traditional drama belongs to the halls, where Xiqu performances take place. A three hundred year old authentic building of the Janjici theatre is among them, it is one of the most remarkable gems of theatrical architecture, located in the heart of Beijing. A very special spirit of antiquity touching the viewer is a time bridge connecting with the characters of bygone eras. Such immersion in classical performing arts, tuned to every sound and gesture, is able to give the visitors of the theatre new emotional sensations and experiences, the desire to share and to wait a new meeting with the beautiful. Until then, lives the inspired audience, and their theater is also alive.
The article is devoted to the music genre modification, the central issue of art. In this regard, we consider the specific problems caused by the typological variety of contemporary choral a cappella music. Describing the methodological aspects of the leading branches of musical genres of choral a cappella music, the author relies on the key provisions of the scientific and methodological developments of the influential scientists of the XX-XXI century (B. Asafyev, Y. Tyulin, S. Skrebkov, A. Sochor, L. Mazel, B. Zuckerman, M. Aranovsky V. Medushevsky, A. Sokolov, M. Lobanov, V. Kholopova, Yu. Paisov, G. Grigorieva, L. Parkhomenko, T. Mdivani, G. Tsmyg). As the result of the study of these choral works, the author proposes solutions to complex tasks in several directions. One of them is built on the following positions: external (functions: historical (social, aesthetic, and communicative), internal (cast, structure, methods of musical expression, nature of image-content areas, authoring nomination, temporal and spatial parameters). According to the author, the mentioned constants are constantly interacting and complementing each other. Another direction is the allocation of choral music genres according to the principle of interoperability and continuity. Inter-genre and poly-genre synthesis are related to the principle of interoperability, the continuity is characterized by intra-genre synthesis.
The problem of adaptation of traditional national musical heritage in a Western system remains relevant to the Japanese Musical National Composers School. This proves that the Japanese Symphony School has covered a lot of ground - from Yamada to contemporary composers of the XXI century. One of the solutions to the identified problem was a Symphony of Nagauta ‘Tsurukame’ by Kosaku Yamada (1934), which combines the original -traditional - text with the composer’s original material. Many young national composers in the first third of the twentieth century turned to ‘Etenraku’, a popular piece from the classical Gagaku repertoire, significant for the Japanese artistic tradition; among them are: Konoe, Hidemaro, Ifukube Akira, Toyama Yuzo, Gakubu Konate, Miyagi Michio and others. The article considers two examples of embodiment of classical pieces: Arrangement for mixed orchestra ‘Etenraku’ (1931) by Konoe hidemaro and the Theme and 11 variations of ‘Etenraku’ (1951) by Matsudaira Arizona. The purpose of H. Konoe was the desire as closely as possible to match the original. In this regard, the composer brought the acoustic sound of European instruments close to the sounds of traditional Japanese ones. A similar effect was achieved by special ways of producing sound and unusual timbrai combinations. In variations of Matsudaira E. traces of the most relevant styles of famous European composers can be found. This piece interprets common form of free variations on an original theme, correlating with the genre of the Rhapsody for piano and orchestra. Thus, Etenraku encompasses a great potential for various interpretations of composition: from transcriptions (fulfilled by Konoe) to a brand new Avant-garde interpretation of decontextualization (embodied by Matsudaira). Etenraku, in this case, acts as a stimulus to his own compositional solution to the problem of adaptation of the traditional material.
The article considers the novel written by a classical writer and scientist. A novel is connected with all components of a musical form: structure, dynamics, melodics, harmony. In the folklore of the late 1920s, geographic differences of separate districts disappear, and the country appears as Arcadia. It presents poetic unity: an expanse imbued with light, an image of a world song and a singing world. Index of breathing regularity is sound quality. Breathing can be subordinated to the singer’s will. The author’s use of bast pictures is not for an entourage. Non-ceremonial songs present pictures of national way of life, an image of a woman the family-gatherer. Limericks entirely reflect the national axiology. The vocal structure of limericks-sufferings presents an integral semantic field with key expressivity semes «to love - to suffer». Allegoric image of lass’s sufferings - Gretchen from Goethe’s tragedy - is hidden in the musical concreteness of a limerick. As in an ancient tragedy, there is a choral interlude. «Chorus» consists of a big foundation of works, which was the source of lines and scenic ideas for the characters. In Nikolev’s novel, the whole spectrum of musical genres is collected. Music culture is perceived as nature in which nothing exists separately. And Goethe’s tragedy is a mythological code of this community. Musical images are connected with memory motive: personal, cultural, historical.
The paper is devoted to consideration of the mode organization of the model tunes used by Tuva-Toju performing the songs of the kozhamyk genre. The mode organization is founded on a pentatonic scale, the possible inclusions of whole-tone segment being its feature. A total scale of kozhamyk includes two octaves, however a scale of songs is much narrower and includes 5-7 levels. A scale surely includes a tetrachord of E G A h, despite the size of an ambitus and structure of a scale. The author defines functionally significant levels which are the levels allocated compositionally and melodically. Among the former are the initial and final levels of songs, strophes, lines and semi-lines. In the paper only final levels of songs are analyzed. In this guide four levels D, E, G and A are allocated, however only two of them E and G («a hasic third»), which are set in the middle of a scale, are the main support of mode organization of kozhamyk. In the melodic organization of model tunes levels of the main tetrachord of e, g, a and h are the most important. They dominate in their total temporary duration in a tune, thus in this parameter the levels are almost equal. Objectivity of analytical conclusions of the author is confirmed by statistical research of the considered parameters.
In the article problems of research of music of the Silk Road, as the unique cultural community of the past that left traces in the form of monuments, references, musical instruments, are considered. The main approach to the research is the East-East couple, equally relevant for this region of the world if compared with the known East-West one. The theory of musical and cultural tradition of J. Mikhaylov is considered the most adequate method to research the declared perspective. Forms of cultural contact, assimilation, loan, and parallel existence are considered as options of interaction of musical cultures of the Silk Road. In the article the following objective difficulties of studying the music of the region are analyzed: huge geographical and temporary scales of the Silk Road demanding coordination of experts of different areas of knowledge, unequal degree of musical cultures study, difference in scientific positions of regional musicology schools. Ethno-organology studying musical instruments from different points is considered as one of priority branches of research of these problems. Linear measures of musical instruments bear traces of their origin, helping to find out the origin and the distribution region of an instrument. On the example of a Central Asian Nye flute and the Chinese Di zi, the process of repeated migration of a musical instrument in the region of the Silk Road that finds relevance today is considered.
The article considers the pedagogical terms of teacher and students’ creative collaboration in piano class in the system of higher musical-pedagogical education. Among them: - support of students’ steady professional interest in piano class by creation of pedagogically comfortable creative environment; - democratic style of pedagogical communication, in which the dialogue is aimed at the joint search and becomes mutual studying, basis of creative collaboration of direct participants of educational process at higher school; - pedagogical guidance over students’ performing activity, that will orient them to future professional-pedagogical work; development of students independence in mastering, analyzing and generalizing of knowledge, abilities and skills received in the process of learning to play the piano.
Important of composers of three generations: senior (P. O. Chonkushov), middle (A. N. Mandgiyev), junior (G. A.Mandgiyeva). Embodied in the various types of musical signs: icons, indexes, symbols, it firmly took its place in the musical world as a picture print of Siberian tragedy of Kalmyks.
The article is devoted to the work of an outstanding Novosibirsk musician - teacher and pianist - Dina Leonidovna Shevchuk. The author’s interest in the topic caused not only by a desire to highlight the activities of one of the leading specialists of the Novosibirsk State Conservatoire, who made a contribution to the development of piano pedagogy and performing school of Novosibirsk. Mainly we considered and analyzed a huge reservoir of Shevchuk’s creativity such as the performance of Scriabin’s works, which is one of the main aspirations in her repertoire. Scriabin is considered innovative; in his symphonic and piano works, the composer embodied his sound world, a system of images and expressive means. Many pianists, D. Shevchuk among them, has been interested in characteristic for Scriabin’s music finesse, nervous emotion, and passionate pathos. Such repertory orientation and sincere enthusiasm for the composer’s work, which had started in the years of study at the Conservatoire in the class of E. M. Zinger, identified further work of Dina Leonidovna. She has played many of Scriabin’s works, which allows talking about her as of one of the leading Skriabin scholars in Siberia.
Robustova L., Svetlova O., Osipova N., Shchitova L., Guseva I.
Problem article actualizes the topical issues of regional professional musical education; its current state has a number of negative parameters. The conference participants discussed it frankly and keenly. Instructions on the measures taken and proposals for a way out of the crisis, which is not unique to the Siberian region, but also for the entire country, are valuable for the musical-pedagogical community. The key idea of the conference and this publication is to develop new opportunities for optimal interaction and continuity of educational institutions that are part of a unified system of “school-college-high school”, aiming at improving national professional music education.
The paper contains an attempt to comprehend the twenty-five years of productive and innovative work of Orientalists of the Ethnomusicology Department at the Novosibirsk Conservatoire from scientific and pedagogical points of view. It is considered in the context of main directions of the university activities and Russian Oriental Studies, including ones in the sphere of music. The achievements of the ethnomusicologists in following areas are analyzed: the theoretical understanding of professional traditional Eastern music (School of S. P. Galickaya, Yu. N. Plakhov), Sinology (School of V. V. Mazepus), Arabic Studies (A. Y. Plakhova), Indology (G. B. Sichenko and his students), Japanese Studies (school of M. Yu. Dubrovskaya). The conclusion is on the significance of the Conservatoire Ethnomusicological department’s venerable teachers and young scientists using progressive approaches of folklorists, active fieldwork and support of the scientific foundations of the Russian Federation, Europe and Asia. This allowed the Orientalists-ethnologists of the Novosibirsk Conservatoire achieve prestigious positions in the musical Oriental science in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to make a worthy contribution to the Foundation for Basic Research of Chinese, Arab, South Asian and Japanese music owned by ethnologists in foreign East, the USA and Western Europe.