Вестник музыкальной науки


“100 spiritual concerts” by L. Viadana: Renaissance or Baroque

Causse Olga Gillermanovna

The article is devoted to the popular genre of the New age - concert, appeared at the junction of two eras: the Renaissance and the Baroque. The study is based primarily on works by L. Viadana, as well as on the works of his contemporaries (O. Vecchi, G. Gabrielli, T. L. de Victoria, J. Sweelinck). Since a huge role in his development was played by this Italian composer turning point-transitional” period of. In article attempt of the analysis of the genre through the prism of the era and style. And also carried out a detailed analysis of several concerts L. Viadana’s famous collection “Cento concerti ecclesiastici”. It is based on the methodology of both domestic and foreign scientists (experts in the field of Renaissance and Baroque music). This takes into account two points of view (an authentic and contemporary) and combines the two approaches (historical and analytical). Subjects of the study were concerts by Viadana of three different books, for various performing ensembles and with different liturgical sources. The article discusses certain aspects of this phenomenon. A brief description of characteristic features the genre in the early seventeenth century. And also presented some results of studying concerts of L. Viadana.

Bandola is the unknown ancient musical instrument

Burkhanov Arkadiy Gennadievich

Lack of authentic data on this instrument in literature on historical organology in Russian and separate contradictory data of foreign authors have caused writing of this article. The purpose of article is formation of an integral image of a musical instrument of the past on the basis of generalization and specification of data from historical sources and their modern interpretations. The researcher of this subject Monica Hall noted that mentions of the Vandola don’t meet except the versions of the treatise published in the 18th century in the Catalan or Valencian languages with alleged, but unproven attribution of texts to a feather of the Catalan educator of a boundary of the 16-17th centuries Juan Carlos Amat and editions of the authors who have borrowed from there parts of the text anywhere. The compatriot of Amat Pablo Minget у Yrol (apprx. 1715-1801) was one of the authors using not literal, but obvious loans. Tell repeated reprintings of their texts during the subsequent eras about popularity of these authors. By comparison of the Amat’s text with the only image and the plagiatory description of a Vandola from the treatise of Minget it has become clear that the Vandola had six courses which are tuned like many-stringed instruments of Renaissance. The historical paradox is that manuals on practical development of this typologically “Renaissance” instrument were published from the middle of 18th until the end of the 19th century. Bandola is described in these works not as a historical anachronism but as “perfect” and “more widespread” musical instrument, than kinds of related tools with smaller quantity of strings. Thus the present article is the specifying stroke to a picture of musical life of the past.

Baroque tradition in the spiritual work of I. F. Stravinsky: for example, second part of the “Symphony of Psalms”

Opaley Elena Nikolaevna

The focus of this article - the Baroque tradition of the second part of ’’Symphony of Psalms” by Igor Stravinsky. In this work, the composer connects traditional features polyphonic writing and the style of the great German composer I. S. Bach, but also concentrates new ideas that appeared in his subsequent spiritual writings related to religious themes. In the multi-faceted spiritual works of Stravinsky, this piece occupies a special place: “Symphony of Psalms” is “a kind of summary on the history of the world sacred music”. The Central part of the cycle is the conversion of the author to the pages of Bach’s writing. As a genre type of the second part of the selected composer polyphonic form of the Fugue into two themes: instrumental and vocal. The article discusses the reasons of the composer to polyphonic traditions of the strict style, including its special relationship to the creative style of Bach, as well as interest in polyphony as a science and as structure. Stravinsky in his work used a wide range of classical polyphony, as well as a number of different structural units, which helped to create a unique piece based on the Baroque genre and stylistic models.

Compositional model in neo-Baroque cycles the first quarter of the XX century

Goncharenko Svetlana Sergeevna

The article is devoted to the study functions and structures of simple genres in neo-Baroque Western music cycles. From late 1910’s-early 1920-ies becomes relevant again “super temporary” dramaturgic model “world in motion pictures”, established in the Baroque era. Multi-movement cyclic form is built on the contrast between the old and new dances, as well as parts of the non-dancing character. The author uses the comparative method and identifies invariants “text-donor” and converting them to “texts-recipients” (the expressions by A. Denisova). In the Suite “The Tomb of Couperin” (1917) by M. Ravel, the first scene of the Opera Wozzeck by A. Berg (1921), Suite op. 25 by A. Schoenberg (1923), the macrocycle solo violin sonatas (1923) by Eugene Ysaye identifies the General principles of free choice of the historical catalogue of simple genres. Constant remain functional definitions of Foreplay as the initial parts, continued series of dances (from two to four), lyric center (“Aria” by Berg, “Intermezzo” by Schoenberg) and the final (“Toccata” by Ravel, “Gigue” by Schoenberg). Innovation is manifested in the unification of the forming principles of different eras, stylistic synthesis of Baroque and expressionism traits by A. Berg and A. Schoenberg, Baroque, postromanticism and impressionism by E. Ysaye, neo-classicism and impressionism by M. Ravel.

Descriptive music of the French clavecinists: to the question of the methods of analyzing the musical works of the Baroque

Lysenko Svetlana Yurievna, Kirienko Irina Vyacheslavovna

This article addresses the actual problem of studying instrumental works of the Baroque era in the aspect of interaction of music with other kinds of music arts. In connection with certain difficulties in analyzing descriptive music of the Baroque era, the authors of the article attempted to attract an integrated methodology. According to the authors, the appeal to the semantic analysis of musical works, which opens new possibilities for the consideration of universal artistic methods of image and expression, accumulated by the Baroque era in the process of active interaction of the arts, is contemporary for decoding the musical content of Baroque works. At the same time, the authors suggest using the elements of the method of synaesthetic analysis, which is based on the ability of artistic thinking to interconscious associations and allows revealing such characteristics of the musical image that are at the intersection of various sensual modalities. Thanks to this systemic attribute, as synesthetic, artistic thinking has a volume, integrity, connecting the visual, plastic, tactile, and gravitational characteristics to the sound components of the musical image and integrating at the deep level of perception the common language elements of various art forms - gesture, color, period, sound, contour, etc. Using F. Couperin’s descriptive composition “Attractive” (L’engageante) as an example of the authors proposed the use of integrated methodology in studying descriptive compositions of music from past eras. It is suggested that the analysis of musical works in this aspect helps to reveal the meaning of the musical text fully and vividly.

Formation of academic instrumental performance in the Yenisei guberniya and the tradition of musical European Baroque

Tsareva Evgenya Sergeevna

The article on the basis of historical sources highlights the ways and forms of penetration into the instrumental and performing sphere of Krasnoyarsk of the baroque musical language, which constitutes the most important branch of the general European academic art. If the spread of elements of new traditions in the spiritual and partly domestic song environment in Krasnoyarsk was not separated by «centuries-old distances» from similar processes in the metropolis of Russia and chronologically began during the heyday of the Baroque style in the domestic art, the local instrumental performance was far behind and for a long time remained in the folk element. The first acquaintance with the instrumental traditions of baroque in Krasnoyarsk land took place in the XVIII century through foreign exiles, however, to take root in the local performing sphere, it took centuries. The development of academic performing arts in Krasnoyarsk is a powerful incentive with the formation of the Yenisei guberniya in 1822, the intensive development of cities and changes in their social structure in favor of increasing the number of educated people interested in consuming European artistic values. Nevertheless, the works of the Baroque era in the repertoire of local instrumentalists for a long time constitute a «missed phase». The first purposeful appeal of Krasnoyarsk musicians to the heritage of Western European Baroque dates back to the beginning of the Soviet period in the history of the Yenisei guberniya (1920-1921) and, simultaneously, to the first major culmination phase of all previous development of academic traditions in the regional musical culture.

Italian sonata in the middle of the XVII century (based on the material of the instrumental collection of Biagio Marini op. 22)

Smirnova Tatyana Vyacheslavovna, Sorochinskaya Tatyana Sergeevna

Relevance of approaching the stated subject allowed to concretize the traditional view on the principal genre of baroque instrumental music about of the Italian sonata at the early stage of its development. The research material was a collection of instrumental ensemble music “Per ogni sorte di stromento musicale diversi generi di sonate, da chiesa, e da camera, a due, tre & a quattro Opera 22” by Biagio Marini, one of the leading musicians of the first half of the XVII century. We have researched genre and composition-stylistic features for 25 compositions balletti, zarabande, correnti, sinfonie, sonate and passacalio included in the considered collection. According to the common opinion in musicology circles, Marini's instrumental collection is considerable in the history of the sonata genre. Study of this work resulted not only in creating a panorama of instrumental genres and forms spread of musical practice of the middle XVII century (commonly named with general term “sonata”), but also in clarifying the terms “sonate da chiesa” and “sonate da camera” frequently used in modern musicology in relation to the phenomenon of instrumentalism of the studied period.

Myths about Maksym Berezovsky reasons of emergence and ways to overcome

Shumilina Olga Anatolievna

The article is devoted to the 240 th anniversary of Maxiym Berezovsky’s death -one of few documented facts of composer’s biography. We consider and refuse false information about life and creation of Berezovsky, deeply rooted in historiography and taken by all of us for genuine biographical information. The research is based on learning of intravital documental materials, which gave opportunity for refutation erroneous information and reconstruction of real events of Berezovsky’s creative biography. The reasons why these events have been subjected further to free interpretation, which was the beginning point for the emergence of myths. Refuted: 1) Berezovsky’s church service in court singing chapel; 2) lack of work and facilities for existence in the period, following after coming back from Italy in 1773; 3) suicide because of unsettled state, absence of demand, lack of decent work and money; 4) creation of a concert «Ne otverzhi mene vo vremya starosti» in hard life circumstances shortly before suicide; 5) stereotyped opinion about that all his concets Berezovsky has written in a manner of concert «Ne otverzhi» and a well-known musical text of this concert is genuine.

Organ sonata of baroque era: to the history of the genre appearance

Bochkova Tatyana Rudolfovna

In the article the first samples of the clavier sonata of the end of the XVII - first half of the XVIII century, directly pre-appointed or implying execution on the organ, are considered. Here we are talking about the variability of the choice of keyboard instruments, determined by the “trend” of the era and underlined by the name of collections that “pushed” from one of the first meetings like the kind that was published in Paris in 1531. This is published by P. Atteignant “Tabulatures pour le jeu des Orgues, Espinettes et Manicordions” (“Tabulatures for the playing of Organs, Espinettes and Manicordions”). This tradition, prevalent in all European countries, has proved itself the most steadily in Italy and is firmly entrenched here, so special attention is paid in this article to Italian models. In particular, the original treatise-textbook Adriano Bankieri “L'Organo suonarino” and the collection of Giulio Cesare Arresti “Sonate da organi di varii autori”, which is considered one of the first collections of sonatas (understood as one-part polyphonic pieces and representing the popular genres of the era - canzons of various types, ricercar, capriccio) with a clear indication of their performance on the organ. The examples of these collections analyze the options for interpreting the genre in its original mobility, related to the interpretation of the concept of “sonata” in baroque compositional practice.

Pachelbel’s Canon in the mass music of the XX-XXI centuries

Lavelina Zhanna Alijevna

The article discusses the citation phenomenon in the musical arts through the example of the Baroque composition D-dur Canon written by the German composer Johann Pachelbel. His rich musical legacy which has greatly influenced I.S. Bach music is to be fully studied by Russian musicians in the future. D-dur Canon belongs to the group of artistic creations that succeeded to become well-known in isolation from their historical context. On the one hand, this fact increases the eternal value of classical music. On the other hand, the Canon was not recognized at all in due time, and it became incredibly popular only thanks to fashion variability, showing that the classic music is also a subject of its influence. As academic, as mass musical culture both use the compositional citing method. The briconic type of thinking in mass musical culture introduces impersonal creativity type specifics into modern mass music. At the same time, communicative function in intertextual relations between art objects is more important, because it promotes a productive intercultural dialogue.

Paraphrasing the Baroque Hymn “O Heiland, reiß die Himmel auf’ in the modern Russian Mass

Fidenko Yulia Leonidovna

The article presents chant of the Baroque period, which is used in modern religious practices of Catholic parishes of Russia. Significant modification of religious repertoire caused by reforms of The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), which allowed using the national language and various music during a worship. A lot of hymn arrangements of different epochs, especially of Renaissance and Baroque includes in Mass. Actuality of the article is due to absence of Russian hymnography research of XX-XXI centuries. The author notes, that modern liturgical life of catholic chants can be analyzed as a paraphrase problem. Paraphrase is new textual and musical versions - author’s hymn arrangements. Analysis of russian versions chant of XVII century “O Savior, rend the heavens wide” (words of Friedrich von Spee) demonstrates lexical multiplicity of modern catholic repertoire. Russian interpretation of German hymn is used in parishes of Russia with different texts. Words paraphrases have various melody versions of Russian composers (A. Kulichenko, S. Movchan). The author concludes, that the variability of the contemporary Catholic repertoire is related to the situation of new liturgical communication after the Second Vatican Council reforms.

Refraction of Baroque principles in the works of Siberian composers

Pylneva Lada Leonidovna

The article provides information on forms of treatment to the musical phenomena of the Baroque in the works of composers of Siberia. Revealed several trends: 1) the use of the methods of polyphonic development, characteristic of the Baroque, in various sections of modern musical forms; 2) interpretation of polyphonic genres and forms typical of the Baroque in modern composers' letters; 3) the use of quotes to those of the Baroque as signs of the era or the specific media content; 4) the use of principles of monograms. Given demonstration experiments of A. F. Murov, S. G. Tosini in the interpretation of Baroque genres in modern techniques of composition. The article provides the analysis of a Fugue of E. N. Marcaich created in the jazz idiom. Discovered the direction of the composers' works in the Siberian republics: the creation of polyphonic pieces of music on the material of the national musical language. Following the trends of contemporary culture, combining elements of different genres in the works seems to be quite in the spirit of the time. Forms, genres and themes of the Baroque organically enter into dialogue with the similar events from other epochs, are implemented based on modern themes, the themes of folk origin, built on the traditional scale. Imitation and Fugue-like development is approved on the basis of the pentatonic scale, small frets, and other various scales. An example is opus, “Buryat-Mongolian chants” Tz. I. Irdyneev, which designed theme for zvukorjada the basis of “c - es - f - g”, the same interval composition tetrachord “d - f -g - a”, and trigone “c - es - f”.

Russian musical culture of XVIII century as an object of study

Shindin Boris Alexandrovich

The article is devoted to historical aspects of the study of Russian music of XVIII century. In certain circumstances, this layer of culture has not been studied yet in the XIX century became the object of attention of musicologists only in the XX century. In the few works of the first half of the century there has been only an approach to a systematic description of the emerging culture of the new time. These approaches are fully implemented in the second half of the century in the writings of T. N. Livanova, Yu. V. Keldysh, В. V. Dobrokhotov, S. S. Screbkov, M. G. Rytsareva, T. F. Vladyshevsky, E. M. Levashova, etc. In 1972 began publication of Monuments of Russian musical art: published musical scores of the operas V. A. Pashkevich, D. S. Bortniansky, М. M. Sokolowski, E. I. Fomin, Russian vocal lyrics of the XVIII century, including the collection of G. N. Teplova «Casually doing nothing». Description of culture of the XVIII century dedicated to the second and third volumes published in 80-ies «The history of Russian music». A study of musical issues of the XVIII century occurred in the circuit a three-tier system: the opening of new and the refinement of already known sources, their introduction into scientific practice by the publication of musical monuments by survey researchers. The perfect combination of these factors led to brilliant results. Neither earlier nor later musical culture of the XVIII century had such a holistic and problematic lighting. It is important to note that the research of musicologists and cultural traditions of the XVIII century was a natural part common to the Humanities in the process.

The Couperin Dynasty. Figures and facts

Zaitseva Lilia Alexandrovna

The article tells about the dynasty of French musicians of the XVII-XVIII centuries. Having collected the existing information from various foreign sources, in particular English and French, the author recreates for the first time a complete picture of the emergence of the Cuperen dynasty, beginning with its founder and up to the last representative of this kind. To date, Russian musicology literature does not have complete and detailed information on the stated topic. The article is based on author’s translations, in which an attempt was made to supplement information on one of the largest dynasties in the domestic musicology. The author proposes a method of chronological events, which allows us to trace the fate of musicians of the Cuperen family in stages. The article touches upon the origin of the family name, geographical location, sphere of activity, creativity, environment and life of musicians. In addition, the author uses curious information from the life of the French royal court run by Louis XIV and the unique quotation material contemporaries of the era. The author finds interesting parallels between the two great dynasties of the Cuperens and Bach, which existed at the same time interval. The Cuperens dynasty is undoubtedly the opening of a new page in Russian musicology, which makes it possible to broaden the scope of the historical epoch in question.

“The love gained through blood and murder, or Nero” by G. F. Handel to the problem of plot formation

Kosheleva Maria Alexandravna

Against of a global renaissance of baroque music, which began in the late XX century, the work of G. F. Handel is one of the main places. Most of his operatic works are highly appreciated by musical critics and not by chance, currently, Handel is one of the most accomplished composers of a long-held era. In this article, an attempt is made to draw attention to the early opera creation of G.F. Handel, written at the beginning of the creative path for the Hamburg theater “Gansemarkt”. Unfortunately, the score is completely lost, but there is a libretto, thanks to which, we can get acquainted with the poetic text and get some ideas about this opera. In addition to information about the history of the creation of the work, the article mainly reveals the features of its plot formation. It is known that this libretto caused a very ambiguous evaluation of the opera by the researchers. And one of the factors of the negative attitude of critics was his drama. The libretto reveals two plot-dramaturgic lines, with their characteristic plot motives: history-political and love. It is curious that only the first plays the role of dramaturgic logic and completeness. The second, being the leading, has become a «weak link» in the plot. The article reveals all these features, revealing the merits and demerits of this libretto.

The modern English composer John Tavener about the music of the Renaissance and Baroque

Miklukho Elena Olegovna

The modern English composer John Tavener (1944-2013) is a descendant of the famous composer and organist of the Renaissance John Taverner (1490-1545). Creativity of Tavener, whose works were noted by Igor Stravinsky and highly appreciated by Benjamin Britten, is a remarkable phenomenon of modern music. The main idea of John Tavener was a spiritual search and a return to the living traditions in music, which, in his opinion, lost the West. In his music, the composer turns to the traditions of various religions, cultures, historical epochs. Having passed the difficult path of spiritual quest, John Tavener adopted Orthodoxy in the Russian Orthodox Church in London. The period of creativity of the composer, more than 20 years (from the end 70’s to the end of the 90-ies of the XX century), is associated mainly with the appeal to Orthodox traditions, Old Russian, Russian, Greek, Byzantine cultures. The article examines the understanding of the music of the Renaissance and Baroque by Tavener and the appeal to the traditions of these epochs in the composer’s work. It is told about the influence of two significant composers of the Baroque period - Bach and Handel - on the creative path of John Tavener. About the use in the works of Tavener “material of Bach” and about the creation of chorals according to the principle of Bach. Also touched upon is the theme of Russian pre-Renaissance in art and the comprehension of its aspects by Tavener; about the influence on the composer of the icon of Andrei Rublev Trinity ; about Tavener’s statement about the dissonant polyphony of the epoch of the Russian Middle Ages, the late period of which has some features of the Renaissance in the musical culture.

Theological and rhetorical context of words and music in solo concerts of Baroque (on the example of selected songs for low bass by Johann Valentin Meder’s)

Stępniak Zbigniew

In this article the Author, as a singer performing Baroque music composed for the low male voice like his own (basso-profondo) like his own, has analized two pieces of music written for a bass solo and for an instrumental band: Jubilate Deo omnis terra и Gott, hilf mir denn das Wasser geht mir bis an die Seele by Johann Valentin Meder. The main aim of the paper was to present a theological exegesis of the texts of Psalm 69 and 100 that are used in the musical works in question. The Author also attempts to analyze the correlations between musical “rhetorical” figures and the textual layer of the concerts under study. A conscious interpretation of a musical work of art must be based on a profound understanding of the lyrics - a literary text; with religious texts it is also crucial to know its theological exegesis. This should result in the ability to recognize how verbal dramaturgy is reflected in the musical layer of the piece. Moreover, a performer of Baroque music needs to be familiar with rhetorical figures that elevate the dramaturgy in question. A detailed analysis of Meder’s works has revealed that the musical rhetoric of the Baroque style employed different ways of conveying emotions, expression, as well as of shaping word meanings. Music was used to draw pictures that contained particular words. The most important rhetorical figures include appropriate pausing, repetition of a short phrase, a part of music or a certain word. The number of repetitions is also of crucial importance. Rhetorical meaning is expressed by a particular key or key shift of the whole piece. Moreover, the rhetoric and symbolic meaning can be signalled by a given metre and its changes. J. V. Meder - a composer, a singer, an organist and a cantor was a broadly educated theologian who in a masterly way depicted theological depth of psalms in the music that he composed.

The traditions of the baroque theater in the presentation of the opera “Pomo d’Oro” by Antonio Chesti - Ludovico Burnacini in Vienna

Gavrilova Liydmila Vladimirovna

The goal of this article is to study the theatre presentation of A. Chesti’s opera in Hoftheater auf der Cortina. It was one of the biggest musical and theatrical events of the 17th century. Author gives more historical information and new facts about this opera. The role of Italian traditions is very important in the creating of the baroque theatrical and staging culture in Vienna. At the centre of problem is the influence of the traditions on the baroque decoration of court performances on the opera libretto. The author use the engravings created by M. Kussel, which based on the decorations by Ludovico Burnachini from A. Chesti’s opera “Pomo d’Oro”. The object of analysis is the libretto by F. Sbarro. The interpretation of the well-known Greek myth about “the apple of discord” integrates into the system of three-level hierarchical division of the stage space (upper, middle and lower levels). It was canonical images that developed during the Baroque era. The figurative structure and composition of the opera are confirming this thesis. The main result of research include the conclusions on the important role stage decoration in the establishment of types story and patterns of situation by the end of the 17-th century.

To the question of musical reconstruction of “The Comedy of the parable of the Prodigal son” by Simeon Polotsky: Kant, “Oh, Woe is me, a sinner” as part of the performance

Podolyak Mariya Sergeevna

To the question of musical reconstruction of “The Comedy of the parable of the Prodigal son” by Simeon Polotsky: Kant, “Oh, Woe is me, a sinner” as part of the performance This article is about the reconstruction of the play based on the school play of Simeon of Polotsky “The Comedy of the Parable of the Prodigal Son” and the kant “Oh, Woe is me, a sinner”. The connection of the first school comedy of Simeon Polotsky, liturgical service of the “Week about the Prodigal Son” and the “Oh, Woe is me, a sinner” kant is reviewed. Three pieces of work with different volume have textual and thematical overlaps. During the investigations three previously unpublished editions of the kants of the 18th and 19th centuries were discovered. On the basis of five editions of “Oh, Woe is me, a sinner” kant from the song collections of the end of the XVII-XIX centuries the features of melody, text structure and kant rhyme were revealed. Melody transformation line through three centuries is designated.

Translation of the libretto of the G. F. Handel's oratorio “Alexander's Feast” (HWV 75 “Feast of Alexander”) by I. S. Fedoseev

Seregina Natalya Semenovna

Ode by John Dryden «Alexander's Feast or The Power of Music» («Alexander's Feast, or the Power of music») (1697) is one of the most famous poems by the English poet. In 1736 G. F. Handel created the oratorio on the text of this ode. Russian translation of the ode by Dryden was first performed by A. H. Vostokov (1804), then by A. F. Merzlyakov (1806). A third translation of the same original made by V. A. Zhukovsky in June of 1812. In 1977 came the translation by E. Schuster for the anthology «Library of world literature» (Vol. 41). Oratorio by Handel was performed 18.06.2009 in Saint-Petersburg. In the annotation to the concert was published translation of the libretto of the oratorio by G. F. Handel by I. S. Fedoseev. The article gives a brief analysis of these transfers and cited the latter as arising in line with the Handel tradition. Translation of the ode by Dryden, performed by Ivan Sergeevich Fedoseev, should occupy in the series of historically successive translations into the Russian language this work its worthy place as a poetic essay, who expressed the opinion of a musician of high class.

Versal anthems by Orlando Gibbons

Karman Elena Vitalievna

The article is devoted to the genre of the anthem of the vernacular type in the creation of Orlando Gibbons. Its development can be traced at the turn of the 16 th - 17 th centuries in accordance with the European tendency to strengthen the concert qualities of musical compositions. The analysis of the interaction of the verbal basis and the architectonics of works, textural regularities, intonation-thematic correlation of the sections resulted in the identification of the features of the anthem of Gibbons as a representative of early Baroque stylistics. The composer uses the existing model of the genre, updating it from within. In the group of anthems of the traditional plan, the equal-scale solo-choral sections are revealed, the choral episodes of the verbal text and the intonational-melodic material of the verse utterance are repeated in a new textual exposition. Following Byrd, the tendency to a large-scale predominance of solo sites enriched with features of recitative and arious singing with a moderate use of virtuosic turns is being implemented, and a reduction in choral ones. Appeal to the recurrent (refrain) compositions indicates the implementation of patterns of song formation. The increased number of soloists to eight allows you to reflect the meaning of the verbal text using different combinations of voices, often with the logic of successive addition of solo parts; along with the mobile choral composition with the inclusion of internal ensemble techniques, contrast material is introduced into adjacent versai / choral sections. In the above features, the principles of the concert style are clearly manifested.


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