Вестник музыкальной науки


24 preludes for solo cello by M. Weinberg: cycle treatment

Goncharenko Svetlana Sergeevna

This article is the first to study the cycle of cello miniatures by Moses Weinberg (1919- 1996). The relevance of the topic is determined by the demand for the composer’s work in contemporary performing practice, both in Russia and abroad. 24 preludes for solo cello, op. 100 (1969) were performed by such musicians as B. Andrianov, A. Zhilin (Russia), I. Feigelson (USA). In 2017-2018, in Moscow, Baku, Novosibirsk, G. Kremer presented an audio-visual composition: G. Kremer performed his own violin arrangement of the cycle, against the background of installations of the Lithuanian photoartist A. Sutkus. The author of the article proves the validity of the interpretation of M. Weinberg’s cycle as a kind of audio photo album, considers it to be a type of fused catalog Suite. In the dramaturgy and composition of the work, M. Weinberg uses Baroque models of small forms, the Baroque principle of pair at several compositional levels. The main constructive way of the cycle formation, as well as in the “Well-tempered clavier” by I. S. Bach, is the modern system of sound-pitch organization. In the Baroque era it is 12-tone tempered system, in the twentieth century - chromatic 12-tone tonality. In 24 preludes for cello solo M. Weinberg carries out the synthesis of the principles of the Baroque cycle formation, romanticism and modern trends of the XX century.

About heroes and heroines of the lyrico-psychological drama in the Western European romanticism: Azucena (“II Trovatore”)

Aymakanova Anastasia, Gorbunova Tatyana Valeryevna

Art of the 19th century generated several types of the literary and scenic character. As a reflection of an inner self of the romantic artist, such kind of character gained not only new portrait features, but also in some ways new dramaturgic duties. As a performance core it transformed space around itself: some elements of a traditional meaningfulness were changed; the general color justified with the place and time of an action; other related characters were changed as well. First and foremost, they are female characters. The idea of female insanity at any of its forms penetrates into the romantic opera gradually. In the course of genre crystallization the heroines are quickly subdivided into two types: an image of an idealized, highly poetical woman and an image of an enterprising and decisive one, who is capable to influence destiny. The first ones are almost in all cases a coloratura soprano, the second ones are mezzo. In spite of differences in dramaturgical function and their technological creation on the stage, the root of romantic heroines is uniform that is strong, deep passions which are permanently leading to the tragedy (Elvira Bellini, Gilda, Aida, Amneris and Azucena Verdi) The single following to an impulse escalates into obsession of love, jealousy, revenge. The more common features are gained by kindred opera heroines, the heavier responsibility falls on singers when it is necessary for them to create an image of the unique, unforgettable scenic character without exceeding performing traditions.

About the specifics of musical contents in the Children Album of Alexey Nasedkin

Tveritina Yelena Vladimirovna

The presented article is the research result of composing, dramatic and intonation-lexical peculiarities of piano cycle by Alexey Nasedkin not studied before. The children album is considered from the point of view of grounded genre which conditionally formed two directions of children’s music: “music for children” and “music about children” (В. V. Asafiev). In the process of the research the author reveals traditional and specific peculiarities of the musical stylistics of the genre conditioned by the performing manner and personal qualities of a pianist, composer and teacher. Therefore, nostalgia emotional tone of intonation expression witnessing careful author’s attitude to his professional sources became the key one. The dramaturgic plan of the Children Album in a narrow view is arranged as the series of “diary” notes about the events of a day of childhood, and in a broad view - as various impressions of many-sided but quickly passed life. The image-meaning conception of the composition is formed as the result of interaction of three main lines: lyrical-psychological, spiritual-moral and the theme of nature and a man. Polyphonic mentality of the composer and facture “relationship” of Nasedkin-performer’s children pieces with the opuses for adult pianists (preludes and sonatas) emphasize the unity of a creative personality’s features. Intertextual dialogues with the works of composers of the past (citing, allusions, stylization) let indicate the important sides of the style and creative method of Nasedkin and get the Children Album placed into the context of the world music classics for children and grown-ups.

Arif Melikov’s sixth symphony “Contrasts”: variations and theme

Pazycheva Inna Valerievna

The article reviews A.Melikov’s sixth symphony “Contrasts”, which reflected some development peculiarities of the genre of the 20 th century. The symphony represents a considerable interest for musicology, both in terms of research of forming tendencies and in the context of defining its intertextual connection within the framework of the author’s style. The problem of the article was developed in accordance with the modern scientific paradigm in musicology, which was offered in the works of Russian scientists. An important reference for the author were S. Gorcharenko’ and Y. Skurko’s scientific ideas - about specifics of the integrative method of thematic organization, V. Zaderatsky’s and V. Kholopova’s - about the form “variation and theme”, L. Shaimukhametova’s - about “migrating intonational formula”. One-part structure of the Sixth symphony is considered from the perspective of the principle of variant integration, leading to the formation of the form “variation and theme” in the article. Author’s quote from the ballet “The Legend of Love” - Mehmene Banu’s theme constructed on intonations of mugham Humayun is sounded as a theme in the epilogue of the work. The theme of english horn and pipes, unison of string group in Allegro vivo, solo of brass instruments in the dodecaphonic fragment, mugham improvisation of the clarinet in the symphony come out from the motive Humayun. In A. Melikov’s creativity the intonational complex of Humayun acts as the migrating formula, which occurs in many works of the composer written in different years. Possessing its semantic power, the formula Humayun interacts with the modern writing techniques and performs the function of sign-symbol in the music of Azerbaijani composer.

Art View of the World in the Works of Siberian Composers in the Beginning of the XXI Century: Content-Related Aspect

Belonosova Irina Vladimirovna

The article is the first work to consider the works of Siberian composers as a specific phenomenon, which allows to determine the features of the so called “art view of the world”. The research theme is quite topical due to the necessity to get to the high level of generalizing the results of analyzing genre and thematic peculiarities of musical pieces. This allows to use the cultural approach applied in aesthetics and philosophy of music - consideration of art, including music, as a method of discovering the real world with the aim of creating the world picture relevant to it. The article considers the notions of “art” and “musical” view of the world. Their interrelation is proved by the presence of value setting of a composer. The main means that help the composers to demonstrate their world view in music are genre, expressive means, theme of a musical piece, usually recorded in the verbal text (title of a piece, its parts). The article outlines the importance of two thematic trends, which are most fully and vividly presented in the music of Siberian composers in the period from 2007 till 2017. The author comes to the conclusion that the sphere of high spirituality, religious and historical themes are the basis of the art view of the world created by Siberian composers.

Between structure, perception and meaning. About the zygonic theory of Adam Okelford

Molchanov Andrey Sergeevich

The article is devoted to the presentation and analytical interpretation of the provisions of the author’s theory of the British researcher, composer, pianist and teacher Adam Okelford. During the presentation of the material, the basic conceptual-logical apparatus of the theory, the leading vector of its semantic orientation - the explanation of the process of cognitive modeling of the musical structure through the repetition principle is determined, and also the possibility of a multilevel connection of the elements of the whole through the system of relationships designated by Oeclford as zygonic. The author of the theory defines the key question of their description and applications as revealing the status of zygonic relationships, their relevance to the listener. Repeat is the main source of perceived musical order, the fundamental principle of the presentation of the musical structure. The article describes the main methodological positions developing in the mainstream of intensional logic, the ideas of structuralism, outlines analytical possibilities and some areas of practical application of the zygonic theory, in particular, its comprehension in the context of cognitive science, and also from the point of view of applied research in musical pedagogy. In this regard, the problem of metatheory arising at the connection of musicology, mathematics and cognitive science gets its presentation in the article, and the theory itself is regarded as a kind of environment for the formation of new horizons and cognitive strategies in musicology.

Blog as a means of music training to ethronic voice

Rumyantseva Margarita Alekseevna, Biryukova Anastasiya Valentinovna

The rapid penetration of information technologies into the educational process determines the importance of using the mobile resource «vocal blog» for the training of variety vocalists. Modern scientific and methodical literature offers innovative development of lessons, models of developmental training, training manuals for vocals, designed for more effective adult education. In this connection, it becomes necessary to study, analyze and summarize the advanced pedagogical experience in teaching vocals in the field of Internet technologies and virtual learning. In many cases, blogs are kind of personal methodical rooms in which expert recommendations are systematized, action algorithms for mastering techniques for working with resources available on the Internet and useful for the learning process are described. The main purpose of the article is to prove the relevance and appropriateness of using virtual environments in adult vocal education. Also given is a description of specific features and ways of introducing information-vocal blogs in the process of forming professional skills and skills of pop vocalists. The content management experience gained in the process of creating and maintaining a disciplinary and / or informal blog can be claimed in the learning process of novice vocalists.

Class composition Olivier Messiaen (to the anniversary of the master)

Krasilova Mariya Viktorovna, Sannihova Natalia Vladimirovna

The article tells about the development of European academic musical traditions and, at the same time, about the outstanding artistic insights that originated in the composition class of the French musician and teacher Olivier Messiaen. The master brought up several generations of original authors who vividly presented various national composer schools in the twentieth century. Among pupils of Messiaen - follower of the serial technique Pierre Boulez, one of the pioneers of Musique concrete Pierre Henry, the creator of stochastic music Iannis Xenakis, gerard spectrality Gerard Grize, Tristan Murail and Michael Levinas. Particular attention is paid to the theme of the influence that O. Messiaen had on the formation of the artistic role of the famous German avant-garde composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. This influence spread in two directions: in technological and content aspects. The first is associated with the assimilation and development of various rationalistic techniques of composition, and the second - with the actualization of the problem of faith in the broad sense of this concept. It is noteworthy that many of the directions of the composition developed by Messiaen’s students were reflected in his own work, anticipating future musical discoveries. All sorts of technological methods were assimilated in the style of Messiaen, which is characterized by the idea of synthesis of musical means from the arsenal of the time.

Is the music expressive?

Mentyukov Aleksandr Pavlovich

Since the time of Aristotle, who ranked music and architecture as expressive arts, the question of expressiveness has not lost its relevance today. Desperately he stands in contemporary musicology. Expressive properties of music are often presented as an attributive reality inherent in all language elements without exception. Properties are differentiated by modal features, characterized mainly by metaphorical vocabulary, assigned to the sound material without proper reference to the true source. Such an implied source has always been and remains the subject, wider -Homo musicus. This is the core of the problem. The building blocks of music, like the elements of verbal language, are not, strictly speaking, expressive means. The elements themselves are acoustic, and our consciousness and thinking make them functional and expressive. Therefore, assigning to them in the analysis of sound and even more musical text or other value qualities, it is necessary to rely not only on the conventionally acquired information, but also on the knowledge of the psycho-emotional mechanism, which largely explains the result. Expressive (or featureless) properties of music are perceived by the subject is likely a reflex as a result of the directional wave action only during internai activities. This activity is based on the ability of a person to create and transmit meaningful information with the help of musical sounds. Unfortunately, the mechanism, as it flows, is regulated, controlled and what is converted into this process is also not fully clear. The latest research in psychology, genetics, neurobiology, psychoacoustics and other related scientific disciplines gives hope.

Musical analytical system and computer technologies

Bazhanov Nikolay Sergeevich

Contents article belongs to the general theory of the analysis of the piece of music. In article the analysis of the piece of music is presented in the form of system of elements. Are included in structure of analytical system: The musicologist the researcher, the analysis Purposes, an analysis Context, Material for the analysis, an analysis Method, the analysis Tool, the Analysis (action), Result of the analysis, Interpretation of results, Verification of results, Conclusions generalizations. Further characteristics of the specified elements of analytical system and some interactions between them are provided. The method of the analysis chosen by the researcher creates an original substantial configuration of analytical system and in many respects unique interactions between her elements. Results of the analysis depend on the general condition of all system in general. In the system of the analysis of pieces of music the main leading element - the musicologist the researcher is allocated. Further development of the analysis of pieces of music is connected with knowledge of structure and function of the main parts of musical consciousness. In article influence on the system of the analysis of the piece of music of modern computer technologies is considered, references to musical analytical programs and musical resources for the analysis are given. Modern multimedia technologies allow to include in the verbal scientific text sound examples, not only at the large-scale level of fragments of the work but also at the level of separate intonations. Thus there is a multimedia offer when the sound fragment exists in the form of special «word» of the offer. These possibilities of computer texts give new analytical opportunities of knowledge of the musical offer. The main conclusion about reserves of musical analytical system comes down to relevance of the assisting, interactive methods of the analysis of the piece of music with use of computer technologies.

On counterpoint structure of musical compositions at the turn of the 21st century

Demeshko Galina Andreyevna

The latest compositions of “environmental format” drive the author's attention because of disproportion between the large amount of forms and the lack of systématisation. The author describes internal structure of compositions, which have counterpoint as their coordinator. It deals with a relation between horizontal and vertical lines, innovations in form development and qualitative composition of the environmental layers, and new contrapuntal forms. The author distinguishes three classes of forms: 1) simple contrapuntal; 2) complex contrapuntal; 3) contrapuntally editable. Taking into account that every classification is conventional, attributes of each class are described. The first class includes polyphonic monostructures within one cycle of compositional development. Lack of a horizontal component shifts focus to the plane of contrapuntal vertical microprocesses and individual composition of voices (layers). The second class includes forms with new cycles of compositional development based on variations or counterpoint derivatives. The article pays attention to innovations in interpretation of complex counterpoint that employ various “matrices”, “super formulae”, and universal numerical and contrapuntal models as basic forms. The third class represents “multi-layered compositions” (G. Ligeti). It brings together stylistically distant layers, experiments with environment, and is especially important in the context of the latest compositions. The article pays attention both to their genetic sources and to their connection to modern culture.

Spectacular-game folklore and performance: points of intersection

Lapin Viktor Arkadievich

For a starting point of modern performance, the author chooses the famous opus by American avant-gardist John Cage, 4’33” for piano or at-will chamber music group, premiered by pianist David Tudor in Woodstock, NY in August 1952. The bottom line is that the piece is four minutes and thirty-three seconds of silence. During this time, pianist or any other musicians on stage do not produce a single sound on their instruments. All this time, the audience is in suspense, which actually is the essence of the work. In other words, the essence of performance is a global substitution of not only the content, but also the structure of the attitude of performers and listeners in general. Next, the phenomenon of Russian maskers is considered, particularly the Christmastide game of mummers «Umrun» - semantically multilayered parody of the burial of deceased, where performers-mummers balance the fine line between the depicted other world and imaginary other world, the latter being real for bearers of traditional worldview. The author’s conclusion is that mummers’ games can be considered a classic case of performance, far more complex semantically than its contemporary manifestations. And, its beginning is not in mid-twentieth century environment of refined but sometimes naive and simple-minded intellectuals, avant-gardists, but in the depths of centuries, in symbolically rich forms of traditional folk culture.

Synesthetic Irkutsk composer A. Teplyakov

Loseva Svetlana Nikolaevna

The article describes an approach to the perception of musical texts with the help of synaesthesia or inter-sensory connections in the psyche. A scientific system of several basic concepts is built on the basis of N. Kolyadenko’s research. The practical analysis of the synesthetic perception of the musical text is considered on the example of creativity of the Irkutsk composer A. Teplyakov. Describes the basic biographical data of the composer. The main direction of the composer’s work is musical archaism and avant-garde. Among the author’s compositions: symphonic music, vocal-choral, chamber music, works for the orchestra of Russian folk instruments, music for performances and film music. In the article it is established that, along with external program images, Teplyakov’s works can reveal distinctive inter-sensory links, which make it possible to clarify their semantic nuances. The synaesthetic thinking of the composer is represented in seven piano pieces for eight hands, a piano cycle “Notes from the Net Diary” (25 plays for children and youth), a film fantasy “Self-portrait” (in seven parts for chamber orchestra, percussion and wind), a children’s collection songs for children “Dandelion” (10 songs for children). In the synesthetic aspect is the interest of the “Triptych for the Organ”. The embodiment of the synaesthetic approach can be traced in A.Teplyakov’s film “Son of the Leader”, “Privy Councilor”.

The development of graphic of the Znamen osmoglasie popevki (for example Irmologion kulizmennye formulas)

Usova Oxana Viktorovna

This paper discusses one of the groups of taynozamknennye formulas - the so-named kulizmennye formulas. There are no scholarly publications dedicated to this group of formulas of Stolpovoy Znamenny Chant; meanwhile, kulizmennye formulas have some specificities of their graphic evolution, not typical for other formulas of Znamenny Chant, which make them an interesting subject of injury. The insufficient study of kulizmennye formulas is reflected in terminological indeterminacy. In the paper we try to distinguish the meanings of the therm “kulizma”, which helps to explain both structure and the way of formation of kulizmennye formulas. Our search is based on ancient Russian singing book Irmologion. The choice of this book is defined by its grate time range: the Irmologion is known from the XII to the XX century. The main method of our work is comparative progressive-retrospective method, which implies comparison of fragments of chant with the same text in manuscripts of different time. We applied also comparative method, assuming correlation of chant fragments with different text in the same manuscript. In the result several specialities of forming the graphic of kulizmennye fomulas have been established, characterizing mind originality of ancient Russian chanters, which is represented in the new way of operating with elements and principles, borrowed from Byzantine notation.

The dilemma of analytical musicology: immersion in hermeneutics or the will to create new theories?

Kurlenya Konstantin Mikhailovich

The dilemma of analytical musicology: immersion in hermeneutics or the will to create new theories? The article focuses on the peculiarities of the so called “composers’ musicology” which became widespread in the 20 th century, the article also evaluates its cognitive strategies, as well as the integration of this branch of musicology into the academic musical analytical practices. The specific function of verbal interpretation of the ideas found in composers’ opuses of the musical avant-garde has been widely spread in the national academic musicology. Such opuses have been interpreted far beyond the perception of their actual sounding. It is for these purposes that the composers’ musicology is used which contains the major preconditions for the creators to interpret their opuses. Tractates on the personal individual language, personal views on music become the quintessence of the author’s compositional methods embodied in the word, not in the sound. For a musicologist there is a danger of getting too much influenced by such instructive directions from the composer who has already outlined the possible ways of future interpretations of his opuses. And if a musicologist lines up with the composer’s position for some reason, then his activity might come down to simple rendering of the extensive interpretation of the composer’s ideas as to how one should listen to, understand and evaluate his piece of work. All this underlines the necessity to search for the basis for new musical theoretical conceptions and systems beyond the composers’ arguments trying not to overemphasize the role of the composers’ experience.

The first performances of works by F. Chopin, F. Liszt and S. Talberg on the St. Petersburg stage. Anton Avgustovich Gerke

Shumilin Dmitry Anatolievich

The article tells about the first performances of musical compositions by F. Chopin, F. Liszt and S. Thalberg in St. Petersburg. The general cultural and musical-historical context, as well as the dates and historical circumstances of these iconic events, reconstructed from archival sources, articles and other documents of the epoch. The reception of performances by St. Petersburg music critics has been analyzed. The significance and the role of the works of the above-named composers in the daily concert life of the Russian capital of the 1830s-early 1840s are determined. The article particular attention is paid to the first performer - pianist and teacher Anton Avgustovich Gerke. His biography is carefully traced during the described period. The author tells about the pianists relationship with the musical establishment and public authorities, and in addition to that - about the trip to Europe, during which Gerke met F. Chopin, F. Liszt, R. Schumann, K. Wick and performed in public concerts. The article also mentions all other facts of the performance of F. Chopin’s, F. Liszt’s and S. Thalberg’s music in public concerts in St. Petersburg until 1841. Including the St. Petersburg tour of Sigismund Thalberg and Leopold Meyer, the concerts of Theodor Stein and the now undeservedly forgotten pianist Nikolai Lebedev. A number of new names and facts from the history of Russian piano performance have been introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

The idea of the Absolute in the aesthetic views and music of Karel Goeyvaerts

Okuneva Ekaterina Gurievna

Article is devoted to the study of aesthetic views of the Belgian composer Karel Goeyvaerts (1923-1993). Along with Stockhausen, Boulez and others, he stood at the origins of serial and electronic music. The views of the composer reveal the spiritual foundations of modern music and represent the serial thinking in a new light. The article is based on extensive documentary material (Goeyvaert’s letters, his articles and reports, conversations and interviews); studies of foreign authors (Jan Christiaens, Germann Sabbe) are taken into account. In the first half of the 1950s, Goeywaerts was obsessed with the idea of static music, which is capable of conveying a sense of timeless way of being. He interpreted music as an expression of the essence of God (the Absolute), as a materialization of transcendent truth. The basic concepts in his aesthetics were concepts of purity, immobility, structure, sound substance. “Projection in space and time” was implemented through numerical constructivism, serial control over parameters, and symmetry of the musical form. The structure as the highest spiritual dimension dominated in composition, which eventually led to the algorithmic compositional process and the abandonment of one’s own self. The aesthetic views of Goeywaerts were consonant with the philosophical ideas of Martin Heidegger. Both authors proposed an ontological interpretation of art. At the end of the article, the duality of Goeywaerts’s aesthetic position is noted, which is expressed in connections with romantic aesthetics and its denial.

The phenomenon of code and a problem of communication in music of XX century

Yuferova Olga Aleksandrovna

This article is devoted to the phenomenon of code, which considered at the context of musical communication at XX century. The scientific novelty is connected with a new area of theoretical modern musicology. The intent of this article is consideration the concept of “musical code”. The researcher studies a notion of code, the principles of its functioning in music of XX century. The author uses the semiotic method in the study of musical code. The problem of code is considered in connection with the semiotics and interpreted as a problem of communication. At the result of study a phenomenon of code the author make the conclusion, that a code is a necessary condition of musical communication. It organizes the space of regulatory information, the meaningful senses. The code in musical art appears as ideal item of artwork. It occurs at a perception, a recipient need to comprehend a musical text. Its detection links with a theoretical reflection, potentially by means of a regulatory elements of musical language and speech. The author noted, that a development of a musical history reflects the motion from “unified” code to a different musical systems in XX century. It is due to a next trend: constriction a regulatory elements of musical language and speech. It lead to deprivation of a communication in the music art. This problem takes a global dimension in the twentieth century, when instead generally conventional codes turn up its opposites - ciphered systems.

“The Sealed Angel” R. K. Shchedrin: in dialogue with N. S. Leskov

Rybkova Irina Vladimirovna, Pankova Alena Igorevna

Choral music based on N. S. Leskov “The Sealed Angel” by R. K. Shchedrin belongs to the samples of Russian new sacral music. The article discusses the dialogue between the texts of N. S. Leskov and R. K. Shchedrin. The system “faith - truth - repentance (pray) -wonder” graphically looks like a pyramid. Three-dimensional figure allows us to reflect the two-level development and compare the two planes of existence - temporal and eternal. Each of the elements of the triad has its own “voice”: its intonation, features of musical development. The first motive consists of three sounds, it is an associate of faith and the Trinity and has its own timbre -a pipe; the second motive on the word “Truly...” is choral, it is associated with the exclamation of the followers during the church service; the third motive symbolizes pray and is written in the style of the echoes chant. The combination of them in simultaneity gives the desired feeling of a wonder. In the story of N. S. Leskov we can find the antithesis “fantastic - real”, which in choral music “The Sealed Angel” by R. K. Shchedrin is transformed into the antithesis “biblical events - modernity” and is realized in the system of climaxes located in the numbers 4 and 7 of cycle.

To the question of the origin of speech. Article second: Homo habilis and Homo erectus

Romenskaya Tatyana Arkadievna

All existing concepts of language/speech origin are hypothetical and cannot be proved or refuted. The author draws on several achievements of archaeology, anthropology, history, physiology, associated with the question. Of particular importance in the formation of self-concept for him was a comprehensive study by L. B. Dmitriev, B. P. Chernov, V. T. Maslov about Tuvan solo two voices. Author evaluated their stage of development of the larynx and formation of the true vocal cords with the historical stages of human evolution (Australopithecus-arhantrop-Neanderthals), offered his perspective on the problem and a new dimension to its consideration, which to some extent allows you to expand the factual/source database of such studies. This article contains a description of the development of the process during the two subsequent periods associated with the vital activity of Homo habilis and Homo erectus. The main idea of the author is that the origin of the verbal language was preceded by a period of audible phenomena of signal type (whistle) and later - utilitarian forms of vocal speech, which includes the initial stage of the formation of such a phenomenon as solo two voices. Traces of the archaic vocal-speech phenomenon, in the author’s opinion, are preserved in folklore singing. The author illustrates his hypothesis with samples of vocal folklore from traditions of different peoples.

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