Robustova Lyudmila Pavlovna
Considered in the paper are matters of pedagogical education of students of the theoretic-composer department of the Novosibirsk conservatoire. Close connection of past and present times in the process of this activity is discussed. Approaches and principles of organization of pedagogical practice in the higher school were probated as far as in the very first decade of the conservatoire existence. They laid foundations for the activities of subsequent generations at this higher school. The relevance of these approaches and principles can be viewed even now. The universal nature of requirements to students of all departments, unity of assessment criteria and centralization of activities are specific features of education at the Novosibirsk conservatoire. To solve these problems, the department was organized in 1969, which, from 1992 is called the department of musical education and enlightenment. At this department, the sector of pedagogical practice was organized to become the major base of practical training of theoretic-composer department students. However, some students pass pedagogical practice on the bases of children's musical/art schools. The paper discusses varieties of the major learning and vocational practice; its peculiarities, strong sides and weaknesses of education. Much attention is given to the research-oriented approach in the pedagogical work. It is stated that numerous research and development carried out by that department's instructors were tested during students' pedagogical practice. Materials of these innovative experimental developments become a basis for students' composing their qualification diploma structural abstracts. Publications reflecting joint research of teachers and students are crucial for career growth; titles and article information of these papers are listed. Valuable parameters of structural abstracts per se are noted and their themes are listed selectively. In the conclusion, we highlight problems which will face the department in the long run.
Dubrovskaya Marina Yuzefovna, Maksimova Anastasiya Mikhailovna
The article reveals the little-studied aspects of the problem of Japan’s development of the new European type of composing, relevant in modern musical Orientalism. With the involvement of genre approach, the authors study the specificity of formation of the genre system of academic professionalism in Japan in the 1900-1930-ies. The authors analyze the main processes and trends of the historical emergence of academic genres in Japan -songs, romance, Opera, Symphony, symphonic poem - by line general - special - single. When considering the designated genres through the prism of typological regularities of formation of genre system of composing, it is revealed: the first stage is dominated by the song-romance, which characterizes the general signs of the process, but the processing of folk songs for voice and piano has not become the prevailing genre and it is classified as a sign of special; a single touch in the history of the Japanese Opera: the most popular traditional Kabuki theatre acted as a theatrical organism for its «transplantation» to Japanese soil, in addition, the preference for Opera for musical drama at an early stage of genre formation of Japanese composer’s creativity is assessed as special; the creation of a Symphony and symphonic poem at an early stage testifies to the phenomena of a specific, special in the development of Japanese symphonism. The obtained results - the prevalence of early national composers’ creativity phenomena of special and single - allow to recognize the presence of the distinctive Japanese way of development of the European genre system. They also argue the dominance of the creative activity of the founder of the Japanese school of composers Yamada Kosaku at the first stages of this process.
Ditenbir Viktor Viktorovitch
The present article devoted to detection of historical prerequisites to formation of opera performance in Siberia at the same time expands ideas of regional processes of the academic musical culture’s formation. The found tendencies providing the subsequent development of the performance cover all the basic elements of musical life: amateur playing music and tour activity, origin of vocal education and musical theatre. Consistently considering these elements, the author comes to a conclusion: despite remoteness of the region, the nidi of interest in the opera, are observed since the last quarter of the XVIII century, from amateur and semi-professional staging of musical performances (Omsk, Tobolsk, Irkutsk). At the same time, characteristic feature of local amateur opera performance is its democratic character, growth from such kinds of activity as singing lessons in gymnasiums and schools, creativity of war-prisoners, amateur playing music of the intellectuals and working amateur performance. Patriotic tendencies in repertoire addictions of Siberians, interest in domestic music are noted. It is shown that directly vocal education originates in musical classes at the Russian musical society, where among teachers there were graduates of capital conservatories (in this sense, the most promoted was the university Tomsk). However, in general the opera performance in Siberia, which didn’t have its own conservatoire centers, remained peripheral part of this type of domestic art.
Belonosova Irina Vladimirovna
The article dwells upon the analysis of the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts fund of audio records compiling works of Krasnoyarsk composers. As it was established, the major part of the fund related to academic music of Siberia includes records of performing groups and solo singers of the institute as well as musicians of the region. A traditional understanding of an audio records fund as necessary structural part of an educational process in a musical institute of higher education (as a part of a library) is significantly extending if considered as one of the means of regional cultural legacy preservation. Establishment of full and diverse records fund of music performed by both regional composers and performers of creative projects is closely tied to the persistent problem of information and educational environment (IEE) creation in the institute. Phonofund together with information and educational environment are considered as two interrelated structural components contributing to a music thesaurus formation of the institute graduates who are upgrading their level of professional competence. Within the matter of the article main search “strategies” provided to the student for dealing with the fund while mastering the subject of Musical Culture of Siberia are illustrated. During self-preparation, skills related to the phonodocuments search stored in the institute library are highly essential. Fund records, which are unparalleled in their own way, are vivid evidence of continuously enriching performers' practice and composers' creativity of the region. Some general conclusions concerning fund's structure are made based on the analysis of audio and video records made at the Audio Engineering Department of the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts. The most creative projects preserved in the form of phono and video documents are pointed out.
Tsareva Evgenya Sergeevna
In this article, on the basis of unpublished historical sources, one of the phenomena of pre-revolutionary Russian culture-enlightenment societies-is considered. They were a form of local self-organization of educated citizens, whose goal was to jointly solve a wide range of problems in the sociocultural sphere. The global character of this phenomenon is underlined, its role and regional specificity in the cultural space of the periphery of Russia - in Siberia - is analyzed. The educational societies were a powerful engine for the development of the national musical life, the formation of its concert and educational spheres. Their participation in the formation of the musical space of a particular city was directly dependent on its remoteness from a large cultural center. The more peripheral the territory, the more its music field depended on private initiative and self-organizing processes. The study considers the contribution of educational organizations to the addition of the musical culture of the Yenisei province at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The author of the article notes one of the specific features of the Krasnoyarsk region of this period: musical circles and societies could not actively and permanently function in the territory of Krasnoyarsk, however, non-musical educational associations played a compensatory role, conducted a wide cultural work.
Loseva Svetlana Nikolaevna
Consideration of the problem is based on the analysis of diverse data on the description of the historical aspect of the development of scientific knowledge of the structure of musical giftedness and the concept of synaesthesia. In the process of research work, various approaches to the definition of the term synaesthesia are analyzed, in which the most significant tendencies in the formation of a holistic view of all semantic measurements of a given phenomenon are determined. Synaesthesia is seen as a concept reflecting the form of perception, the relationship between feelings in the psyche, the results of their manifestations in specific areas of art. The information of the detailed analysis of art history research of the last decades is presented. The paper considers various approaches to the study of the structure of musical giftedness and their components. Musicality, as a fundamental and system-forming component, is analyzed in various interpretations of scientific research. The components of creativity and intellect, widely accepted by many researchers, are analyzed in the structure of musical giftedness from the point of view of creative compositional activity. A new component is introduced into the structure of musical giftedness - spirituality, which helps to reveal personal manifestations' of the creative activity of composers. Consideration of the sequence of the proposed structural components of musical giftedness will further allow us to more fully trace their relationship to synaesthesia.
Starostina Tatyana Alekseevna
The article is devoted to the methods of variation in the choral work of Archimandrite Matthew (Mormyl). The material for the analysis is the hymns of the genre of the litany performed during the Liturgy. The author outlines a wide range of problems connected with the choral technique of Archimandrite Matthew; as an important component of his concept, the correspondence of the hymns to the prayer spirit of worship is indicated. In accordance with this, the clarity of the pronunciation of the verbal text and the constant slight renewal of the musical elements become paramount. In describing the creative methods of Archimandrite Matthew, the author relies on the testimony of musicians who sang under his direction in the choir of the Holy Trinity Sergius Lavra. From the author’s point of view, the variation in the harmonization of Archimandrite Matthew is very diverse: it can affect different parameters of composition (mode, chords, texture, melody, rhythm) and have a different intensity - from subtle changes in individual chords and ending with significant contrasts in the density of choral tissue. Based on the analysis of three different songs on composition, the author of the article comes to the conclusion that the general idea of the variability of Archimandrite Matthew is reduced to the consistency, gradualness and interconnectedness of the produced changes, which gives the choral tissue the effect of living breathing, and to all prayer - emotional completeness.
Kadesnikova Tatyana Yurievna
The interest in aesthetics of pagan traditions as an important component of multinational folklore of Ural’s people is typical feature for the Ural composer M. A. Kesareva. The long-term work on the study, collection and preservation of Ural folklore was one of professional activity of M. A. Kesareva. The attention of the composer was attracted not only by the regional culture of the peoples of the Ural, but also by the eastern and medieval poetry, Indian meditative practices, the aesthetics of Buddhism and Yakut pagan rituals. The most attractive for the creativity of the Urals author was become the comprehension of the most ancient, traditional pagan relations between man and nature. Artistic embodiment in the music of M. A. Kesareva are found different images of folk rites, conspiracies, spells. The musical composition “Kamlanie” for cello and piano is one of examples, where is embodied the oldest layer of spiritual culture of the people - pagan shamanic ritual. The appeal to research works of О. V. Shulikova, G. B. Sychenko, E. S. Novik, based on formulated by L. S. Dyachkova the method of incarnation of ritual action in the music of Igor Stravinsky, it was possible to analyze the specifics of M. A. Kaesareva musical interpretation one of the forms of ethnic religion. In the course of research there were analyzed: the scheme of rite and the composer’s artistic understanding of the ritual. In the result there were revealed the features of the creative realization of the sacred mythical action in the chamber instrumental music.
Nedospasova Anna Pavlovna
Article is devoted to organ Choral preludes, op. 103 wrote by Soviet composer Mikael Tariverdiev, to history of their creation, general characteristic of plays, figurative contents. This cycle belonging to the late period of creativity of M. Tariverdiev is considered from the point of view of the style dialogue which took place within such direction in musical art as neoclassicism. The author of this publication traces communication of melodic, rhythmic, intonational elements of musical language of Tariverdiev organ choral preludes with earlier vocal works. The image of preludes - the prayers said by language of musical sounds continues the line of special intonation of a chamber intimate nature at the new level. As the majority of other works of the composer, choral preludes are saturated images of nostalgic attitude. Opus 103 is under construction on internal interrelations of the preludes expressed in comparison and contrasts of their figurative and emotional characteristics - detached philosophical the First and the Third, tragic the Second, pastoral the Eighth, orientally improvisational the Ninth, final - solemn the Tenth. Choral preludes, being an intermediary genre between the composer and audience which is learning in the new composition the known melody with the text of spiritual contents in M. Tariverdiev’s creativity continue this mission. Musical language of organ preludes is sated with recognizable turns and intonations, it is close and clear to the modem listener, at the same time contains elements of the cluster equipment, metric asymmetry of structures of thematic carrying out. With the appeal to organ in works of the composer we see the new scale of sounding, earlier to it not peculiar appeared. During lifetime of M. Tariverdiev was known a little about his organ creativity, however today these compositions, including opus 103 even more often sound on a concert stage. In many respects this situation changed thanks to activity of his widow Vera Tariverdieva connected with the publication of creative heritage of the composer, the organization in Russia the international competition named Mikael Tariverdiev Organ Competition.
Tosin Sergey Gennadievich
Properly zvon is a textural complex Orthodox musical genre that represents a special type of multi-functional bell polyphony. There is a perception that it consists of three votes only. It is based on a standard interpretation of zvonnitsa’s scale represented by three groups of bells (big, medium and small bells). The author’s analysis of ancient samples of properly zvon proves the falsity of this opinion. In the three-part peal, each of the bell parties is independent. It only performs its function and it is faster and rhythmically quicker than the voice which sounds below. In other chimes division of voices into three parties is absent. They can be two to five, and some bells of one group can become participants of a party of another voice. Quite often there may be inversely proportional rhythmic relationship between the bell parties. While comparing such chimes with a three-part samples it is evident that major textural changes occur in the group of medium bells. For example, in this group there may be a chordal texture which is connected with the rhythm of the bass. Then the peal becomes two-voiced. In another example, a group of middle bells is divided into two voices and the peal becomes four-parted. And so on. On the basis of the research conducted the author concludes that the musical texture of properly zvon has diversity.
Vavilov Stanislav Platonovich
The fate of the many glorious representatives of Russian musical art in the first half of the 20th century are connected with Tomsk. Among the undeservedly forgotten names stands out the name of the famous Russian singer Mary Mikhailovna Kurenko. Her life and creative path begins in the Siberia. М. M. Kurenko received his primary education in the vocal classes of the Tomsk branch of the Imperial Russian musical society. From the teenage years Mary Kurenko took an active part in concerts for the Tomsk public. A significant period in the life of Kurenko passed in the United States of America, where the singer in the press has been called «the Russian Nightingale». The article contains information about Tomsk period life M. Kurenko and her studies at the Moscow Conservatory, based on the examination of archival materials, as well as publications in local press some of which contain a number of errors and inaccuracies. Her teachers were the acknowledged masters: Ya. S. Medlin, F. N. Tuytruymova, B. M. Vyadro, U. Mazetti. On arrival In Moscow M. Kurenko did not immediately choose to study at the Conservatory, having entered the law faculty of Moscow University. However, she still decides to study singing along with courses at the University. Until 1922 M. Kurenko sang on the stage of the Bolshoi theater, which speaks about the power of her voice and strength of character. In 1925, she emigrated to America. All this allows us to more fully recreate the look of one of the best singers of the first half of the XX century, great patriot of Russia.
Kondratieva Natalya Mikhailovna
The paper describes the methodology of statistical approach to establishing pitch scale of one folklore-music sample, using special computer code Speech Analyzer. The phonogram technical requirements, and the ways of the phonogram transformations using a sound editor are discussed. As a key point, the necessity of auditory control and the use of iterative approach is stressed in order to obtain an adequate analytic notation of the sample, and the correct interpretation of constructed histograms. To obtain more accurate model of the pitch scale we propose the algorithm that rids off the statistical computer model from occasional shifts of the pitch scale at the string edges of the folklore musical sample. With the help of described analytical procedures we establish an invariant pitch scale, or, more precisely, a zone scale of Chalkan burial lamentation sygyt that was recorded by the author together with G. B. Sychenko at 1985 year from A. K. Abasheva, a connoisseur of Chalkan musical folklore. Invariant zone scale includes four degrees corresponding to the sequence f - b - c 1 - d 1 in the note example with additional signs of alteration and micro-alteration. Statistically selected point centers of all degrees (1-4) are lower, compared to standard European temper scale by 20, 30, 50, and 10 cents respectively. The widths of the central parts of the degrees account for 120, 130, 70, and 140 cents. The peripheral parts of all degrees intersect.
Kolyadenko Nina Pavlovna
The article discusses the role of synergetic approach in actualizing “post-non-classical” rationality methods in modern musicology. It is revealed that synergetic non-linearity concepts of open systems, the interaction of their volatility and stability, order and dynamic chaos, “solutions branching” points, “small resonant effects”, “attractors” - all of these are the instruments of comprehending the processes of sense-creating in music as temporal art. Peculiarities of nonlinear systems are analyzed, embodied in «open», “unlocked” forms of “non-classical sound space” of the XX century - the lack of strict determinism, spontaneity, unpredictability, along with probability of multidimensional meanings appearing. On the example of interpretation to C. Debussy’s “Sunken Cathedral” prelude, the role of attractor-protointonation and background thematism in the probabilistic nonlinear process of the open form development is getting clarified that implements the author’s non-anthropocentric position. The synergistic apparatus value for monitoring crystallization processes of “non-classical” logic in romantic art is perceived, along with comprehending the styles and trends of “non-classical sound space” in the XX century. The integration of synergetic methodology with postmodernist deconstruction procedures is demonstrated, relevant to the analysis of synthetic literary texts of “post-nonclassical” space. Along with the author’s approach, the options of synergistic interpretation of musical texts are presented, made by his disciples - S. Lysenko, E. Prikhodovskaya, I. Shaposhnikov, O. Yarosh.
Karelina Ekaterina Konstantinovna, Mongnsh Ul'yana Ochur-oolovna
The article is devoted to the 75th birthday and the 25th death anniversary of Tuvan professional composer Khuresh-ool Kara-Salovich Damba (1943-1993). The composer’s personality and his creativity were presented in the works of musicologists fragmentally. Kh. Damba’s personal archive was considered lost. It was transferred to the Tuvan musical dasspoom of Kyzyl Art College named after A. B. Chyrgal-ool by his relatives in 2015 only. Memory of the composer’s compatriots and colleagues (collected by U. O. Mongush in 2018) are valuable to understand his complex nature. “Ringing tenderness”, the second danse from the Suite for piano “Three dances”, was chosen for musicological analysis. This Suite was created by Kh. Damba during his study in the Novosibirsk Conservatory (1965-1972). The Author has chosen the opening theme of the music by Aleksej Aksyonov, created in 1943 for the first female dance in the history of Tuva (“Ringing tenderness”), as the main theme of the his own piece. The Technique using by Kh. Damba on the Aksyonov's material can be assessed as an example of a secondary re-intonation of Tuvan melos. In the article there is an attempt to present the image of a creative person on the basis of new archival materials and memory, more adequately. It’s necessary to publish a special monographic publication about the life and work of composer Kh. Damba.
Predvechnova Ekaterina Olegovna
In the article considered specific of artistic-aesthetic worldview of N. K. Medtner and the romantic concept of “Sonata triad”, op. 11. Identified the generality of philosophical views of N. K. Medtner and I. V. Goethe, which determine the semantic mythological program and semantic of composition of the “Sonata triad”. Presented features of interpretation the genre invariant of the sonata cycle, conditioned to the concept of triadism, romantic and classical traditions. Presented analysis of dramaturgy and composition of sonatas, op. 11, realized on three semantic levels of the universal sonata model: conceptual, plot, logical. On the basis of the functional theory by В. V. Asafiev, disclosed features of N. K. Medtner’s musical-artistic thinking. The value-semantic aspect of the analysis made it possible to reveal the features of the mythopoetic, existential content and chronotope in sonatas represented by the Time of the Author and the Time of the Hero (by M. M. Bakhtin). Identified the specifics of intramusical and extramusical semantics (by M. G. Aranovsky), expressed in the dramaturgy of symbolic images Time and Space, the metasymbol of Love. On the based on semantical analysis of sonatas are defined stable and mobile components of musical thinking, expressed both in the text, in context of sonatas, and at the level of intertext.
Pylneva Lada Leonidovna
The study of the musical culture of the Siberian region passed several stages. Early periods were associated with the emergence of the science of Siberia as a new, previously unknown phenomenon. Information about music in the XVII-XVIII centuries, constituted only a small part of general humanities and natural sciences. Since the beginning of the XIX century, there was an awareness of musical art as an independent phenomenon, which was reflected in the works of Siberian local historians, music critics, as well as scientists - representatives of the Russian Geographical Society. The first half of the XX century was characterized by the continuation of the planned tendencies, providing an increment of information about the traditional and academic musical culture of the region. An important stage was the second half of the last century, associated with the intensive development of science and culture in Siberia. The contribution of Siberian scientists of this period made it possible to accumulate a large body of information, identify priority areas, organize research centers, the most important of which was The Novosibirsk State Conservatory. As a result, from the point of knowledge about the region, an integral picture of the existence of musical art in Siberia was formed. A new step was the creation of an interactive information database that allows to take into account not only a known array of information, but to identify gaps and predict further knowledge increment.
Gorbacheva Yulia Sergeevna, Michkov Pavel Aleksandrovich
Conservatoire are considered. Brief information from the history of the museum is offered, on the basis of the requirements for the preservation of the collection, possible ways of solving the problem are set out. One of the most promising options in this regard is the processing of funds containing written sources, using the capabilities of modern digital technology. In 2017, the Novosibirsk Conservatoire undertook actions to digitize the collections of the fund of the conservatory museum. Photographs on paper carriers, documents and other archival materials are transferred to the electronic form by scanning. The article provides a substantiation of the methods for selecting the material, establishing the order of the retroconversion of the fund. The example of one of the collections outlines the principles of doing business. The focus was on materials dedicated to teachers and staff of the Novosibirsk Conservatoire - participants in the Great Patriotic War. In a collection constantly replenished for several years, besides the photographs, there are materials that represent a separate scientific interest: notes and drafts of the work of the professor of the Novosibirsk Conservatoire, L. A. Ushakova, who conducted painstaking work to collect information about persons who participated in combat battles. Among these - information about I. I. Bobrovsky, tracing the fate of the musician in the war years, drafts with a list of names of participants in the war and workers in the rear, clippings from prints, where information was found about the teachers of the Conservatoire.
Romenskaya (Strigockaya) Tatyana Arkadievna
The scientific work is devoted to the problem that cannot be solved yet due to the complete absence of facts. All existing concepts of language/speech origin are hypothetical and cannot be proved or refuted. The author draws on several achievements of archaeology, anthropology, history, physiology, associated with the question. Of particular importance in the formation of self-concept for him was a comprehensive study by L. B. Dmitriev, B. P. Chernov, V. T. Maslov about Tuvan solo two voices. The author evaluated their stage of development of the larynx and formation of the true vocal cords with the historical stages of human evolution (Australopithecus-arhantrop-Neanderthals), offered his perspective on the problem and a new dimension to its consideration, which to some extent allows you to expand the factual/ source database of such studies. The main idea of the author is that the origin of the verbal language was preceded by a period of audible phenomena of signal type (whistle) and later -utilitarian forms of vocal speech, which includes the initial stage of the formation of such a phenomenon as solo two voices. The work consists of two parts. The first article outlines the facts that contributed to the development of a hypothesis about the history of the formation of speech. Here, too, are the principles for selecting the successive stages of this process and characterized by the first of them, related to the era of Australopithecus.