The article is dedicated to the interpretation of the concept of “Bridge As-Sirat” by the Persian philosopher of the 11th century Nasir Khusraw. We can identify two positions in Islam regarding the ways of interpreting the verses of the Qur'an: one group insisted on a direct, literal interpretation of the Quran, while others claimed the need for an esoteric interpretation of the text. Nasir Khusraw applies the method of interpreting “ta’vil” to the text of Revelation and Hadith, which allows him to interpret religious concepts in a philosophical way and fill them with new meanings. According to the Ismaili philosopher the Bridge As-Sirat is an image of man's spiritual path. At the end of this path, a person's soul falls either to heaven or to hell. Nasir Khusraw said that paradise is the return of the individual soul to its source (the Universal Soul) and hell is not a place where the punishment will be committed, but it is a state of the soul that can not return to its source, and therefore suffers, trapped within the boundaries of the material world. The article is accompanied by the translation of a passage from the philosophical treatise Nasir Khusraw “Gushayish va rakhayish” (“Knowledge and Liberation”), devoted to the explanation of the concept of “Bridge As-Sirat”.
The article is devoted to the study of value orientations system in modern society in the context of globalization and intercultural communication in the open, informational world. The understanding of values and value dynamics is based on the possibilities of the existential-axiological approach, which in this case is used to study traditional and liberal (emancipative) values. The methodology of the study is represented by an existential approach to understanding values and by the method developed by R. Welzel C. Inglehart, for the study of modern sociocultural and political values. A comparative approach was implied to the study of the individual and social values of several European countries and Russia. The study has been done on the basis of a secondary analysis of the World Values Survey results. The sample included population of Russia and the European countries that participated in the WVS. The survey examined the population’s attitude to religion, family, work, political life, health, etc. Based on these data, features of manifestation of the European traditional, secular-rational and self-expression values are shown. The data in the European countries, gathered by the World Values Survey and the study of Happiness Index in 2016, were correlated. The author concludes that countries with a high Happiness Index show the high level of emancipative values. At the same time, it was revealed that some traditional values play an important role in the modern system of human values and are in a hybrid relationship with liberal landmarks. The values of self-expression turned out to be related to the existential security of a person in the conditions of crisis of a family as a social institution and weakening of social ties in postindustrial societies.
Исследованы условия применимости классической логики высказываний к философским рассуждениям. Это исследование проведено в рамках различных семантик для многозначных логик. В качестве последних рассматривались: семантика многозначных логик, метатеория значений истинности Зиновьева, элементарная теория операторов истинности и ложности. В метатеории логической семантики, в которой строятся семантики для многозначных логик, принимают классическую логику. В этой метатеории используется теория J -операторов (введенных Россером и Тьюркеттом). Теория J -операторов является частью метатеории логической семантики. Семантическое утверждение вида « P принимает значение vk» содержательно соответствует формуле J k(P). Показано, что для формул языка-объекта P, для котоых выполняется условие ( P принимает выделенное значение или P принимает анти-выделенное значение), имеет место классическая логика. Синтезирующий подход в исследованиях и построениях А. Зиновьева привел к тому, что он объединил логику, онтологию и методологию в единую науку, в которой первые являются ее аспектами. Только в процессе изложения он выделяет в ней три части: 1) базисную логику, 2) логическую онтологию, и 3) логическую методологию. В этом состоит радикальное отличие от подходов Д. Гильберта и А. Тарского, отделявших язык-объект от метаязыка, семантику от синтаксиса. Также рассматривалась элементарная теория операторов истинности и ложности, обоснованная в обобщенной на неклассический случай объединенной Буль-Фреге семантике. Показано, что для формулы языка-объекта P, для которых выполняется условие (содержательно выраженное) формула P либо истинна, либо ложна, то для нее имеет место классическая двузначная логика. Отмечается, что рассмотренные условия близки к определениям высказываниям в естественном языке.
The works of Schleiermacher is devided into two parts: works on hermeneutics and works devoted to the philosophy of religion and theology. Researchers of Scheleiermacher's philosophy usually concentrate only on the one part. That leads to separation between two parts of Schleiermacher's philosophical system. Religion, according to Schleiermacher, referes to specific sphere of human life, the sphere of sense. That religious sense Schleiermacher calls the sense of infinite. However, one cannot feel that sense without expressing it into outside world. Dogmatics is didactic form of the expression of religious sense. This article is devoted to connection between hermeneutics and religion, which expresses itself through dogmatics. The author claims that dogmatics in Schleiermscher religious system is the way of expressing personal religious feeling to other people. So it is the way of exposion and expression of individual sense through the system of symbols and concepts.
The paper deals with some religious and philosophical ideas of the Austrian philosopher Gerhard Oberhammer, who analyses the religious text of vishishta-advaita tradition from the point of Levinas’ philosophy. Oberhammer shows on the base of “Sharanagatigadya” his method of religious hermeneutics which helps us to investigate this text in the new way. The Austrian philosopher uses this text, which is rather difficult to be investigated and usually is neglected by the other scholars, just to apply the new hermeneutical algorithms of reading it. “Sharanagatigadya” looks more as a vaishnava prayer not as religious treatise or something like that and of course needs some new hermeneutical procedures to be understood in a right manner.
Boyko P.Y., Bukhovich Y.V.
The main contents of the article are an analysis of the speculative (Hegelian) dialectic of the relations of the European world and Russia interpreted as the universal and specific moments of the Christian idea. Taking as a basis the dialectic of history, the authors claim that in its movement to the concrete universality of the Christian idea the “European humanity” (Husserl) discovers within itself its own negativity, its Other (Russia). Through this Other the European spirit mediates itself, sublates the moment of abstract universality of the rationalism of the understanding which is characteristic of the time of Enlightenment (“modernity”, “industrialism”) and enters the “posthistorical” epoch of concrete universality of the global Christianity postindustrial civilization. This Other of the spiritual Europe (or the West as a whole) is Russia whose historical destiny was connected with the acceptance of Eastern European mentality (Russia as a “post-Byzantine” component of the united European Christian humanity) and its grandiose culture. While grasping European spirit, Russia found itself in a constant military-political and ideological “struggle against the West”, starting with the clash with the 13 th century Teutonic knights or the 17 th century Polish interveners and finishing with the “Cold War” and contemporary Ukraine crisis. The authors claim that the above said dialectical controversy between Europe and Russia has achieved its final tension and has come close to its spiritual overcoming (sublation, reconciliation, negation of negation) out it itself. The result of this process shall be a really universal Europe within whose frames Russia will be able to acquire its “positively reasonable” status.
Kolychev P.M., Khakhalova A.A.
The currency of the research consists in the necessity if rethinking of the notion of culture in Russian contemporary thought in order to present more adequately the process of development of culture in a future. The paper aims to elucidate political origins of the movement of Proletarian culture that play the leading role in a creation of a new conception of culture. As a materials were used documents and archives, scientific paper of Russian and foreign researchers. As a maim method was used problematic-analytical reconstruction, explored in the framework of an enactive approach that allows to envelop the subject in its evolvement and to concentrate on concrete practical situations of its realization. Such reconstruction permits to accomplish the original interpretation of the problem. The authors focus in the pre-history of the movement. Analyzing the social-political context of the origin of the movement, the authors come to the conclusion about artificially created necessity of political enlightenment of the society by the revolutionaries. The paper demonstrates how agents of proletarian working circles manipulate by the public opinion of working class. As a result, the paper shows the process of formation the ideology of cultural movement revolutionary period and evaluates significance of ideological function in its realization. The authors produce critical evaluation of the history of the movement in original judgment about political grounding of culture.
The ontological status of evidence is reduced to reducing to absurdity. The problem is that in such evidence, an impossible (or still possible?) Situation is allowed as the initial one. What is the ontological status of such situations, do they have an ontological justification? The answer to this question involves considering the structure of evidence by reducing to absurdity, choosing the appropriate logic and searching for an adequate ontology. The article shows that in the classical calculus of predicates of the first order, proofs by reduction to absurdity are included as a special case of proof by contradiction. The intuitionistic predicate calculus uses evidence to reduce to absurdity, but evidence from the contrary is not accepted in it. Further, the key concept of “absurdity” is discussed. It is shown that the treatment of absurdity as nonsense leads to a dead end, because the problem of meaning does not have an adequate solution in modern science. We can not guarantee the presence of a semantic meaning for correctly constructed expressions of the sign system, but we can ensure the presence of a denotational value for such expressions in artificial sign systems. As applied to our problem, this indicates the need to search for the denotational significance of contradictions. Since the models of logical calculi are constructed by means of set theory, the domain of the search is narrowed to the choice of an appropriate set theory. The modified set theory ZF is considered in which the axiom of the existence of an empty set is replaced by its negation. In this case, it is possible to give the denotational significance to the contradictions, but then the contradictions of the type A and not- A get an ontological justification, since both A and non- A are fulfilled.
The article shows the continuity in the development of key ideas J.J. Rousseau in the works of Immanuel Kant on the nature of morality and its relation to public morality, the nature of the moral sense and the role of ethics for education. It is shown the main achievements and limitations of the methodological approach by J.J. Rousseau and those aspects of his position that I. Kant developed by their dialectical negation with preservation of the continuity of all the best. Our research involves analysis of primary sources and critical literature. The dialectical method synthesized with the hermeneutical method. The hermeneutical method allows us to understand the system of Rousseau and Kant in their entirety and at the same time to point out the most significant aspects of these theoretical systems. The dialectical method revealed contradictions in the ideas of Rousseau, which prompted Kant to continue these ideas, but already on other grounds. The article discusses how Rousseau influenced Kant in determining the nature of morality through the definition of the essence of the moral law. But at the same time the article shows the differences in the understanding of the moral feeling in Kant and Rousseau: according to Kant, it has its source in pure practical reason, while, according to Rousseau, moral feeling has its source in compassion to the human race (human nature). The conclusion to the article is the statement that major discoveries of Kant in the fields of theoretical reason and of practical reasons were directly prepared by Rousseau, but Kant resolve the contradictions in the attitude of the great “citizen of Geneva”.
Bondar O. Yu.
The author of the article discusses the key for the Russian Latin American studies concept of cultural synthesis. The author sets the questions of determining the semantic field of the very concept of “cultural synthesis”, of the possibility or impossibility of (culture) generating (a type of) interaction and its boundaries in the case of (historically) diverse cultural traditions encountered in the lands of the New World. The author reveals the different levels of the solution to the problem, offered by the Russian Latin American studies. The criticism of a “pre-theoretical” setting is offered, genetically related to the attempts of the continental cultural and philosophical reflection to comprehend the phenomenon of the miscegenative culture. The interpretative models are revealed, that arose in the Russian cultural and socio-cultural systematical analysis, in which occurs the rejection of a one-dimensional socio-historical explanatory schemes, and is offered a rethinking and reassessment of the general theoretical and historical approaches, which will allow to identify and represent the process of the cultural genesis in Latin America in its original imbalance, non-linearity and abnormality. The author brings to light theoretical and methodological resources of the civilizational discourse, discussing the possibility of their application to the analysis of the said problem. Special attention is paid to the typological features of classical objects, formed “monoliths”, and becoming of non-classical borderline formations. In the framework of the borderline civilizations concept, the author introduces the vectors of the search for the problem’s solution, set by the ontological (static) and historical (dynamic) approaches.
This article reviews the comparative analysis of the most promising theoretical areas exploring the correlation principles of the structural / functional brain organization and cognitive characteristics of the language. A special role in the presented approaches is assigned to the principles of computability. The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the modular and holistic models in the context of semiotic asymmetry. It is important to emphasize that the language model as a set of hierarchically represented objects is consistent with only with the connectivism paradigm (brain as a network), in which the main element is the functional neuron, and it is not the biological neuron but its simplified information model. The informational simplification creates a number of contradictions. We have analyzed the methodological basis of neural network approach and principles of recursive organization. The main question is, do neuron structures determine the principles of mental representations and computational grammar models? The uniformity of syntax and logical structure of neurons creates metaphorical and a not completely correct hypothesis that brain is a network of functional units that computes grammar and syntax rules. One of the objectives of this work is to identify the methodological inconsistencies arising from the computational models of language structures and language activity.
In this paper is considered the main arguments of the deflationary concept of truth: the approaches of A. Tarski, W.V. Quine, H. Putnam and some others. Here are presented two representative examples of the elimination of truth as the value of the proposition: the concept of “languages games” by L. Witgenstein and “constructive empiricism” by B. van Fraassen. It is revealed that the statement “there are no true statements” is self-predictive and leads to absurdity. It is demonstrated that the elimination of “truth” from epistemology will require, with necessity, the elimination of “false” also. It is shown, that when we try to get answer on the question “Can a “false sentence”, understood as a “not true” sentence, i.e. р, has the same denotation on which it denotes (not be true)” a paradox arises, which calls “psematic” from the Greek word ψέματα (false). The essence of the paradox is that “every false sentence denotes false” denotes every false sentence denoting false, if and only if, “every false sentence denoting false” is not every true sentence denoting the truth. The result is: a) if “every false sentence denoting false” itself is not every true sentence denoting the truth, then, by the definition of “every false sentence denoting false”, it is not a sentence denoting false. And vice versa: b) If “every false sentence denoting false” itself is every true sentence denoting the truth, then, consequently, it is “every false sentence denoting false” and it is a sentence denoting false. In any case, it turns out that the proposition “false sentences denote false”, simultaneously have the sign that they designate and do not have it. It was found that “truth” has an autological nature, and “false” has heterological one.