Scientific achievements of 2002 Nobel Prize winners D. Kahneman and V. Smith are considered in the article. It is pointed out that for the first time the winner of the Nobel Prize in economics represents another scientific discipline - psychology. The main contribution of D. Kahneman in economic theory is the construction of the model of human behavior which differs from the classical homo oeconomicus model and reflects the peculiarities of human behavior more exactly. V. Smith is considered to be the father of experimental economics. By means of laboratory experiments he confirmed some basic theoretical hypotheses. Awarding the Prize to these scientists is the great step towards strengthening the interdisciplinary cooperation in the sphere of social sciences.
Sulakshin S., Romanikhin A.
Having analysed the shortcomings in activity of the Russian industrial unions, the authors propose measures for activating their further work. Namely, in their opinion, a new organization, set up along with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation, may play an important role so that the non-commercial unions be consolidated. It is the only employers' union, running according to a separate law.
The assessment of the scale of anthropogeneous emission and concentration of greenhouse gases is given in the article. It is shown that mitigation is closely connected with issues of development goals, equity of distribution of goods produced and taken from the Nature and of sustainability of growth itself. An attempt is made to evaluate the costs of lowering emissions of greenhouse gases and Russia's role in the process. It is concluded that the main task for our country is to attract investments for transferring the economy on the energy-efficient path of development using the Kyoto Mechanisms.
The essence of the modern concept of multifunctionality of agriculture is analysed in the article. Three multifunctional aspects of agricultural sector, the influence of the concept of multifunctionality on the process of trade policy negotiations in the framework of the WTO, the impact of the said concept on the process of liberalization of the international trade of agricultural produce are considered.
The specifics of pubic choice under representative democracy are considered in the sixth chapter of the textbook. Two definitions of representative democracy are distinguished. The concept of political competition is defined. The types of political parties and political systems are analysed. The model of two-party competition is characterized. The chapter also includes further readings, control tests and questions.
Simonov Hegoumen Philip
The article is devoted to main problems of Russia's contemporary development. It deals with attribution of the formation type of the country's socioeconomic system and the role of the specific superstructural factor - religious consciousness, which motivates the type of economic behaviour of the subjects of social development. Problems of genesis of the dependent type of development under conditions of the formation shift are specially analysed.
Four dimensions related to methodological issues for development of new institutional economics as a research program are considered. Firstly, basic concepts and questions, including institutions, transactions, transaction cost, bounded rationality, assets specificity, fundamental transformation, private conflicts ordering, etc. Secondly, approaches to research by the description of new institutional economics as distinguished from other research programs. Thirdly, a set of models as instruments used for predictions. Fourthly, empirical testing of hypotheses formulated in the models, quantitative estimate.
The problem of economic growth perspectives in Russia is the most actual one both in the political, economic and social aspects. Obviously, the possibility of avoiding the stagnation first of all depends on effective investments. After a long and deep depression almost all industries could increase the production for some time by means of better utilization of productive capacities. This offered time for working out the development projects and creating the investment basis of growth. Has this possibility been realized? The analysis shows that investment activity is aimed not at overcoming but at fixing of the structural diseases of the Russian economy and stagnation of the processing industries.
In this paper, the influence of interfirm trust relationships on the level of transaction costs of economic exchanges is analysed. In many cases, it is argued, trust appears to be either neutral in respect of transaction costs or even augmenting them. The lowering of transaction costs can be explained by virtue of different attendant institutions, like reputation or contract securities, rather than owing to trust per se. Mutual correlation between trust and transaction costs, including knowledge accumulation in interfirm alliances, property rights protection within joint innovation projects and social capital formation in business groups, is considered.