The article contains a thorough analysis of various approaches to calculating the balance of payments. The retrospective evolution of scientific views on the problem of evening up the balance of payments is traced. The monetarist approach to the balance of payments adjustment is emphasized. The author underlines the IMF significant role in developing the balance of payments calculation methodology.
Zuev A., Myasnikova L.
The market structure and advantages of e-commerce and the "new economy" including e-government are analyzed in the article. E-commerce and the "new economy" are considered as special web-programs forming so-called web-practices in the market. The real place of the "new economy" is connected with its convergence with the "old" one during the globalization processes. The authors also investigate the development of the "new economy" in Russia.
Electronic markets are thought to be perfectly efficient in terms of price levels, price dispersion, menu costs and the number of competitive sellers in the market. Indeed, menu costs and prices are usually lower online, but some empirical studies have found that electronic markets are characterised by high price dispersion and high concentration of market power. The author suggests that because of low costs of searching and acquiring information, small number of sellers and low menu costs electronic markets provide better conditions for tacit collusion. The fact that sellers are able to react to competitors' actions faster than buyers may even foster prices to increase. Tighter online competition forces each seller to differentiate from others by advertising his own brand name. In a static equilibrium an increase of the number of buyers may lead to escalation of advertising expenses and force less efficient sellers out of the market.
Among tendencies of antisustainable development the author emphasizes: negative dynamics and values of macroeconomic indicators; growth of the nature intensity indicators; structural changes in the economy, that lead to the increase of the nature exploiting and polluting sectors' share. In the framework of the macroeconomic policy perspective ways of shitting to sustainable development of the country are considered: adequate accounting for the ecological factor in decision making, ecologically balanced restructuring of the economy, support to innovative development, restructuring of the tax system and other directions.
The article contains the systems analysis of Russian cooperation with different international financial organizations - global and regional ones, organizations of former CMEA and sub-regional banks of near abroad. The author puts forward the concept of a new policy of Russian relationship with IFO: combination of efficient use of IFO loans with active participation (e.g. as a creditor country) in their work for national interests promotion.
Skuf'ina T., Baranov S.
Some problems and peculiarities of software used in Russia are considered through the prism of economic development. Qualitative and quantitative estimations for software legalization costs are provided along with ways of their reducing. A complex approach aimed at forming legal institutions of software usage and strengthening Russia's position in this sphere is suggested.
There is the inherent contradiction in the present-time monetary policy -between the containment of the increase in the exchange rate of the rouble and too high Central Bank rate. This contradiction is caused by limiting the legislatively established goals of Bank of Russia to a target of inflation decrease. To provide macroeconomic stability under conditions of both high and low oil price conjuncture Bank of Russia should use diverse monetary and credit policy instruments including refinancing banking credits to enterprises and purchase of Russian government securities. Since the monetization of the Russian economy is low the threat of inflation strengthening as a result of increase of domestic credit is grossly overestimated. The evidence of this fact is the dynamics of monetary aggregates in constant prices and in terms of dollars as well as in proportion to GDP.
Vishnevsky V., Vetkin A.
The model of rational choice of the taxpayer who makes the decision about tax evasion is presented in the article. The influence on the decision about tax evasion of the following factors is analysed: average tax rate; the size of penalty sanctions; probability of revealing the fact of evasion; brokerages paid to mediators who assist to tax evasion; evasion transaction costs. It is grounded that lowering of tax rates produces no significant influence on reduction of evasion scale, and for this purpose it is necessary to raise operating costs for mediators and decrease the general level of corruption in the country.
Kimel'man S., Andryushin S.
The problems of defining the economic substance, methods of calculation and forms of collecting of mining rent in the Russian oil industry are analyzed in the article. It is argued that mining rent under specific Russian conditions is not a tax, but rather a kind of rental payment. The impossibility of its quantitative estimation on the basis of the system of macroeconomic indicators is grounded. It is shown that mining rent appears and can be quantified only at the level of a certain field.
В работе рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с кредитным поведением граждан. Исследование базируется на данных социологического опроса, проведенного осенью 2002 г. в крупных областных центрах России. С помощью метода главных компонент на основе анализа ценностно-нормативных установок населения определяются факторы, характеризующие отношение граждан к деньгам, сбережениям, долгу и кредиту. Анализируется влияние пола, возраста, образования и других социально-демографических переменных на склонность к заимствованию. Выделяются шесть категорий граждан, характеризующихся специфическим отношением к вопросам сбережения и долга. Для каждой из групп даётся характеристика основных составляющих кредитного поведения: опыта заемной деятельности; критериев выбора кредитора; предпочтений относительно размера и срока погашения кредита; допустимой процентной ставки по кредиту.