Sinel'nikov-Murylev S., Batkibekov S., Kadochnikov P., Nekipelov D.
The paper contains results of the analysis of personal income tax reform in Russia in 2000, including the influence of the reform on tax base, tax revenues and progressivity of income taxation. On the basis of the theoretical model the authors formulate two main hypotheses, concerning the influence of major factors on personal income tax revenues and tax base. The first hypothesis implies that the decrease in marginal income tax rate caused the decrease in personal income tax evasion, increase in tax revenues and tax base. The second hypothesis is that the decrease in tax evasion, especially among taxpayers with high incomes, increased their tax burden and, as a result, the level of vertical equity. The paper also includes the results of empirical tests of the above hypotheses about the change in tax evasion and progressivity using the regional data in 2000 and 2001; a number of measurers in the sphere of economic policy is put forward.
Vasilieva A., Gurvich E., Subbotin V.
The paper discusses progress in the implementation of tax reform in Russia. It is argued, basing on theoretical and cross-country analysis, that fine tuning of tax system is a more appropriate major target of reform, than cutting overall tax burden. A simplified model of demand for labor is used to estimate impact of tax reform on GDP composition and tax proceeds. The effect of reform on tax revenues is assessed as their reduction by 1.5% of GDP, compensated with expansion of tax bases. The decisions on further steps of tax reform are criticized as potentially dangerous for macroeconomic stability.
The article considers the necessary reasons and main peculiarities which determine to a large extent the character and dynamics of the processes of economic integration within the CIS. It analyses the development of mutual trade, possibilities and prospects of economic integration in the framework of different unions of the Commonwealth States.
The article focuses on changes in financial flows among major sectors of the Russian economy after the financial crisis in 1998. Dynamics of financial assets and liabilities of general government, non-financial corporations and households sectors is considered from the point of view of their relations with other institutional sectors and financial instruments' structure. Conclusions on the character of changes in the sectors' financial policies and position in financial flows are drawn. Factors preventing growth in effectiveness of financial resources circulation in the economy are specified.
The article considers the system of indicators of the savings process development in Russia. Dynamics and the structure of financial assets of the population and the savings quota in the framework of international comparisons are assessed. The methodology of the financial assets account under condition of transition to the system of national accounts is critically evaluated.
The notion of rules is common to the economics of organization and the economics of institutions. The author analyses the concept of going concern by Commons, the spontaneous and organized order in Hayek's works, and North's distinction of formal and informal institutions. Comparing these three theories he proposes a synthetic and critical approach in trying to articulate individual and collective actions in a systemic framework where organizations are defined as collective and hierarchised ensembles of specific rules, and institutions as general and social rules with higher durability, directly or indirectly sanctioned by the state.
The concept of political business cycle proposed by Nordhaus and McRae is analysed in the eleventh chapter of the textbook. The problem of choice between inflation and unemployment is analyzed. The models of partisan cycle by Gibbs and Alesina are described. The model of political business cycle considering rent-seeking behavior is defined. The impact of mass media on electoral behavior is characterized. The chapter also includes further readings, control tests and questions.
The article is devoted to different questions of taxing excess profits generated by mineral resources extraction. The author begins with a brief review of the concept of rent evolution in the economic science. Then the modern point of view on this topic is presented. The new Russian tax on the mineral resources extraction is analyzed. The author comes to a conclusion of its non-usefulness if applied as an instrument of capturing economic rent. Different ways of improving natural resources taxation are considered, especially of using tax on additional profits from hydrocarbon raw materials recovery.
The basic principles of liberal constitutional order proposed by James Madison - the "chief architect" of the U.S. Constitution - are considered in the article. It is stressed that Madison rejected the idea of redistributive state (welfare state) and focused on the limits of government. The overriding principle of liberal order is freedom under the rule of law. The lesson for newly independent states is that spontaneous market-liberal order is needed to coordinate economic activity and the government must minimize its role in the economy. Freedom of choice lets people rise the wealth of nation.