Gimpelson Vladimir, Zhikhareva Olga, Kapeliushnikov Rostislav
The paper analyzes job turnover in the Russian economy on the basis of aggregate data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) since 2008. It describes main trends in job creation and job destruction in the Russian labor market over 2008-2012 and explores variation in intensity of these processes by types of ownership, sectors and regions. Cross-country comparisons indicate that job turnover in the Russian economy remains low. However, its private sector demonstrates much higher job creation and job destruction rates.
Revelation of the factors of corporate innovation activity and measurement of efficiency of innovations are vital topics in studies of modern economy. A character of innovative process has led to an increasing popularity of CDM approach. This allows to analyze the influence of innovative activity on firms economic performance. This paper is a review of the main empirical studies made within the CDM approach.
The seminal contributions of the neoclassical economic theory, the evolutionary and neo-Schumpeterian approaches in establishing the concept of national innovation system (NIS) are considered. The study is aimed to identify the challenges that the new concept has met. The advantages and bottlenecks of the emerging theory and practice are taken into account. In the study, an attempt is made to offset the shortcomings of the NIS approach and reveal its weaknesses. As a result, an approach to developing research methodology of NIS is proposed. The system structure-object and functional approaches give a basis of this concept.
Avraamova Elena, Maleva Tatiana
This paper presents an attempt at answering the question of why the scope of socio-economic inequality stays the same in Russia despite the poverty rate reduction. The authors are looking for the causes of this phenomenon in the domain of social dynamics, i.e., in the nature of current vertical mobility mechanisms. To study these mechanisms the authors use resources approach. The information database of the research is the representative sample survey carried by the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting at RANEPA in 2013. The majority of the respondents have, in fact, vague idea of general parameters of the economic development of the country and of their personal prospects to adapt to possible changes. This state of things hinders the development of rational models of socio-economic behavior directed towards the growth of personal and family welfare and productive in terms of national economy development - these, eventually, would advance the reduction of socio-economic inequality. Various groups of population are predominantly oriented towards converting social capital viewed not in terms of trust and solidarity, but in terms of ties or connections and of personal loyalty.
Simachev Yury, Kuzyk Mikhail, Feygina Vera
The study is focused on the cooperation of Russian companies with research organizations in implementing R&D projects during technological innovation. Taking into account behavioral changes, the authors carry out a micro-level analysis based on empirical data of executive survey of over 600 Russian industrial firms (2011-2012) and about 350 research organizations and universities (2012). The authors emphasize the key factors of firms' demand for outsourcing R&D, reveal the main barriers to the development of university-industry cooperation and their particularities for different cooperation actors. The study examines how Russian innovation policy toolkit affects partnerships with regard to changes in the actors' cooperative behavior.
Kapeliushnikov Rostislav, Oshchepkov Alexei
In the end of 2012 the Russian economy entered a period of permanently declining growth rates. The paper provides a thorough analysis of the labor market performance under these new conditions. We explain why despite economic stagnation its basic characteristics - labor force participation, employment, unemployment, hirings and separations, vacancies - remained at very favorable levels. Our analysis also indicates that though with a certain lag the labor market has started to react to negative economic shocks. We conclude that now effects of long-run structural shifts intervene with effects of short-run economic fluctuations and this will seriously affect the dynamics of the Russian labor market in the medium- and long-term perspectives.
The article examines the determinants of the costs incurred by employers while they fulfill the requirements of employment protection legislation. Using the World Bank Enterprise Surveys data from over 50,000 firms in 93 countries in 2005-2011 we verify that, ceteris paribus, these costs are higher for large, private, domestically owned firms in the manufacturing sector, as well as for those enterprises which are more covered by enforcement. With firm characteristics held constant, the costs of employment protection are significantly higher in more developed countries with stricter regulation of temporary employment and higher relative minimum wage, and are considerably less in countries with socialist and German legal systems than in the common law countries.