The author claims that contradictions between economists on the subject of human nature are the main hidden source of the modern crisis of economic theory. The article introduces psycho-typological approach to economic issues which is justified with reference to the research made by the prominent social scientists of the past (such as W. Sombart, J. M. Keynes etc.), as well as to the analysis of modern economic institutions and the discovery of types of personality which are the most appropriate for guiding the society to the modern, knowledge-based type of economic development.
The article considers interrelations between economic organization and the opportunities of realizing technological advantages such as demand aggregation, team production and asset specificity. Theoretical results of incomplete contracts literature are analyzed (Hart-Moore, Grossman-Hart and Tirole-Furubotn-Richter models) which touches upon interdependence between contract incompleteness, allocation of property rights and the levels of relationship-specific investment.
ДЕЖИНА И., КИСЕЛЕВА В.
The article analyzes modern theory that explains the specificity of relationships among government, science and business in innovation systems - the triple helix concept. Factors that determine the appearance of new theory are systematized. The peculiarities of formation of triple helix in Russia are described, including the development of science, business and the system of government regulation in innovation sphere. The conclusion is made that currently in Russia only double linkages are formed.
Application of methods, borrowed from physics, for economic research has not come to discovering scaling laws in economy and financial markets. The absence of such laws is conditioned by the specific character of energetic and information processes in economic system. The peculiarities of energetic and information interconnections should be the main topic of dialogue between economic science and theoretical physics. Econophysical models are based on the law of conservation of energy, whereas self-organization of economic system is provided by the effect of money multiplier. Money is simultaneously a set of interconnections and the most important resource, created by the system itself for its development. The analogue of such phenomenon can be found in quantum mechanics. The peculiarities of energetic and information interconnections in economic system determine fast crash of existing trends and formation of new ones. The economic system is objectively a poorly forecasted sphere of unstable regularities.
The article offers a version of further development of the prospects theory fundamentals in the aspect of institutional forms creation and development model. D. Kahneman and A. Tverski's dimensionality of decisions and judgements is taken as the starting point of institutional dimension formation. The ontological vector is added to the cognitive one in order to form the space. The mental and physical dichotomy is considered within the Helical Institutional Development Scheme framework.
The notion of development program is defined as the unity of investment and institutional-change components. Basing on the principles of institutional design the bargaining process for development programs formation is grounded, with influential stakeholders as parties of this bargain. The typology of compensations is introduced, and a generalized criterion of Caldor-Hicks is proposed for estimation of development programs efficacy. The illustrations from recent Russian practice are presented.
The article stresses the difference between objective presence and subjective perception of information by economic agents. The author considers some psycho-physiological aspects of information perception which are directly connected with the processes of economic decision-making. The article also discusses theoretical problems of modeling the perception of information about prices and quantities of goods and services on the part of consumers. Interval approach for uncertainty description is offered, the general consumer choice problem in case of interval uncertainty is formulated, and some practical issues in market price formation, the role of savings and macroeconomic equilibrium are discussed.
Growing involvement of Russian economy in international economic sphere increases the role of external risks. Financial problems which the developed countries are encountered with today result in volatility of Russian stock market, liquidity problems for banks, unstable prices. These factors in total may put longer-term prospects of economic growth in jeopardy. Monetary, foreign exchange and stock market mechanisms become the centerpiece of economic policy approaches which should provide for stable development in the shaky environment.