The article analyzes the destiny of Marx's theoretical legacy as presented in his major work - Capital. The author discusses the development of Marxist theory in the 20th century, shows the specific features of Marxist economic science today and explicates the influence of recent interpretations of Marx's economics on the current state of Marxism. The paper describes the status of Marxist theory in the modern economic science. The author analyzes the forecasts of the transition from the industrial society to the post-industrial one which may be found in the works of Marx and argues for their relevance for the 21st century.
БУЗГАЛИН А., КОЛГАНОВ А.
The article shows that Capital gives the key for the understanding of the anatomy of both classical and modern market economy. Capital is relevant as such for the analysis of the classical features of market economy which still exists. Critical dialectical method of Capital has helped to develop critically Marxist theory according to the changes in the economy. Analysis of production relations helps to show historical limits of market, changes in the property, actuality of old and new contradictions of capital. The article argues for special actuality of Capital for Russia; marks the problems which have not yet been solved within the framework of modern Marxism; critically considers dogmatic anti-Marxism which has become very popular among modern scholars and students.
Results of privatization campaign in 1990's continue to meet strong opposition from a very considerable part of Russian people and authorities actually refuse to consider the rights of private owners legitimate and not subject to violation. One of the reasons for this, besides historical tradition, is a specific nature of Russian privatization of 1990's. The article brings to discussion a set of measures aimed at overcoming its negative consequences. While insisting on the need to honor all previous government obligations and commitments, the paper proposes a one-time special tax (windfall tax) to be levied on those who benefited most from privatization deals that were not just and fair, and special rules to be set for the use and sale of economic assets of national importance. The author also considers possible ways to legitimize private property, as well as chances to achieve а broad public consensus on this issue in Russia.
We find that the present pension system is able to secure long-term formal sustainability. On the other hand, rapid fall of the replacement rate is expected, with the hardest period in 2018 to 2041, when ratio of average pension to average wage will be below 20%. Additional funds needed to keep this ratio at the level of 2006 amount to 2-3% of GDP in 2020-2041. Distributional implications of the pension reform are examined. The present value of losses born by elder cohorts from the reform are estimated to reach 9,9 bln roubles (in 2007 prices). The gender gap in pensions will increase substantially, to reach 36% by 2050. Measures addressing long-term problems of the pension system are discussed.
The article is devoted to the history of reception and interpretation of the ideas of Marx and Engels. The author considers the reasons for divergence between Marxist and neoclassical economic theories. He also analyzes the ways of vulgarization of Marx's theory and the making of Marxist voluntarism. It is shown that the works of Marx and Engels had a certain potential for their over-simplified interpretations. The article also considers academic (Western) Marxism and evaluates the prospects of Marxist theory in the future.
The paper written by a famous sociologist, one of the main advocates of analytical Marxism, analyzes this school of social and economic thought which emerged in the end of the 1970s. The author briefly outlines the history of analytical Marxism and explicates its distinctive characteristics which distinguish it from both neoclassical tradition and different heterodox schools of thought. The paper also shows the connections between analytical Marxism and Marxist theory. The author discusses modern interpretations of Marx's conceptions and the influence of analytical Marxism on contemporary social and economic thought.
ТИТОВ Б., ПИЛИПЕНКО И., ДАНИЛОВ-ДАНИЛЬЯН А.
The report considers how the state economic policy contributes to the national economic development in the midterm perspective. It analyzes main current economic problems of the Russian economy, i.e. low effectiveness of the social system, high dependence on export industries and natural resources, high monopolization and underdeveloped free market, as well as barriers that hinder non-recourse-based business development including high tax burden, skilled labor deficit and lack of investment capital. We propose a social-oriented market economy as the Russian economic model to achieve a sustainable economic growth in the long-term perspective. This model is based on people's prosperity and therefore expanding domestic demand that stimulates the growth of domestic non-resource-based sector which in turn can accelerate annual GDP growth rates to 10-12%. To realize this model Delovaya Rossiya proposes a program that consists of a number of directions and key groups of measures covering priority national projects, tax, fiscal, monetary, innovative-industrial, trade and social policies.