ВОПРОСЫ ПСИХОЛИНГВИСТИКИ

  • Publisher Образовательное частное учреждение высшего образования Московская международная академия
  • Country Россия
  • Web https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=30249

Content

Analysis of the meaning of proverbs in use

Nistratov Aleksandr A.

The article investigates the meaning of proverbes in use. the metalanguage of the semantic analisis of proverbs and sayings in this research is semantic spaces which are analogous to categorial structures of popular consciousness. these categorial structures are the foundation of the classification for respondents who differerentiate these forms of folklore. we have conducted an experiment which sets the correlation between proverbs (60 proverbs) and situations (33 situations). the coefficient of semantic links of the proverbs and the situations has been computed. the procedure of factor analysis has been implemented to obtain categorial structures for the proverbs and the situations. that allows revealing peculiarities of proverbs functioning in individual consciousness. the results of the experiment show that proverbs express normanive values through a behaviourial pattern and serve as a standard method of interpreting situations from the point of view of normes and values.

Cognitive-communicative approach to verbal representation of mnemonic processes

Tivyaeva Irina V.

Having accepted the concept of language as a material container of cognitive content and the thesis about the patterned nature of communication, the author argues that a mnemonic utterance should be considered a verbal form of representing the mechanism of individual memory. the goal of the current study is to identify and describe external conditions of verbalization of mnemonic processes on the basis of the cognitive-communicative approach, which is expected to promote further inquiries into linguistic aspects of the work of individual memory, specifically, promote insights into communicative, pragmatic, structural, semantic, lexical, grammatical and discourse features of mnemonic utterances and identify correlations between them and the cognitive-communicative context of verbalization of memory. the tool used to analyze memory verbalizers in this paper is the mnemonic situation which functions as the cognitive-communicative context in which mnemonic utterances are generated. to achieve the stated goal of the paper, the author develops a typology of mnemonic situations based on their cognitive and communicative parameters. the classification of mnemonic situations in accordance with the memory process being represented is founded on correlations between mnemonic situations and links of the mnemonic chain representing the sequence in which incoming information units are processed. In the typology of mnemonic situations based upon the communicative principle, the key parameter is that of actuality / virtuality, that is, local and temporal conditions of communication. Differentiation of various types of mnemonic situations in accordance with their cognitive and communicative features will allow for a more accurate description of contextual conditions under which memory processes are verbalized and help identify a correlation, if any, between the structure of a verbalizer utterance and the context in which it was generated.

Cognitive complexity of children fiction: quantitative methods of evaluation

Valueva Ekaterina A., Danilevskaya Nina M., Lapteva Ekaterina M., Ushakov Dmitry V.

The current study addresses the language markers of the text complexity in children and adolescent literature published from 1900 to 2016. the literature for the analysis consists of the most popular books of the appropriate period. the design of the study has three independent variables: time, book origin (Russian literature, european literature and american and canadian literature) and the target age (preschool, primary school, middle school and high school). In total 588 texts in Russian and 118 texts in english have been analyzed. we have calculated various volume measures, structure and content measures for each text. the statistical analysis has revealed that some text characteristics have the age-related dynamics and therefore they may be accounted as the markers of text cognitive complexity. these parameters may be used as the basic tool for the further studies of the human speech development in reading that involve text comparison.

Comparative study of language consciousness of Russians and Yakuts (on the example of the image of homeland)

Savitskaya Sardana V.

Concept “Fear” in religious and media discourses (based on “Pravoslaviye i mir” portal)

Yarovikova Vladislava O.

Статья посвящена репрезентации концепта «страх» в рамках православного интернет-портала «Православие и мир». Использование концепта одновременно в бытовом и в институциональном контексте выполняет как публицистическую, так и катехизаторскую функцию. В ходе исследования нами анализируются публикации портала «Православие и мир», рассматривается типологический, аргументационный, логико-композиционный и тропеический аспекты концепта «страх». Результаты текстуального анализа подкрепляются проведенным нами ассоциативным экспериментом, согласно которому институциональное понимание концепта «страх» различается от бытового понимания, зачастую основанного на субъективных переживаниях респондента. Методика проведенного ассоциативного эксперимента была разработана на основе подхода Н.В. Уфимцевой, представляющей ассоциативный эксперимент как одну из технологий моделирования языковой картины мира. В рамках проведенного эксперимента нами была определена собственная классификация реакций респондентов, а также корреляция с результатами контент-анализа портала «Православие и мир» как макротекста. По результатам сопоставления понимания концепта «страх» в структуре макротекста «Православие и мир» и в восприятии респондентов были выявлены различия, обусловленные институциональной направленностью православного интернет-портала «Православие и мир». Концепт, актуализированный в текстах портала, выполняет логикокомпозиционную, аргументационную, тропеическую и типологическую функции.

Conceptual field of Russian conscience: unconscious

Kolesov Vladimir V.

The conceptual analysis of text presents a concept of conscience, unconscious and Subconscious, which is heteronymous due to historical name substitution. the author’s original description algorithm underlying the study involves cognitive unity of the «four causes» of a common causal sequence (causality), identification of which from randomly selected contexts constructs a semantic constant and a conceptual square with four substantial forms of the concept - image, concept (notion), symbol and the «grain of archaic meaning” (conceptum). the study depicts heterogeneity of a rationalist concept of Subconscious for the Russian mentality and a stable tradition of using the concept of conscience instead, which organizes the conceptual field of thinking: consciousness - cognition - knowledge with conscience as the main criterion, the (zero point) of all formulations of causality equal to «archaic meaning». It constitutes a complete paradigm of knowledge, presenting it as a concept of understanding. a specific feature of the Russian way of thinking is the formation of imaginative notions (das Sinnbild) of symbolic values, which for a long time served as a substitution of notions and now act as stylistic variants of a symbol. the western concept of Subconscious corresponds to the Russian unconscious, which becomes the major content of the Subconscious.

Dislocative and compressive metonymy (on the material of substantive-adjectival word-combinations)

Seagal Kirill Ya.

В статье предпринята попытка подойти к понятию синтаксической метонимии и рассмотреть одну из ее разновидностей в сфере свободных словосочетаний. Показано, что синтаксическая метонимия позволяет объяснять, как происходит синтаксическая развертка предложения-высказывания в условиях нестандартного семантико-синтаксического интерфейса. В последнее время синтаксическую метонимию стали исследовать в когнитивной лингвистике, в психо- и нейролингвистике, к ней обращаются в таких направлениях, как теория дискурсивной метонимии и метонимическая грамматика. В статье описан такой тип вторичной синтаксической метонимии, как дислокационно-компрессивная метонимия, на материале субстантивно-адъективных словосочетаний русского языка. В таких конструкциях наблюдается противоречие между синтаксической и семантической зависимостью адъективного компонента. Автор статьи объясняет структурный механизм этих словосочетаний, семиотико-семантическую природу, дискурсивные свойства, особенности их порождения и восприятия. В психолингвистическом эксперименте показано, что аутентичная смысловая интерпретация словосочетания с дислокационно-компрессивной метонимией обеспечивается только в дискурсе. Такие свободные словосочетания принадлежат экспрессивному синтаксису и относятся к гипаллаге. «Деривационные истории» словосочетаний с дислокационнокомпрессивной метонимией свидетельствуют о том, что порождение свободных словосочетаний не исчерпывается механизмами валентностного синтаксиса.

Every mother thinks her own gosling a swan: communication models of behavior via the aspect of the theory of archetypes

Medvedeva Irina A.

The article is devoted to the universals of verbal behavior, which allow to describe speech holistically, comprehensively, as a system, relying on the personality and his motives. the article proposes the typology of archetypes communicative behavior, investigated intentional settings and linguistic markers of archetypes are submitted in the article. the list of archetypes is based on the theory of carl gustav Jung. the author identifies five archetypes (mother, father, elder, child, lover), and five shades (stepmother, tyrant, critic, outlaw, disagreeable). the author examines communication models of behavior through the example of the television discourse. the empirical basis of linguistic markers research includes videos of popular Russian-speaking tV programs. Detailed focus is paid to the description of the mother archetype. with the help of discourse analysis the author finds key markers of archetype: words of sympathy, words of encouragement, words of praise etc. the author concludes that the father archetype is dominated in the context of tV programs. this is due to the fact that all talk-shows are a platform on which tV viewers can express approval or condemnation to public person.

Image “Chinese” in the consciousness of speakers of own and other national cultures (on the material of the Chinese and Russian national corpus)

Tiande Huang

The article deals with the contents of the image «chinese» in the texts of the National corpus in chinese and Russian. we have revealed some common features and peculiarities of the chinese image in the chinese and Russian national cultures. the statistical analysis of the received data shows typical representation of the chinese about themselves and the Russian about the chinese. the image of «chinese» in the Russian language consciousness is at periphery, and most of the detected collocations are unitary. the research on the image of «chinese» of the Russian and chinese cultural representatives can reveal specifics of stereotypes, prevent potential conflicts, and facilitate mutual understanding in intercultural contacts.

Nonverbal Russian and Chinese emotional language of joy (linguophenomenological aspect)

Volkova Larisa B.

Статья посвящена экспериментальному исследованию осознания и языкового описания невербального выражения радости носителями русского и китайского языка. В отличие от лингвокультурологических работ, базирующихся на анализе культурно-маркированного языкового материала и направленных на репрезентацию эмоциональных концептов, а также от собственно психологических трудов, ориентированных на определение сущности радости как психического феномена, наше исследование имеет целью экспериментально установить сходства и различия в значимости невербальных эмоциональных проявлений радости, выявить доминантные признаки рефлексивного представления кинем - эмотивов и их языковых коррелятов в русской и китайской культуре. Экспериментальный материал позволил дифференцировать шесть групп эмоциональных кинем, актуальных для репрезентации радости: 1) экспрессивно-выразительная мимика; 2) моторная активность; 3) тактильный контакт; 4) изменение поведения и внутреннего состояния, 5) просодика и 6) вегетативные реакции. Факт об универсальной значимости мимики для опознавания и осознания радости подтверждается высокой корреляцией между мимическими выражениями русских и китайцев. Другие невербальные проявления, являясь биологически естественными, осознаются носителями разных языков как более или менее существенные, определяя таким образом формирование национально-культурного концепта эмоции. В китайском невербальном языке эмоций акцент в большей степени делается на физическом возбуждении, двигательной активности; русским свойственно внимание к своему душевному миру, что приводит к актуализации средств описания изменения внутреннего состояния. Полученные результаты согласуются с феноменологией радости К. Мидоуза. Эмоцию радости у китайцев, по результатам исследования, можно описать в параметрах индивидуальности и возбуждения как личный, свойственный отдельному субъекту энергичный подъем, воодушевление, восторг. Радость у русских характеризуется в большей мере коллективностью и спокойствием: это стремление к общей гармонии, к душевному покою и миру.

Review of the book by V.D. Popkov “Leaving the limits of ethnicity. Postsoviet emigration in Germany” (Publ. “Posev”, Frankfurt on the Main, 2016, 484 p.)

Ufimtseva Natalia V.

Review of the monograph by V.I. Shakhovskiy “Dissonance of ecologicity in communication: Person, Language, Emotions” (Volgograd: Pupl. IP Polikarpov I.l., 2016. 504 p.)

Volkova Polina S.

Russian linguistics of the XXth century and its prominent figures. B.A. Serebrennikov: his life and scientific work

Postovalova Valentina I.

The present paper is devoted to B.a. Serebrennikov who was an outstanding scholar and at the same time a top-rank organizer of science. Particularly, it highlights some aspects of his life and characterizes his role in the development of Russian linguistics. Special attention is paid to the main features of his mode of thinking - historism, ontologism, realism, dialecticism, and materialism, which B.a. Serebrennikov interpreted as a complete correspondence between a linguistic description and the real nature of language. the paper focuses on the principles of the scholar’s approach to the analysis of linguistic reality - his vigorous pursuit of truth, his struggle against one-sided standpoints in the study of language, his systemic way of thinking, his methods of synthesizing the concrete empiric data with the in-depth theoretical analysis, his adherence to principle and democratic ways of moderating scientific discussions. B.a. Serebrennikov’s struggle against N.ya. Marr’s “new theory” and Neomarrism as well as consequences of Stalinism are outlined. Moreover, the scientific discourse of the epoch of the ideological totalitarianism is also described. the present paper dwells on B.a. Serebrennikov’s ideas about the creation of “anti-marr” linguistics on the basis of the traditional comparative-historical study of language.

Senior schoolchildren’s problems in interpreting metaphoric expressions

Bogdanova Elena S.

The article presents a review on the linguistic and philosophical views on the concept of metaphor, its nature, structure, peculiar features and functions in speech. Moreover, it considers a debatable issue of understanding and interpreting a literary text, focusing on decoding metaphoric expressions. the article deals with the problems that senior schoolchildren face when interpreting metaphoric expressions in a text. the author provides the results of the experimental research aiming at revealing schoolchildren’s abilities to recognize and interpret metaphoric expressions in the literary text. Besides, typical mistakes are singled out and their causes are analyzed. the common mistakes of senior school students are connected with inability to identify a metaphor, wrong attribution of a collocation with direct nominations to metaphors, inability to understand the author’s intention and see the signs of implication. School students often cannot rely on the lexical meaning of a word due to their poor vocabulary, vague idea of an extensive lexical meaning and ways to transfer the meaning. Basing on the analysis of the experimental data the author makes methodological conclusions. thus, the focus area should include analysis of the metaphoric expressions, developing associate thinking, mastering different ways of interpreting metaphoric expressions based on the regulative structures of the text, background knowledge, sociocultural commentary, comparison of different versions of interpretation, etc.

Study of lexical homonymy in the zones where the language and its dialects contact

Karpov Vladimir I.

В статье рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с разработкой основных принципов описания семантической поливариантности на примере лексических омонимов северогерманского ареала. Диалектное многообразие в отдельных германских языках обусловлено дивергентным характером фонетических процессов. Хронологическая дискретность звуковых трансформаций спровоцировала появление и сосуществование в диалектах двух и более лексем, идентичных по звуковому или графическому облику, но восходящих к различным этимонам. Вследствие псевдоэтимологического переосмысления омонимичных диалектных форм в разных жанрах возникают дополнительные контекстуально обусловленные значения. В контактных языковых зонах, где сталкиваются суперстрат, возникший как синтез старых верхненемецких и средненемецких диалектов, и местные диалекты, в меньшей степени подвергшиеся фонетическим изменениям, появляются новые группы омонимов. Поскольку данная группа лексики не подвергалась лексикографическому описанию, возникает острая необходимость в формулировании общих принципов выявления и систематизации диалектных омонимов в зонах контактного взаимодействия немецкого общенационального стандарта и диалектов. В статье предпринимается попытка представить возможные пути решения данной задачи, учитывающие многоаспектность исследуемого явления.

The associative field of the value ‘tolerance’ as a tool to describe the Russian language speaker picture of consciousness

Matjushina Vasiliisa V.

In this article the definition and peculiarities of the value ‘tolerance’ functioning in Russian linguistic consciousness is specified on the basis of certain experimental data; the description of the value ‘tolerance’ and its representation in Russian linguistic consciousness are provided in order to reveal gender characteristics and age specific features of how this very value is realized in linguistic consciousness. the results of applying the association method, used to reveal the knowledge of language speakers about social realm, are described. the association experiment is understood as experimental psycholinguistic research aimed at examining language consciousness, giving a possibility to describe the content and the subject of language signs just the way they actually exist in consciousness. thus, the experiment gives a possibility to observe and specify that Russian consciousness bears and includes the image of respect to unfamiliar and foreign and the perception of unfamiliar and foreign without hostility and contradiction, which is determined as true tolerance.

Two strategies of the comprehension of reversible sentences in primary school students

Akhutina Tatyana V., Korneev Aleksei A., Matveeva Ekaterina Yu.

The results of empirical study of comprehension of grammatical constructions (gc) in primary school students are described in the paper. we try to distinguish different strategies of comprehension of reversible gc. the computer-based test was used. the material includes different types of the syntactic constructions: reversible and irreversible, with direct and inverse word order, passive and active voices etc. also the neuropsychological assessment of children was conducted. 36 first-grade children participated in the study (mean age - 7.3±0.5 y.o.). the analysis of accuracy and speed of comprehension of passive reversible gc allows to divide the subjects into three groups with different strategies: (1) taking into account the word order (passive constructions with inverse word order were understood better than with direct word order); (2) taking into account case endings and word order (passive constructions with direct word order were understood better than with inverse word order); (3) children with 100% comprehension of the passive gc. the comparison of the higher mental functions in the groups and analysis of correlation between the results of the neuropsychological assessment and the comprehension of gc were conducted. the results allowed suggesting that the strategy in the first group seemed to be bilateral with a significant contribution of the right hemisphere functions, whereas the strategy in the second group seemed to be connected rather with state of cognitive functions of left hemisphere. finally, we consider a general picture of the development of reversible sentences comprehension.

What are the Komi like? Or autostereotypes and geterostereotypes of the Komi (Zyran)

Razumkova Anna V.

The important component of the efficient public policy is the accuracy and objectivity of the notion about another ethnos, nation. In our opinion, the accurate notion about an ethnos is important not only on the international level but also on the domestic level, especially in the country where a lot of different ethnos live. the practical solution to this problem is the study of ethnic stereotypes, which determine people’s behavior, have influence on ethnic sympathies and antipathies and create favorable conditions for manipulation of mass consciousness. the object under study is the ethnic image of the autochthonal population of the Komi Republic. the subject under study is ethnic stereotypes of the Komi (zyran). the first goal is to study autostereotypes and geterostereotypes of the Komi (zyran) in order to identify similarities and differences in the content of the image, the formation of which is directly influenced by such factors as territory and ethnic composition of the population of regions. the second goal is to study the changes in the content of the image of the Komi (zyran) in order to bring stable (from the point of view of the time) stereotypes to light. to achieve the mentioned goals, firstly, it is necessary to study characteristic description of today’s autochthonal population of the Komi Republic and then to compare it with its description given in geographical and fiction literature of the XIX century and in experimental researches by o.V. Kotov, M.B. Rogachov, u.P. Shabaev (1996), V.M. Byzova (1997). the material for the description of autostereotypes and geterostereotypes of today’s Komi (zyran) was collected with the help of the directed association experiment conducted in 2016 among university students (aged 17-23) in Kaluga and Syktyvkar towns. the results of the research show that the notions about the Komi (zyrane) are rather contradictory but in the diachrony of descriptive and experimental researches we may point out the following stable features of Komi’s national character: kindness, diligence, hospitality, endurance and the sense of patriotism.

Writing as a sociocultural and psychological phenomenon

Porkhomovskiy Viktor Ya.

The focus of the present paper is on symbolic function of writing as well as on social, psychological and cultural factors which form and determine this symbolic function. the best possibilities to analyze these problems are left by the process of creation and adaptation of the new system of writing within the framework of a given ethnolinguistic community, where a certain system of writing already exists and functions. this situation allows to determine precise characteristics of different systems of writing on the basis of comparative analysis of their functions. typological classification of new writing systems formation ways has been worked out within the framework of the present study. three first types in this classification pertain to societies without writing. two remaining types describe situations where a certain written tradition already exists. Special attention is paid to the role of the symbolic aspect in the elaboration of the form of graphic signs for new original systems of writing. the analysis is based on the new writing systems created in africa with a special focus on the N’ko script for Mande languages, three Hausa writing systems and the tifinagh alphabet in Berber communities. the problems of the new writing systems assimilation in the societies with existing writing traditions are also examined in the present paper.

ЛИТЕРАТУРНОЕ ТВОРЧЕСТВО АЛИКА ЛЕОНТЬЕВА С 5-ТИ ДО 9-ТИ

Статья представляет собой публикацию рукописи неизвестной исследовательницы из Психологического института, которая в 1940-х годах составила описание “литературного творчества Алика Леонтьева с 5-ти до 9-ти лет”. Эта оригинальная психолингвистическая работа периода второй мировой войны, в которой исследовательница фиксирует образцы детских текстов на протяжении 4 лет (начиная с 1941-ого) и связывает их с обстоятельствами жизни маленького мальчика и его семьи в этот период.

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