Stepanova Anna A.
Attributive word combination and its lexical compatibility, as a frequency and productive model of inflectional language, can be considered as a well-researched problem of modern linguistics. Studying this question from the perspective of psycholinguistics gives us the opportunity to identify the features of the compatibility of such a model in the language consciousness of Russian speakers. the features are not reflected in traditional lexicographic sources, but could prove useful for students learning Russian as a foreign language. 94 вопросы психолингвистики 4 (34) 2017 this article analyzes the associative gestalt constructed on the basis of associative fields formed on the materials of free associative experiments conducted in the regions of Russia (Komi, tatarstan) among students who identified themselves as Russians. the ranking of semantic zones and the identification of the most frequent ones makes it possible to clarify the lexical compatibility of the adjective, since, with the prevalence of the object zone, it can be concluded that the adjective has predominantly object.combinability, while with a large percentage of the subject zone, - subject-combinability. the strategy of completing the stimulus-adjective to the attributive phrase by using the reaction in the form of a noun was revealed as the most frequent in the associative experiment. Since the characteristic zone also occupies a high rank in the associative gestalt of the adjective, it is possible to note other response strategies as frequency ones: the selection of antonymous and synonymous reactions.
Chulkina Nina L.
The article considers the social-philosophical category of “everyday life” and its reflection in the Russian language consciousness. the paper presents an interdisciplinary study, since the concept of everyday life is regarded as a socio-philosophical category, as well as cultural, semiotic, and historical. the main directions of the liberal arts having contributed to the study of the phenomenon are reviewed. the author focuses on linguo.cognitive, psycholinguistic, and linguo-cultural approaches while analyzing the material obtained from the Russian associative Dictionary. the author’s objective is to define the status of the “everyday life” category in the trivial Russian language consciousness. the author shows the duality of everyday life, which is, on the one hand, synonymous to prosiness and commonness, and, on the other, is regarded as a fundamental principle of understanding and transforming the world. the ambiguity, the ambivalence of perception and evaluation of Russian everyday life by its participants, common native speakers of the Russian linguistic culture, is usually a subject of debate, both by professionals and nonprofessionals.
Svinchukova Elena G.
Family as the value and the reflection of a particular society with the definite culture has been the object of numerous studies of various sciences. It is the family where a person gets his first and thus the most important notions of the world around him. the way parents teach the baby to perceive the reality and the knowledge and the skills they give him make tremendous contribution to all his future life. Relations between the members of the family may differ. Based on the closeness of family members’ relations and the authority of the family on the whole we can suppose the stability of cultural information transported from one generation to another. the object of our paper is the associative field “family” in three different groups of respondents: Russian people living in tatarstan, tatars in tatarstan speaking Russian and tatars speaking the tatar language. the main purpose is to compare the image of the family of Russians and of tatars from tatarstan, speaking different languages, and to find similarities and differences of their language consciousness (this is the so called regional language consciousness).
Pilgun Maria A.
The article analyzes the media aspect of the 1917 events representation in the consciousness of the Russian youth, and it regards historical memory as the semantic basis of national and civic identity. while implementing the project, firstly, a database of social networks messages (facebook, Vkontakte, livejournal), related to the events of 1917, was collected and studied. Secondly, there followed a mass survey. the survey was conducted in 12 cities representing all federal Districts of Russia (except for the crimea). the number of respondents totaled 1548. the study was completed with focus-group interviews. the investigation revealed that the content of modern social networking on the events of 1917 in terms of social tensions repeats the events of a century ago. the conflict, that split the society into hostile camps 100 years ago, continues to divide people today. In the virtual space, the assessment of historical events is turning into another way of marking “friend or foe”, it leads to conflict communication and increases social tensions. the study how modern Russian youth perceives the events of 1917 will help to determine the specificity of its identity, outline the factors influencing the formation of historical events assessments in the country’s history, as well as overcome a number of important ideological and educational issues.
Troshina Natalia N.
Одним из инструментов глобализации явилось создание единого Европейского пространства высшего образования, которое нуждается в общепризнанном языке международного академического общения. Без него не могла бы осуществляться академическая мобильность, в которой участвуют многие университеты немецкоязычного региона. Языком международного общения в сфере высшей школы и науки стал сегодня английский язык, который явился успешным конкурентом другого коммуникативно мощного языка - немецкого, имеющего давние богатые традиции в этой сфере: именно немецкий язык был лидером в академической среде со второй половины XIX по середину XX века, однако затем в связи с рядом исторических причин утратил свои лидерские позиции. В результате незаметно произошел культурный перелом, чреватый снижением престижа науки в немецком обществе. В статье рассматриваются проблемы языковой ситуации в немецких университетах, опасности активного введения английского языка как языка обучения для уровня научной подготовки студентов, научных дискуссий, а также для развития самого немецкого языка. Подчеркивается использование английского языка как маркетингового инструмента в сфере высшей школы, что может привести к стиранию национальных систем в высшем образовании.
Shaposhnikova Irina V.
The article continues the series of author’s studies on the humanitarian implications of reforms in the higher education system. the problem is studied in the context of the initial motivational base of the reform in education and its further conversion into educational activities. on experimentally obtained material (4 representative for the Russian language consciousness associative data bases, including the latest regional; local data from an additional associative chain experiment) key contradictions in the system of professional identification of the Russian language personality are considered with reference to the essence of the deep transformations in the Russian society (and education system) of the last decades. the semantic structures of a number of images associated with professional identification have been analyzed to identify several psychoglosses, which allows the author to compare the associative-verbal data in synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Some controversial aspects of the use of network models in interdisciplinary linguistics are also discussed. Identifying psychoglosses which reflect the socially-caused contradictions of professional identification on the material of associative-verbal network, is considered by the author as one of the ways of obtaining necessary and relevant to the current state of the system knowledge (along with data from other sources) to perform complex humanitarian expertise in the field of educational activities. Such an expertise may be aimed at search of ways of optimization of flexible resources for development in the system of education.
Goldin Valentin E., Sdobnova Alevtina P.
The paper presents and describes the associative Dictionary of Schoolchildren of Saratov and Saratov Region (compiled between 1998 and 2008) in a form of a database and outlines the project of a new associative thesaurus of schoolchildren (version 2.0). the first version of the associative Dictionary of Schoolchildren of Saratov and Saratov Region provided valuable scientific results reflecting the psycholinguistic aspect of the research of language consciousness of Russian-speaking schoolchildren at the turn of the XXI century. Based on the obtained data, nucleus of language consciousness, as well as its age, gender and other aspects and peculiarities were accentuated; different ranges of inner lexicon were studied in their age-related dynamics. the analysis of associative data made it possible to determine that the nucleus of language consciousness of schoolchildren is highly stable. Its constant part explicating the most essential concepts in the picture of the world is believed to be well-formed by the time a child goes to school. four types of age-related dynamics of associative fields are defined: type of entering the lexicon, type of sophistication, type of standardization, and type of peripheral development. the study of associative fields allowed for establishing the most typical, basic, and, to a great extent, universal relations: the variety of S - R relations in associative fields of Russian concrete nouns may be described as a relatively small amount (from 9 to 11) of hierarchical basic types of semantic links which are accentuated in the fields of different concrete nouns with the regularity that corresponds the completeness of knowledge of the stimulus referent and the word itself. the article outlines the goals for a new associative thesaurus of schoolchildren: to figure out the changes occurred in the linguistic picture of the world in the last 10 to 20 years, to specify constant and variable nuclei in the 2020-s, to point out regular shifts in the semantics of stimuli, to define more precisely how thesauri of different age groups are related (in quantity and character).
The article discusses metaphorical models of the concept PatRIotISM in the chinese and Russian linguistic pictures of the world. the methods applied are semantic, conceptual, and comparative analyses. the material for the study included electronic versions of Russian and chinese Newspapers and other political texts.
Ufimtseva Natalya V.
Among the ethnopsycholinguistic studies conducted by Moscow psycholinguistic school the investigation of the content associated with a word in native speakers’/ culture.bearers’ image of the world is one of utmost importance. the current study analyzes the value of “life” and its reflections in the language consciousness of native speakers/ culture bearers, namely, Buryats, Komis, Russians, tatars and yakuts. the study was conducted by means of a free associative experiment within one social group, students, aged from 17 to 26 in several regions of the Russian federation (Republics of Buryatia, Komi, tatarstan, and yakutia); respondents were offered questionnaires in the Russian, tatar, and yakut languages. the research was aimed at studying the changes that occurred in the Russians’ language consciousness content, associated with the value “life”, in the period from 1998 to 2017, as well as defining regional features of the content. the analysis took into account mother tongue / culture, region of residence, time period. to process the obtained associative fields, a modified semantic gestalt was used. the content was understood as a reflection of sociocultural reality.
Makhovikov Denis V.
The paper foregrounds the problem of hypertext perception as an everyday communicative reality and the development of the psycholinguistic model of its semantic perception. therefore, we consider some ontological characteristics of hypertext. the object of analysis in the paper is printed hypertext which is formed by combinations of the current text with pre-texts and post-texts. the paper describes the results of a psychosemantic experiment aimed at revealing the influence of pre-text on the perception of the current text. In the experiment respondents (students of Moscow universities) perceived and evaluated (using the scaling method) two objects - the current text and a hypertext. the latter was formed from the current text and a pretext - theses expressing the main ideas of the current text. we have analyzed the data obtained from the respondents and built a seven-dimensional categorical structure of the perception of the hypertext which has been formed by the following categories: originality, banality, complexity, figurativeness, unpredictability, orderliness and realism. we have revealed some significant differences in the perception of linear text and hypertext. an objective for the near future is to study the influence of pretext type on the perception of the current text.
Dronov Pavel S.
The paper considers idioms with the constituent hair (as a mass noun) in Slavic (namely, Russian, Serbo-croatian), germanic (english, german), and celtic languages (namely, Irish). an issue arising in the process of analysing such idioms is the opposition hair (mass noun) vs. hair (individual noun), which may be either purely grammatical or lexical. this opposition, especially on the lexical level, leads to the co-occurrence of idioms with both constituents denoting different concepts. the article covers the idioms’ underlying metaphors and metaphorical models, as well as peculiarities of their lexical and grammatical alterations. as the analysis demonstrates, the hair idioms can be assigned to seven models; although technically there is the eighth one, there is little evidence of its existence in corpora or speech, and its lexicographical coverage is sparse. additionally, the paper regards convergence of idioms whose figurative meanings were originally different. another question raised in the article is that of cultural specificity vs. common figurative units, since most hair idioms appear to belong to latter. Besides, the paper deals with a newer english idiom bad hair day and the discourse.specific changes and modifications thereof.
Fedulova Мaria N.
A particular system of values defines control over relations in society as well as regulates public order. the values system is introduced to society through different conceptospheres articulated in the specific semantic area of language. In the conceptosphere of law there exists a differentiation corresponding the legal system. therefore, reflecting the common system of social control, legal discourse exhibits an inner differentiated structure. the article analyzes the approaches towards the typology of legal discourse concepts and their classifications. the lexical semantics and lexical organization of discourse are thought to be a definite projection of conceptosphere of law and serve as criteria in conceptual analysis of the language of law. accordingly, the issue arisen is the selection of criteria to define the typology of legal discourse as a special discourse. acting as a social controller, legal discourse contains the cumulative component that depends on a properly selected lexical unit. the semantic components complex of a lexical unit makes up the informative intensity of the word semantics. In turn, the complex is the cumulative component, that plays an important part in regulating relations in society. legal discourse is characterized by a number of specific features in terms of the concept genesis and functional status, the system of instruments to manifest its expressive representations. It is supposed that in addition to common ontological criteria for concept selection appropriate for any kind of discourse, the typology of discourse can be based on the criterion of informative intensity, i.e. concept volume, that can be actualized by both direct (terminological) and indirect (narrative) forms of expressive representation in any text.
Vdovichenko Andrey V., Tarasov Eugeny F.
In the article based on two experiments (or observations) the authors regard the characteristics of verbal data and communicative action, their relations in natural conditions of communication. the authors state that communicative action and verbal data correspond as the whole and its dependent part allocated with functions in the course of inscribing (integrating) them into communicative action. the verbal data (taken at different analysis levels - from sound to sentence and text) can be considered sense producing elements only if they are involved in a communicative action organized by a speaker (writer). In the natural communicative process (which is realized with or without verbal channel used) nothing but personal communicative actions (semiotic acts) can be understood, performed in complex (sometimes unavailable to the interpreter) conditions, but not words or other ‘signs’ (gestures, figures, nonverbal sounds and so forth). as the sign is selected and receives identity only in a personal communicative action, its existence can be assumed as conditional, and its institutionalization can be assumed the utilitarian procedure. the language model completely ignores the mandatory characteristics of natural semiotic action (act) - communicativity, actionality, situativeness, cognitivity, interpretiveness. It postulates signs possess value and sense by themselves (words and others). In natural communicative process several channels of influence always “work”. the attempt of separating and isolating one of communication channels (for example, recognizing the speech acts) does not correspond to reality of communication and cannot promote creation of an adequate model of sense production.
Nesterova Natalya M., Kotelnikova Anastasia N., Pozdeeva Ekaterina V.
The article reports the results of a psycholinguistic experimental study carried out to investigate comprehension of a text in a foreign language. this research is based on a.a. ukhtomsky’s principle of dominance as well as the “counter-text” method suggested and developed by a.I. Novikov. we applied the “counter-text” method to identify and verbalize the dominants which are present in mind of those who comprehend the text. we assume that these dominants influence the process of meaning creation. the aim of our experimental study was to find a dominant focus common to a certain group of subjects. we analyzed the reactions of the recipients having been introduced to and having comprehended two texts, a journalistic and a literary one. the study involved 20 people (philologists, senior school students and technical specialists). the research findings confirm the hypothesis of the “recipient active role” and help to explicate the process of meaning creation, reveal its regularities as well as factors influencing it. the analysis of the obtained “counter texts” allows us to conclude that there exists a certain “collective” dominant common to all participants of one social group.