Dmitryuk Sergey V.
The article presents a new round in the creation of an associative dictionary of the french language. Having started the work in 2007, the team intends to rely upon the previous experience, correct some shortcomings and attract new language material. So, the list of stimuli, consisting of nouns, adjectives and verbs, is compiled using the latest frequency Dictionary of french. It is decided not to demarcate homonymy and polysemy of stimuli, as it seems impossible to be provided for each and all cases. an innovative method for obtaining experimental data has been developed to create interest in the interviewees and visualize their responses. to this end, solutions are proposed for semi-automatic processing of the received material, including lemmatization and reduction of phraseological units to a single invariant. the resulting inverse dictionary correctly reflects the associative relationship of the lexicon of modern french. the use of modern technologies of digital humanitaristics will allow to obtain and process large data sets in the most automated form, to compare them with previously collected ones, to visualize the results obtained. the article also suggests a list of stimuli for the new dictionary and a sample article for the website, with the analysis of the associative stimulus field for the word f.te (holiday).
Zalevskaya Alexandra A.
Ext comprehension is generally directed by a number of factors and depends on our experience that makes us focus on some problems and at the same time is not sufficient for conceiving other facts and conclusions. this paper presents a psycholinguistic projection of Peirce’s sign theory. from the point of view of psycholinguistic theory and experimental research in word meaning, as well as speech production and speech comprehension, some aspects of Peirce’s theory are discussed, such as sign as mediator of cognition and communication; modeling sign interpretation and abductive reasoning; explaining the role of perceptual judgments in cognition and sign interpretation; acknowledging the role of feelings as the starting-point of all critical and controlled thinking and so on. the main conclusion is as follows: Peirce’s theory is not a strictly formal logical study of signs: he has elaborated a complex (integrative) approach to sign as mediator of cognition and communication, he viewed sign interpretation as a live process that carries the mind from one state to another.
Dyachenko Galina V.
Shakhovskii Viktor I.
Kozlovskaya Ekaterina A.
The article analyzes of the results of a color experiment with respect to perception of heterogeneous parts (verbal and visual) contained in the polymodal text of children’s products commercial. the color experiment allowed for revealing the emotionally expressive layer of perception of recipients, as well as the perception of the heterogeneous polymodal text parts by the target and non-target audience. the full study also included a semantic and receptive method, the color experiment was the final stage and allowed to generalize the conclusions obtained earlier. Recipients evaluated 2 commercials of children’s goods, those of the Agusha and Libero products. the experiment was divided into 3 stages: the first group of recipients were demonstrated the full video, the second -only its verbal component, the third -only the video part. Based on the results of the first two experiments, it was discovered that rational information finds a greater response, reaching the recipient through one perception channel. as a result of the same color experiment, it was revealed that the greatest impact on the recipients’ emotions is achieved when the full multimodal text of the video is perceived. Perceiving the full text recipients gave more homogeneous positive color reactions to both the first and second videos. the uniform polymodal text of advertising reaches in this case the maximum impact on the recipient.
Akhutina Tatiana V., Agris Anastasia R.
The article describes the history of the study of semantic aphasia by the world-famous neuropsychologist a.R. luria. It uses rare materials from the archive of the scientist, stored at the faculty of Psychology of lomonosov Moscow State university. Mechanisms of semantic aphasia have been debated for a century. a.R. luria made a significant contribution to their study, so the development of his point of view on this issue is of natural interest. In the early period of the study of aphasia a.R. luria worked closely with l. S. Vygotsky, the founder of cultural-historical psychology. the pre-Kharkov and Kharkov periods of luria’s work are presented in the archive by protocols of the patients’ examination from 1929 to 1933. their analysis allows us to trace the development of diagnostic methods to investigate the understanding of logical-grammatical constructions, which later become classical neuropsychological tests. the next period of studying aphasia, when luria worked at the Institute of Neurosurgery (1937-1939), is reflected in the archive by the unfinished and unpublished monograph «the Parietal (Semantic) aphasia» (Moscow, 1940, 219 pages). the book contains three different reviews of literature, from neurology to linguistics, which allow us to trace, under the influence of what scientists formed the views of a.R. luria on semantic aphasia. It reveals luria’s opinion about the role of simultaneous spatial synthesis in understanding complex logical-grammatical constructions. the article discusses the similarity and differences in views of the scientist on the structure of the syndrome of semantic aphasia in his early and later works.
Belousov Konstantin I., Erofeeva Elena V., Leshchenko Yuliya E.
Mental lexicon is a complex system that reflects in a linguistic form the process of structuring by an individual the world around. Mental lexicon can be represented in the form of a multidimensional network; its structural units are nodes (fragments of information fixed in individual consciousness) and internodal connections (means of interaction between information elements). Internodal connections can have different direction and diverse activation levels. the strongest connections in mental lexicon are the semantic ones. they form semantic subnetworks treated as analogues of semantic groups and fields in language, and semantic categories in cognition. the research examines the hypothesis that semantic fields (subnetworks) are interconnected by means of their units’ connections. the research subject is in modeling the system of connections between semantic fields in mental lexicon. the method of directed chained associative test is used. the obtained material includes chains of reactions received from 139 participants (the total of 4334 reactions). the material has been processed in the “Semograph” Information System, which enables to create semantic classification of reactions with many-to-many correspondence between reactions and fields. the sequence of activating semantic fields in the chains of participants’ reactions has been analyzed. the received data confirm the hypothesis that mental lexicon units are grouped according to the field principle; in this case, certain fields are more closely interconnected with each other than with all other fields via the connections of their units. the activation of fields’ connections has a directed character. the modeled structure of semantic fields reflects the activation of units and fields in mental lexicon reconstructed in the speakers’consciousness and determined by the experimental context.
Romanov Alexander S.
The current study focuses on the interrelations between ethnos, culture, and language. the object of this research embraces stereotypical perceptions of the social institution of the armed forces, professionally specified constants and axiological dominants of the army subculture, as well as the speech portrait of the uS army gI reference image, which are widespread in the collective language consciousness of the american linguoculture. whereas, the researched subject is the military toast regarded as a productive language mechanism for explicating ethnic stereotypes of the army subculture. Stereotypes are perceived as a significant part of the conceptual world picture of the military socio-professional group, and are inextricably linked with the spiritual heritage of the american linguoculture. Being an integral part of the army, idiom toasts perform the function of axiological retransmission, shaping and consolidating stereotypes of the collective consciousness. toasts reflect the spiritual principles of the army subcultural tradition, moral and ethical norms, rules of verbal and non-verbal behavior of military men. Belonging to a wide array of artifacts embodied in the army idiom, military stereotypes reflect key values of the military environment, provide for a correct navigation in critical situations and assist making optimal decisions. the epideictic genre of toast, therefore, can be described as a stereotypogenic language tool designed for manifestation of the army subcultural values and its corporate ethics.
Yurieva Nadezhda M.
The article continues the earlier analysis by foreign researches in the field the oral narrative formation in the verbal ontogenesis, and this analysis is carried out along the line of interactive approach. the article provides some results pointing to specifics in the developments of conversational narrative in child’s language, which, in general, reveal some specifics of narrative competence in ontogenesis. the conversational narrative, viewed through interactive approach, is the product closely related to the verbal interaction and dialogue coming up in the situation of the conversation when the child tells a story and the adult who listens to it reacts to the child’s replicas, contributing to emerging narrative. the conversational narrative emerging in the interaction is the result of joint efforts of both participants. the article offers several dialogues between the child and the adult selected by the author in the study of interactive mechanisms characterizing narration. On the basis of the undertaken analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the conversational narrative while revealing itself as a phenomenon of the interactive discourse in situations of everyday life, represents a specific and necessary stage in the genesis of the oral narrative in the child language.
Shaposhnikova Irina V.
The article objectifies the conflict-prone ethno-political attitudes behind some marginal manifestations of the reforms in the scientific and educational sphere of the post-Soviet period. the author carries out an analysis of several associative-verbal markers of foreign ethnicity connected with interiorization of experience of cross.cultural contacts in the late Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Several semantic areas in the associative fields (af) RuSSIaN and laNguage associated with ethnocultural identity of the Russian linguistic personality are also explored. the carried out analysis reveals several psychoglosses marking socially sensitive (potentially conflict-prone) semantic accents in the structure of the young Russians language consciousness. the article analyzes the conditions in which the motivational base of reformation activity was conceived, including the current language policy in the scientific and educational spheres and certain administrative and organizational acts that ultimately form this language policy in its marginal manifestations. the basic dimensions of the language situation in modern Russia are considered. the main contradictions between the “actual” settings of the current language policy in the scientific and educational sphere and the essential system-forming dimensions of Russia’s language situation are revealed. the author makes conclusions about initial ethno-political concepts, their motivational mechanism having been converted into reforming effects that might be negatively reflected in the current language policy. the marginal conflict-prone manifestations in the current language policy in the scientific and educational sphere (such as total anglicization) do not take into account the destructive potential of the ethno-political concepts which can (if implemented persistently) dismantle the integrity of Russian civilization.
Demyankov V.Z., Kovshova M.L., Yanko T.E.
Shlyakhova Svetlana S.
The article consists of three parts. the first part is devoted to the analysis of major problems and scientific trends on linguistic iconicity research in Russia. the literature review allows for identifying the following key problems in the sphere of linguistic iconicity research: criticism of linguistic sign iconic motivation in Russia and abroad; a limited number of fundamental phono-semantic studies. there are organizational and information problems detected, i.e. absence of professional communities, scarce special literature and its inaccessibility for western and Russian scientists, insufficient scientific contacts between Russian and foreign researchers. the second part of article discusses the development of the Russian phono-semantics in the framework of conferences and symposia and provides an overview of existing programs for phono-semantic text analysis of the text (technology Hi-Hume). the third part e is devoted to the review of the phono.semantic perspective studies conducted by the Russian scientific schools and centers.
Pilgun Maria A.
Razumkova Anna V.
In international communication basic stereotypes “we/our - they/others” may cause idealization or disapproval of different ethnos representatives. therefore, notions about oneself and about one’s ethnic neighbors can be significant in the choice of tactics for international communication. the current study analyzes the image of “the Russians” in the language consciousness of culture bearers, namely, Komis and tatars. the study comprised a directed associative experiment within one social group, students, aged from 17 to 23, in the Republics of Komi and tatarstan in 2016. the research was aimed at studying tatars’ and komis’ hetero-stereotypical notions about national character and behavior of Russians’ and their behavior, as well as studying the changes in the content of the Russians ethnic image from 1997 to 2016, to discover stable stereotypes and/or their transformation. to process the obtained associative fields, a method of field stratification developed by I. a. Sternin and a. B. Rudakova, was used. the results of the experiment prove that the differences in the content of the associative gestalt may be related to culture, language, territory, and weather conditions. we may ascertain the stability of some ethno stereotypes of the national character and behavior of Russians of the republics in question. It is worth mentioning that there are some changes in the degree of manifestation of certain qualities and transformation of some stereotypes.
Nechiporenko Yuri D.
Stavitsky Andrey V.
The article is devoted to a critical analysis of c. levi-Strauss’s “the Structure of Myths” published more than half a century ago. even today it remains one of the most popular among the works of the great french anthropologist. this is largely due to the fact that knowledge of the structure helps to better understand the myth, its nature and functioning, and specify the role that myth plays in society. However, in his study, c. levi-Strauss made a fundamental methodological mistake, as he viewed the myth not as a universal culture, i.e. a myth in reality, but as a linguistic object. after all, an attempt to structure a myth may turn it into an investigation for oneself and for one’s professional вопросы психолингвистики 1 (35) 2018 137 specialization interests, so a researcher tends to stick to the habitual, choosing the easy and understandable instead of the correct one. So, it was initially doomed to failure, because in the course of such a study, the perception of myth as a whole is lost. as a result, the content side of a complex and differently manifested phenomenon, such as myth, has been ignored. c. levi-Strauss’ work illustrates the thesis that it is impossible to consider a culture universal without damaging the process of cognition. However, it is notable, that due to its universal plasticity, the myth in its development is potentially infinite and not equal to itself, as it transforms itself through new meanings, taking the structure of what is mythologized. So, there simply exists no universal structure for myth. and this is the secret. although, relying on various approaches and contexts, researchers can offer a large selection of its structures.
Lupanova Ekaterina V.
The article presents the study of uS military subculture slang and is aimed at determining the role of armed forces members’language in the culture of army society and characteristics that affect the sociolect functioning in speech. the analysis of american linguists’ works shows that military slang features the wide use of abbreviations, intense borrowing of words and idiomatic expressions from foreign languages, an abundance of vulgar and obscene lexical and phraseological units, as well as the use of derisive expressions, to convey humorous attitude to various aspects of soldier’s life. as relations within a military collective are determined by the rivalry between representatives of armed forces branches, there exist substantial differences in the lexical-phraseological structure of sociolects of the army, air forces and Navy. therefore, members of other social groups are not granted the access to information, and the military sociolect serves as an identifier of special affiliation, adding to creating the atmosphere of special psychological and social unity of military team members. Slang is an essential part of the uS military subculture, it includes specific vocabulary and phraseology, knowledge of which allows to reveal the essence of moral attitudes and values, worldview, the nature of relationship among military personnel and to study the manifestations of american ethnic mentality of in military slang semantics.