Tarasov Evgeniy F., Nistratov Alexandr A.
The article describes the experimental verification of the hypothesis that commu- nicators’ positions towards the produced and perceived texts (the positions of the author, recipient and neutral observer) determine their perception of the text. In this experiment, the method of semantic differential was used and meaningful interpretation was given to the constructed semantic spaces. The subject of the experiment acting as the author of the text finds him/herself the subject of the speech interaction, while the recipient’s position induces creation of the object’s image, and the neutral position confuses the subjects. This article proves the possibility of reviewing a communicative act in additional models, understanding of which can provide us with a full image, being a combination of models depicting the communication act as their их ontological property. Depicting a communicative act as three additional models provides us with an opportunity to make their phenomenological vision closer to the onthologically relevant understanding of the speech act. Additional communication models reflect speech communication as the speech activity depicted by the actory scheme (subject - object), when each communicator, con- sidering him/herself to be the subject of the speech utterance, regulates both internal (con- sciousness and thinking) and external behavior (speech) of his interlocutor, considering him to be the object of his or her speech utterance It is worth taking into account that common activity (depicted as a complex of added models) is the initial form of human activity before analyzing common activity.
Sternin Iosif A., Fenenko Natalia A.
The article discusses the possibilities of using the method of psycholinguistic anal- ysis in order to describe and evaluate the category of “equivalence of impression”, which characterizes the relationship between the translation of a literary text and its reader. The research is based on the works by I.A. Bunin and their translations into French, the phe- nomenon of semantic synesthesia in particular. Semantic synesthesia is considered as a special form of manifestation of functional and semantic syncretism in verbal means refer- ring to various sensory representations. Semantic synesthesia is one of the most important techniques characteristic for I.A. Bunin’s aesthetics, one of its semantic dominants, and has a significant impact on the aesthetic perception of the text by readers of the source text and the translation text. According to the results of the research, there are several ways of rendering synesthesia in the translation text such as its preservation, its partial or complete destruction, which influence the degree of equivalence of impression. Verification and ob- jectification of the results obtained is carried out by an experimental method using the anthropometric linguistic interviewing methodology. The experiment was carried out in two groups of test subjects (Russian-speaking and French-speaking students) by conduct- ing first a pilot, then the main experiment. It was followed by a synthesis of the results, comparing them and determining the degree of equivalence of impression of the French translation as % of semantic coincidences among Russian and French test subjects. As a result of the study, the authors conclude that equivalence of impression is a real phenomenon of verbal consciousness. This type of equivalence acquires paramount importance in evaluating the translation of literary texts. Consequently, developing a meth- odology for its testing becomes one of urgent tasks of linguistic and psycholinguistic re- search.
Vashunina Irina V., Matveev Mikhail O., Tarasov Evgeniy F.
The article describes the semantic perception of creolized texts, based the results of the experiment. The specificity of the creolized text based on its polymodality and the meanings of its parts (the parts are identical, one part is a continuation of the other, and there is no meaningful connection between them). In the experiment, the perception of four creolized texts was analyzed, the components of which were verbal texts-descrip- tions and images: the suprematic composition of K. Malevich and three photos of a busy street, given in natural, major and minor lighting. The subjects were asked to evaluate the constructed creolized texts on 35 scales of the semantic differential. Experimental data were processed using the factor analysis method. The obtained semantic spaces were meaningfully interpreted and named “Strength”, “Dynamism”, “Evaluation”, “Natural- ness”, “Symbolism”, “Activity”, “Evaluation”, and “Comfort”. Experimental creolized texts contain a verbal part, pre-compiled by the subjects and, therefore, reflecting their linguistic and non-linguistic content. It helps us avoid a situation in which the subjects process their thoughts with the help of images of the exper- imenter's consciousness. In experiments carries out to analyse the perception of creolized texts the problem of forming contextual limiters / qualifiers of the meaning of language units in the speech chain was further resolved. Analysis of the respondents' assessments allows us to identify four mechanisms for assessing the correlation of visual parameters with the meaning of verbal units: impressive, expressive, constructive (cognitive), in- tersemiotic (intermodal) itself. When summarizing the results of the experiment, it was found that different mechanisms may underlie the assessment on the same scale, that is, in the assessment process, it is possible to change the ways of meaningfulness of reality. Switching between the mechanisms reflects the actualization of various components of the image of consciousness’ content, inspired by the name of the scale.
Romanova Tatiana V.
The review presents the analysis of the content and linguo-cultural and philo- sophical investigation approaches to the categories of tolerance and political correctness, along with the main directions, trends and priorities for the development of relevant cat- egories research in Russian and world science. The need to develop a tool to measure tolerance has recently appeared on the agenda of the Russian scientific community. While emphasizing the relevance of the language used by mass media and politicians, political scientists, sociologists, ethnog- raphers, historians, register the manifestation of ethnic, racial, religious tolerance or in- tolerance in the language, thus directly or indirectly provoking aggression. It is known that the notions of “security” and “geopolitics” also correspond to the sociopolitical and sociolinguistic parameters of intolerant speech behavior: they position “the Other” as a threat to the basic values that define the collective identity, and therefore derive these values from the political sphere. In the context of solving problems of ethno-confessional security, countering xe- nophobia and developing tolerance in multi-ethnic and multi-religious Russia, it is neces- sary to regard tolerance as a cultural, psychological, political phenomenon. At the same time, the approach embracing linguistic phenomenon of tolerance via culture of speech, stylistics, rhetoric, communication theory, discursive practices, and assessment has not been sufficiently investigated. The review refers to studies devoted mainly to the linguis- tic aspect of tolerance, in which communicative technologies of tolerance are identified; the present-day cultural situation in the Russian Federation is measured and analyzed.
Yakovlev Andrey A.
The paper analyzes the object of psycholinguistics from the perspective of some ideas of Ervin S. Bauer. Language is understood as the property of individual; as an open self-organizing functional system of images associated with the sign’s material form which while expressing thoughts and feelings shapes one’s own and others’ behavior through the expression of thoughts and feelings. Due to the free knowledge that is biased towards the world and cannot be reduced to the information obtained from the outside, there exists a stable disequilibrium between the language and the outer world, that makes up the language main feature. When exposed to the external factors, i.e. when the en- vironment changes, the language performs activities that compensate for the effects of the environment. The language changes both the external influence, and its internal con- nections and states. The phenomena of consciousness that cause such a double action of the language are an anticipatory reflection of reality, and they provide for the presence of the personal sense in the images of consciousness. The dialectics of the language is conditioned, on the one hand, by the fact that for the maintenance of disequilibrium the language refracts the information perceived from the outside, on the other hand, by the fact that information coming from the outside does not pass directly to the activity. The subject matter of psycholinguistics is regarded as laws driven by the environment along with the stable disequilibrium change the internal structure of images associated with words, in general and in relation to different groups of people.
Goliguzova Olga A.
The main problem explored in the article is the need to adapt modern theoretical perspectives on how the bilingual lexicon works to the practical task of developing second language competence in late subordinate bilinguals. The article aims to establish the validity of laying emphasis on bilingual lexicon formation as it may be key to overcoming passive bilingualism and propelling the individual from the predominantly receptive use of L2 to its active deployment for practical purposes. It is highlighted that distinguishing between word meaning and concept has important practical applications as difficulties in forging the word-concept link hinder the individual from going beyond the plateau and reaching ease and comfort in the multifunctional use of the second language. The article stresses the need to shift from the dichotomy of word-associative/concept-mediative model towards recognizing the capacity of early bilinguals to form direct links between words and conceptual representations and acknowledging the important role of imaginal code in mapping abstract words onto conceptual constructs.
Zeldin Anatoly Е.
“Mama’ lexeme is a basic one among so-called parental terms, and its world-wide distribution is treated in the present paper as a derivative of speech physiology on the earliest stage of the langage (speaking de-Saussurian) realization. Socium and environ- ment effect in the most important way on the emergence of ‘mama’-lexemes and seman- tically and phonetically similar lexemes thereof. The conjecture of semantic domains’ occurrence and the formed domains’ transition during a toddler - adult interaction, is considered. The discussed tendency is a universal one and abundant evidence is submit- ted, including lexemes’ examples from unrelated languages, which belong to more than 80 language families (according to Ethnologue, XVI edition). We may consider that the synchronic distribution of the lexemes in question which preserve the similar semantics and prosodic patterns is diachronically conditioned. This tendency is shaped both by the speech physiology and child cognitive psychology unchanged cross-culturally. The men- tioned phenomenon may exemplify the recapitulation of the language phylogenesis in the ontogenesis.
Makhovikov Denis V.
The paper analyzes the data of the experiment aimed at identifying the features of verbalization in abstract painting perception. The research is methodologically based on the assumption that art perception is an internal activity, a complex holistic process in which personalized meanings are generated and not “dug out” by the recipient from works of art. The recipient plays an active role and is actually a co-creator of the paint- ing. The object of perception in the experiment was Kazimir Malevich’s “Suprematist Composition” (1916). During the data analysis we used the classification of perceptual strategies worked out by Elena Belonogova. We have identified the “pictorial”, “author”, “cultural”, “associative”, “emotional”, “stylistic”, “summarizing” and “metaphorical” strategies. The “life” and “impressive” strategies have not been identified. The way some of the strategies were verbalized has allowed us to suggest a number of sub-strategies, namely the “static”, “dynamic”, “recording” and “light-oriented” sub-strategies within the “pictorial” strategy and the “color-oriented” sub-strategy as a variety of the “stylistic” strategy. The analysis of the descriptions has demonstrated that in most cases of abstract painting perception several perceptual strategies find their expression simultaneously.
Stepanova Anna A.
The perception of a person by a person is an important starting point for the be- ginning of communication. It is the moment the communication strategies are built. Cur- rently, the manifold research is being conducted on the perception of a person by a person, however, a unified theory has not been developed yet. This article scrutinizes the results of a pilot experiment aimed at studying the characteristics of the perception of a person presented in a pictorial portrait. For the study purity, as an incentive, naive speakers of Russian were shown a little-known portrait depicting a person hardly known to them. In the course of the experiment, a single route of perception was revealed, that consisting of a sequence of semantic zones. Each zone is considered meaningfully using language units obtained by a continuous sampling of text descriptions collected as a result of a pilot experiment. It has been revealed that the first three semantic zones (WHO, FACE, BODY, CLOTHING) are the basis for decoding the subsequent semantic zones (INTERNAL WORLD, SOCIAL STATUS), the language material used to describe each semantic zone being similar. Within the zone, the main accents of perception are highlighted. The results of this pilot experiment require veri- fication by means of a material containing more stimuli, presenting different schools of painting and photo art, as well as a larger number of testees.
Konina Alena A., Chernigovskaya Tatiana V.
Petrochenko Elena V.
The article considers the issue of studying the musical component of language intonation. An attempt is taken to prove that tonemes, i.e. meaningful units of intonation, are directly related to characteristics of music as a system formed in and correlated to the human perceptual basis. As the major component of suprasegmental level of language, the tone is considered musical due to its physical nature, the laws of psychoacoustics and psy- chology of listening. Phrase toning is a psychic process of language cognition functioning to translate the tonic basis of speech. Musical characteristics of speech of a language repre- sent a psycholinguistic entity. The present research was aimed at testifying the significance of the tonic-musical parameter of speech as perceived by a native speaker. The article describes the experience of obtaining data that prove linguistic status of musical property of speech. During the study, the following methods were applied: the auditory method of specialized perceptional analysis and the method of psycholinguistic testing. The findings suggest that tonic, or musical samples of intonation units do function in linguistic hearing.
Rogozhnikova Tatiana M.
The project main concept is that dedicated to developing, supporting and speci- fying the laws of functioning and affecting of verbal models, as well as the search for pathways of models’ suggestive resources formalization. The project specificity lies with the new role of psycholinguistics that serves as a methodological framework to reveal analysis units and describe the laws established. In the course of the project implementation, the logic of analytical and experimen- tal work was developed. It included a certain sequence of research steps, the metalanguage of results description along with specially created analysis tools providing formalization of the processes of affecting resources detection and decoding. Within the framework of this article, the part of the project, connected with the decoding of the suggestive potential of verbal models with different complexity levels, is described. A verbal model is referred to as a materialized structure of any complexity, i.e. a sound-letter, a word, a text, as the carrier of some inner form, which manifests into the outer environment the latent impact resources of particular models. The author regards suggestive potential as the strength of a verbal model, which may be decoded, measured, and represented in quantity indices. The potential correlates to an inner form existing due to the mechanism of association. Suggestive resources are interpreted as the combination of affecting elements, possessed by a definite model. They can be described by means of analytical units revealed for each level, thus allowing for quantitative measurements, correlation of the obtained indices, and features comparison. To decode the impact potential of a verbal model and to measure “the strength of a word”, the directions are defined within which the decoding of a sug- gestive potential becomes possible. The author has specified eight investigation trends.
The article examines the possibility to explain the mechanism of polysemy for- mation by identifying prototypes in the form of cognitive-significant perceptual experi- ence. The research subject is polysemous word, qi in the Chinese language. The main method used is deductive, with the assumption that all or some types of perceptual ex- perience are represented by this polysemant, and thus, containing a physically tangible sign of "upward movement" can act as prototypes. It is revealed that the semantics of qi is determined from correlations UP ACTIVATION, UP - ABILITY to COPE WITH the BURDEN, UP - CREATION, UP - LIMIT and UP - REMOVAL. The possibility of building these correlations is laid in the prototypes "rising", "rising with a load on the shoulders", "collecting something in one place", "moving from the periphery to the cen- ter" and "depositing a well-fixed object in its place". At the same time, the pragmatism of the person-the subject of knowledge is traced: the most important for him in the pro- totypical experience is always the intention and purpose of the action. The mechanism of polysemy formation points to the fact that the direction of movement in the prototypi- cal experience fixes the idea of action purposefulness and the parallels between the pro- totypical and secondary experience are built on the coincidence of their purposefulness.
Balyasnikova Olga V., Ufimtseva Natalya V.
The article speculates on the material of the associative experiment conducted with native speakers of the Russian language in the regions of Russia (the Republic of Komi (Syktyvkar), the Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan), the Republic of Buryatia (Ulan- Ude), the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Yakutsk). The paper considers the strategies of updating the category of "ego" due to the egocentricity of the stimulus word, establishes the similarity and difference in the content and structure of the associative fields of stimuli-pronouns depending on the region of residence of the subjects. The content and structure of the associative Gestalt of each stimulus are described. The associative Gestalt model is a representation of the associative meaning of a word. In particular, the structure of the Gestalt includes semantic zones Subject, Object, Characteristic, containing the main number of associates, as well as the Ego zone. It is established that the emergence of egocentric in the associative field of the stimulus-pronoun occurs unevenly depending on both linguistic and social factors; the action of the territorial factor is expressed primarily quantitatively, and in general the associative meaning of pronouns is substantially complex. Previously, several associative strategies for the response of subjects to stimuli were identified on the material of EURAS. For the studied category of words, the main strategies are identification, characterization and indexing. In the first two cases, the social category of ego is actualized, in the latter - the elements of the pronominal system are reproduced. The EVRAS inverse associative dictionary demonstrates the importance of the characterization strategy; the stimuli-characteristics are about 70% in this case.