Alekseeva Ekaterina M.
The article is devoted to an actual problem of the associative speech representation of mental states. 31 students of the Kazan (Volga region) federal university (27 female and 4 male) aged from 18 up to 22 years participated in the research. the experimental procedure developed on the basis of the DMDX program allowed to measure the time of speech response to the shown stimuli - concepts of 25 mental states. the second task included reconstruction of their associative fields. the average time of response to the concepts of mental states shown on the computer monitor made 2114,68 milliseconds. the fastest time of the associative speech response was to the stimuli “delight” (1452,54 ms.), “thought” (1569,26 ms.), “calmness” (1685,21 ms.), the slowest - on the stimuli “interest” (2517,5 ms.) and “indecision” (2454,63 ms.). In total 448 associations - speech responses - on concepts of 25 mental states were given, i.e. on average 17,9 associations on each mental states. the greatest number of speech associations was given to the concept “love” (24 different associations). the smallest number of associations characterizes the concept “delight” (11 associations). the associative fields of mental states “thought”, “delight”, “melancholy”, “exhaustion”, “loneliness” have the most pronounced centre. Perspectives of the research consist in carrying out a similar associative experiment among representatives of other culture, and also in studying evaluation and situation-dependent associative representation of mental states.
Porkhomovsky Victor Ya.
Zhuravlev Ignaty V., Zhuravleva Julia V.
The article deals with theoretical and methodological problems occurring with the development of a communicative model of a natural verbal process. the main characteristic of this model is considering verbal action as a special case of a communicative action which, in turn, is considered as a special case of person’s conscious action. the main of the discussed problems is a question of sense (meaning) generation, which leads us to compare the communicative model of sense generation to the theory of french school of discourse analysis. we consider the methodological distinction between language and communicative models of natural speech process as a reflection of the ontocentrismanthropocentrism opposition characteristic to modern european science. the problem of sense generation is connected to the problem of subject’s activity. one of the main methodological questions which occur here is whether a subject of communication possesses powers to generate the sense and to control his/her communicative activities. thereby we describe the antinomy of appropriation-alienation and analyze the ontology of a speaking subject. the main result is the demonstration of methodological weakness of psychologism which equates speaking subject to an individual. as an alternative position we consider domestic psychology of communication which key concepts reflect dialectical unity of social and individual phenomena.
Perfilyeva Natalia V., Novospasskaya Natalya V., Lazareva Olesya V.
The article deals with the topic of the efficiency of commercial name and it suggests a scale of efficiency of ergonyms, which is made on the basis of the recognition criteria by Russian native speakers of commercial object by its name. the recognition was detected through the associative experiment with stimulus words which were ergonyms represented in bridal boutiques naming. the number of reactions in which denotate was directly named has been estimated, as well as associates which had no connection to denotate and commercial name. 106 вопросы психолингвистики the article shows the analysis of the stimulus words selected out of 477 ergonyms of Moscow in accordance with their belonging to different types of bridal boutiques names. furthermore, evaluation of obtained associates has been showed in the article by their cognitive and linguistical aspects relatedness which represents certain interest in the strategy of naming. the experimental data showed that the stimulus words which contain lexico-semantic units of the group Wedding and its derivates are firmly fixed in syntagmatic and paradigmatic studies through their associates which demonstrates an easy connection restoration with the nominative object. the ergonyms of european languages usually has the associates of cognitive aspect and has the connection with the stimulus word; the nominative object and the associate are not fixed in another system's verbal coordinate. the article considers in detail the dependence of the commercial name efficiency from the certain type of ergonyms.
Kolodina Nina I.
The present article is devoted to the study of moral notion «hatred» and determination of the levels of awareness and moral competence of hearing and hearing impaired adolescents with respect to the given notion. the algorithm for determining levels on the material of the adolescents’ survey in high school is being described. the level of awareness is calculated with a mathematical formula, according to it coincidences of dictionary definition semes with semes of students’ responses are being reveled. the level of competence is established based on the obtained quantitative semes indicator received in the students’ responses and correlating of the result with one of the scale interest levels, which includes three levels: low, average, high, with interpretation of each level is being conducted. the individual’s ability to explain the notion accordingly to the dictionary definition and the person’s ability to estimate somebody’s act relatively to the notion are in the core of interpretation. the interpretations of the notion under research in linguistics and the explanation of equivalent emotions in psychology are discussed and the correspondences table is being given. the results obtained by the questionnaire survey are analyzed and compared based on the correspondences table. the conclusion about the average level of moral awareness of the notion and the low level of hearing students’ competence and about the average level of awareness of the notion, and the lack of hard of hearing students’ moral competence is made. the substitution and confusion of moral notions and emotions by respondents are discussed.
Gritsenko Elena S., Nenasheva Tatiana A.
Under the influence of globalization, the status and functions of english in non-english-speaking countries (the so-called «expanding circle» countries) is changing. english has become part of the local communicative space and is increasingly used as an effective means of meaning-making. the aim of this study is to describe the perception of english and reveal its indexical capacities in three different “niches” of the Russian communicative space: professional communication, the area of education and science, and the sphere of leisure/entertainment. an overall methodological approach taken in the study is that of the sociolinguistics of globalization: we rely on the concept of language as a translocal mobile resource and the notion of indexicality, and explore the role of ideology in the process of meaning-making. we use a compleх methodology which combines the methods of sociolinguistics, semantic interpretation and ethnography. the findings of earlier studies have also been used. we argue that the indexical potential of english in contemporary Russia is realized differently in different areas of communication. In the professional sphere, english connotes professional competence and serves as a means of constructing a professional identity. In the academic environment, it indexes progress and innovation, and is used as a “brand” and an instrument of project “promotion”. In the sphere of entertainment, anglicisms connote modernity, creativity and symbolize the global consumerist culture. this meaning-making function is performed explicitly (when english words are actually used in communication) and implicitly (in case of calquing and “appropriating” the global communicative norms). along with this, english serves as a mediator of ideological transformations and changes in the traditional worldview, which can be seen as a consequence of linguistic and cultural globalization.
Cherepanov Igor y.
This article is devoted to the analysis of the gender factor influence on the process of association. In the course of the research on gender, scientists noted the obvious influence of the social sex, along with such factors as mother tongue, age and level of education on informants’ communicative behavior in different communication conditions, including experimental ones. our associative experiment, performed in two Moscow schools, in the Russian and english languages involving Russian-speaking schoolchildren aged 11-18 allowed us to elaborate on the gender factor influence on the respondents’ associative behavior. experiments in each language were conducted at different times with a break of three weeks. two groups of Russian and english homonyms, familiar to the respondents and not correlating with each other acted as stimuli. the aim of the study was to identify differences in the male and female informants’ responses, reveal factors that affect the process of association, analyze the responses of informants of different sexes in terms of stereotyped reactions / various reactions (the number of different and single reactions), and explore differences in the informants’ associative behavior depending on the language used in the conducted experiment.
Dorofeeva Svetlana V.
Language and speech are an integral part of people’s thinking and communication, but recently there has been an increase in the number of children with speech difficulties. the article focuses on the experience of successful dyslexia and dysgraphia correction of 10-year-old Russian speaking child. the correction program consisted of two stages. the first stage is a three-week intensive sessions aimed at improving and automating the child’s language and motor skills necessary for the successful implementation of reading and writing. the second stage is support classes for 12 months. Special attention is paid to the linguistic aspects of the program: the error analysis in terms of language theory and current data in the field of neurolinguistics; the methods help to identify the locus deficit; the principles that underlie the choice of exercises aimed at eliminating the deficit. the approach used may be of interest for professionals working with children suffering from dyslexia or dysgraphia (speech therapists, teachers of the Russian language, foreign language teachers), as well as professionals studying the mechanisms of occurrence and correction of language disorders (linguists, neurolinguists, neuropsychologists).
Peshkova Natalia P.
The article is devoted to the investigation of verbal impact of linguistic landscape in a poly-ethnic city. Some problems of the verbal impact theory, which present interest from the viewpoint of studying specific features of perception and comprehension of the information in the form of the “urban text”, are considered. the assumption is made concerning the challenges of the “urban text”, thought-out and planned under the conditions of the poly-ethnic environment. among them there are drawing and keeping the addressee attention; modeling the addressee’s aim at successful perception; directing the addressee in the situations of the poly-ethnic environment, both verbal and non-verbal. the present investigation is based on the notion of the “active” addressee and the idea about the comprehension of any type of texts as an active process of generating an “internal text” and “counter text” in the recipient’s consciousness. the “counter text” is considered as addressee responses to the verbal impact of the author. the experimental data presented in the article in the form of verbal reactions demonstrated by the participants of the experiment have proved the hypothesis proposed by the author. the specific features of the linguistic landscape under study revealed and described in the article make it possible to arrive at the conclusion concerning its considerable range of influence on the poly-ethnic urban society. this influence may result in serious conflicts of non-verbal nature which, in their turn, demand searching special instruments to prevent such situations.
The research is based on data obtained from a survey with Russian speakers. the experimental material allowed to identify the content of Russian ethnic-cultural stereotypes and activity-communicative lacunas. the article gives proof of the hypothesis about the correlation between ethnic-cultural stereotypes and activity-communicative lacunas. It was revealed that (1) ethnic-cultural stereotypes form the chinese behavior characteristics and reflect both a positive and negative judgment to the chinese; the stereotypes are based on the assumption of the behavior discrepancy of the representatives from the two cultures (intercultural lacunarity), (2) the correlation between ethnic-cultural stereotypes and activity-communicative gaps lies in the fact that the stereotypes play a particular role in the interpreting and attributing the cause of the chinese's incomprehensible and strange behaviors (i.e. in completing activity-communicative lacunas). the author notes that the study into the content of ethnic-cultural stereotypes and the clarification of their role in cross-language lacunarity can optimize intercultural communication between the chinese and the Russians.
Ioanesyan Yevgeniya R.
Covering the material of several languages, the paper considers different ways of naming pleasure that are reflected in the inner form of the word and synchronic polysemy. The description is constructed using the inventory of semantic shifts. Attention is paid to the major types of semantic transitions which lie at the basis of such nominations. The study is based on a large corpus of explanatory and etymological dictionaries. The study showed that the basis of the naming of pleasure may lie in the following elements: components of the prototypical situation of pleasure; inferences of the situation of pleasure. The proposed models of semantic transitions allow to reveal both universal and specific features of the picture of the world of different languages. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the study of inner forms of the word is one of the ways of studying the linguistic picture of the world because the inner form reflects the method of concept construction. The author emphasizes that in accordance with leading linguists' modern developments the study of the semantic transitions is the basis for establishing the ways of semantic evolution and the creation of a typology of semantic derivation. The relevance of research also derives from the fact that the data obtained can be used in the preparation of the “Catalogue of semantic Shifts”, that is currently being developed by Russian linguists.
Nikitina Serafima E.
The paper is devoted to the semantics and functioning of the universal opposition «our - alien» in the language and cultures of the three Russian confessional groups: old Believers (orthodoxy), Doukhobors and Molokans (Russian folk Protestantism). the material is folklore texts and field notes of the author. It is shown that the opposition «our - alien» on the Russian folklore texts depends on the dominant opposition «norm - not-norm». on the religious texts the dominant opposition is the «good (from god) - evil (from the devil)». It subordinates number of other oppositions, first of all ‘’our faith - аlien faith'. the research is concentrated on one meaning of the word svojo (our) as ‘a special, different from everything else’. So, old Believers’ our faith is a old, true faith, is opposed the Niconian, the false faith, which is sometimes called a stranger. Such phrases as our books, our singing, our cup, etc. can denote belonging to the faith, sacred and are opposed not to «stranger/alien», but to «profane». a similar, but not identical picture is in the cultures of the Doukhobors and Molokans: their faith as a true belief in the living God is opposed primarily to the orthodox faith as a stranger’s faith with other gods (icons). the opposition of the kinds of faithes is most often represented in the language as the opposition of the «faithful - unfaithful». Phrases our singing and our people have in this texts sacred meanings. So, phrases with our ‘special’ in confessional texts express the essence of the confessional culture.
Kazakov Grigoriy A.
Borgoyakova Tamara G.
Prospects for strengthening Russian identity are related to the search for ways to reduce the conflictual nature of interethnic interaction. Preservation of the marked stability of ethnic identification in the structure of regional and Russian identity is explained by the peculiarities of the content of interethnic stereotypes and perceptions of the Motherland, Russia and Siberia in the language consciousness of Russian and Khakass respondents and the semantic development of ethnonyms. the revealed hierarchy of associative links between the «Khakass» and «Russian» stimuli and the corresponding reactions in the associative fields «Khakassia» and «Russia» turns out to be equally relevant for the Khakass and Russian respondents. the first level of Khakass identification associative strategy includes Khakass, Khakassia and Siberia, the second level - Russia and Russians. In the language consciousness of Russian respondents, the combination of ethnic Russian and civil Russian identity predominates, not actualizing the components of a «small homeland» - Khakassia or Siberia. the markers of the gradual formation of a general civil identity that does not exclude ethnic identification constants include the growth of associative strategies of neutral-positive characteristics in ethnic heterostereotypes in the corresponding Russian and Khakass associative fields.
Mikhalchenko Vida Yu.
Khilkhanova Erzhen V.
The article is devoted to sociolinguistic conceptualization of the «language consciousness» concept in its relationship with the concept of «language attitude» in a language choice situation. the author substantiates the necessity of studying language attitudes as the underlying subjective factor, which directs the speech and thinking activity at the preverbal stage in a bilingual situation. the author dwells on the idea what is primary in the speech production, motive or attitude. attracting social psychological data and the theory of attitudes by D.N. uznadze and his followers, the author argues why a primary attitude is the unconscious driver of verbal behavior preceding motive. e. Khilkhanova gives the three-component model of language consciousness in relation to language attitudes consisting of cognitive, affective-evaluative and performative (conative) components. for each component of language consciousness, the measurable form of its manifestation is derived, and possible research questions and methods of study within the framework of a sociolinguistic research are described. thus, the proposed model of linguistic consciousness in relation to language attitudes allows operationalizing of these concepts for the study aimed at identifying both the speakers’ metalinguistic reflection and their unconscious language attitudes in a language choice situation.
Stepanova Anna A.
The problem of the unit of speech communication to some extent arises before the official formation of psycholinguistics, and the concept of speech action appears in the writings of scientists as early as the beginning of the twentieth century. these ideas have been further developed in the framework of psycholinguistics, or the theory of speech activity, as well as in the theory of speech communication also formed in the mainstream of the Moscow psycholinguistic school. communication creates a speech context where speech actions are realized. the theory of speech activity was first oriented to the study of speech communication only as the processes of perception and production of speech, later the interests of psycholinguists spread to other aspects of communication. the purpose of this article is to show (on the example of communicative situations taken from works of fiction) the way speech acts to solve tasks of speech communication. Some communicative tasks can be solved instantly, others require a large number of speech actions. Images of communicative situations sometimes do not coincide with the interlocutors due to the lack of actualization of these needs and motives in the process of communication.
Romanov Alexander S.
The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the phenomena of „culture“, „language“, „society“ and „socio-professional group“. this paper focuses on the role of the socio-psychological mechanism of stereotyping as a means of cultural disseminating through diachronic and synchronic translation of spiritual values. the study’s object embraces stereotypical perceptions of the social institution of the armed forces, professionally conditioned constants and axiological dominants of the army subculture, as well as the speech portrait of the reference image of the uS army service member, which are widespread in the collective linguistic consciousness of the american linguistic culture. the subject of scientific research is the military clich? regarded as a productive language mechanism for explicating ethnic stereotypes of the army subculture. It concludes that along with phraseological units, sociocultural dialect, army recruitment slogans, texts of the precedent genre, cadence calls etc., army clich?s beyond reasonable doubt serve as one of linguistic means of explicating of ethnic stereotypes of the uS army subculture.
The article devoted to the description of bionym donkey in the naive language consciousness of the speakers of the Mongolian language, as reflected in a real psychological meaning of the word, which is revealed by interpreting the subjective ordinary interpretations obtained as a result of a directed linguistic experiment with native speakers of Mongolian (200 people in a group). In the study materials were used such methods as the analysis of the data obtained on the basis of a psycholinguistic experiment, that‘s, comparison and generalization. To reveal naive view of the meaning of the words was used not only of the association, spontaneous definitions and quotes containing the lexeme, but also comparisons, inspired by the word-stimulus in a naive user. By using the dictionary of ordinary interpretations can clearly reflect the language picture of studies of the world, which will help to approach the understanding of culture of the native speakers of the Mongolian language. In the appendix presents the dictionary article of donkey for the dictionary of ordinary interpretations. Comparing it with other types of dictionaries creates a serious opportunity for research in the field of semasiology and lexicography, since the information contained in it allows making additional changes reflecting the naive world picture into the traditional explanatory dictionaries. As a result of the research revealed the similarities and differences in the interpretation of the meanings of the word donkey in the Mongolian explanatory dictionaries and this dictionary of ordinary interpretations.
Velichkova Ludmila V., Abakumova Olga V., Petrochenko Elena.V., Voropaeva Irina V.
The work presents methods of psycholinguistic approach to sounding speech, developed by the research team of the Research and methodological center of phonetics of the Voronezh State university. a methodology for conducting experimental research and auditive analysis of sounding speech has been developed based on large-scale material of several languages. Major problems are psycholinguistic research in terms of speech perception and production: intonational units and parameters of sounding speech, expressive means and emotionality of speech units, aesthetic, musical and psychological components of sounding speech, psycholinguistic research of language behavior, universal and culture-bound characteristics of emotional state indicators. Research mechanism and an analysis of expressive means of sounding speech in the psycholinguistic experiment and an analysis of formal signs of sounding speech are described. In such case, rhythmic parameters and melodic signs are basic units. the research is conducted in respect of contrastive-comparative aspect with the participation of Russian, german and Spanish speakers. a methodology has been developed using data from auditory analysis that reveals perceptual signs of intonation, signaling one or another communicative type of utterance, localization of differential features of communicative types of utterance, reflecting their perception by native speakers. essential is the definition of universal and culture-bound in the ways of expressing emotionality in speech in several languages: Russian, german and Spanish. within the framework of the project, database has been created of the means of expressing the basic emotional states in Russian and german, Russian and Spanish.