Yelistratov Vladimir S.
The article is devoted to the processes in the modern Russian language. Translations from the English language in popular culture (movies, cartoons, advertising, etc.) can be figuratively described as «creole». They lead to the explicit primitivization of these «zones» of linguaculture.
Miloslavskiy Igor G.
The author underlines that many dictionaries of Russian language don’t have in mind the type of speech activity in which their user is involved. In the article is discussed the source which can help the speaking/writing person to make the best choice among different abilities to name the piece of reality. It can be done by using not only a word of standard Russian, but by a word of colloquial Russian and by a phraseological unit. Sometimes there is no such a proper unit in the language and that should be marked clearly. All these decisions depend on the aim of the speech producer in semantic and communicative aspects. The author insists on using as basic units the features which different all kinds of proper means (not full explanations of these) in order to help the producer to make his choice rather easily and effective. In the last part of the article is discussed how some other dictionaries of Russian language (of antonymous or of associations) can help the producer to correct his first choice.
Karaulov Yuriy N.
The task of the article was to investigate the possibility of literary text associative analysis. The methodology of associative fields from a linear sequence of words and phrases constructing is proved which serves for transition to the associative space of the text. The status of a text associative field is determined which is regarded as one of the ways of knowledge representation. The typology of associative text fields is suggested that follows from the two dimensions: a) the mapping of really extracted fields in the text with the existing in linguistics descriptions of similar semantic fields and lexico-semantic groups; b) the two types of fields (knowledge) distinguishing - recipe-fields and retouch-fields. The usage of the stated theoretical and methodical ideas for the particular text - to F.M. Dostoevsky’s «A Gentle Creature» story - led to its associative space building in the form of a network of 56 associative fields.
Nefyodova Elena А.
The article presents observations on the speech of a particular linguistic identity - Alexandra Ivanovna Ponomaryova, a native inhabitant of Sudroma vlg. of Velsk district (Arkhangelsk region). A.I. Ponomaryova is characterized by a distinct orientation to the emotional and evaluative perception of the reality in its eventual and everyday life and also ethical manifestation. It evinces the tendency to discuss the life conflicts which were the main content of her life during the observation period and also the emotions associated with them. The sensual imagery and emotional reaction to the reality predominance over its rational perception is clearly seen in A.I. Ponomareva’s language - in the choice of nonstandard language tools containing imaginative and emotionally-evaluative semantic components. The semantic comparisons dublinbet is based on the associative convergence of subject areas which are not beyond the everyday practical experience of the linguistic identity that sets them apart from the figurativeness which is the result of a deliberate creative process, however these associations themselves are rather non-trivial and show the linguistic identity originality - not only a national culture and language bearer but also its creator.
Cherkasova Galina A.
The article presents the results of calculating the quantitative indicators of the two Russian associative dictionaries, analyzed, and compared rates of lexical diversity and richness offered by Juriy N. Karaulov. The influence of the reactions in the survey sets specific subjects on the values of the coefficients. The results show the dependence of the values of the coefficient on the lexical diversity of the respondents. We have revealed the diachronic change of parameters in the interval of 20 years.
Sharandin Anatoly L.
Within the limits of conceptual space as a form of combining different types of knowledge the relationships of consciousness, semiotics, language, communication and pragmatics are being considered in the article. They form the unity which can be defined as a dialectical unity as indissolubly linked and can affect relationships with each other. Taking this idea into account it is possible to define a word as a basic unit of knowledge: it is a lexical representative of the concept, more often of the conceptual type, which has a sound shell, it is a syntagmatic utterance member and it appears in a particular morphological form, the combination of which constitutes its linguistic representational paradigm and pragmatic paradigm. Generally the integrative conceptual space of a word the components of which are interrelated and interacting and inherently cognitive consciousness, semiotics, language, communication and pragmatics can be represented in the form of a pentagon reflecting the structure of their relations and connections.
Severskaya Olga I.
The article attempts to clarify the semantic structure of the concept «dostoevshina» (Dostoevsky’s spirits) based on the Yu.N. Karaulov’s associative-verbal model of language description. The author investigates the relationship between the associations and the story-fable structure of the main Dostoevsky’s novels and their phraseology; the context meanings of dostoevshina as a lexical unit are compared with the dictionary meanings, with their denotative, significative and evaluative components. The analysis is based on the corpus study method.
Gudkov Dmitry B.
The article discusses the linguistic personality realization in the statements of “selfmade” street banner type which have double recipient - “power” and “supporters”. The hypotheticall of the first and the real existence of the second create a type of communicative situation. The special attention is drawn to the ritual component of these statements. The verbal-semantic organization of the banners is defined as a speech act, the speech acts classification of this type is suggested. The difference in the style of the banners belonging to the different political movements is shown. The material for the research consists of the banners texts of the opposition demonstrations 2011-2012, as well as on the so-called “March of peace” and at demonstrations in support of Donbass.
Tripolskaya Tatyana A.
Referring to the emotional-evaluative human activity allows to reconstruct the multidimensional model of language personality which includes the basic parameters of human emotional state and determines the evaluation activity. The emotive-evaluative word is connected with a complex mechanism of intellectual and emotional exploration of the world and the rating system, preferences and desires of a speaker are reflected in the hierarchical system of heterogeneous lexical meaning of a word. The object of linguistic description in the article is K.I. Chukovsky language personality realized in the diary discourse. It is concluded that in the diary text lexical organization the features of language personality are apparent qualifying the world with a certain degree of rigor and explicitness, involving all the diverse shades of value scales, with the understanding that the real object of evaluation and emotional relationship is complex, multifaceted and is represented as a complex combination of emotive-evaluative meanings characterizing the diary’s author thesaurus. I.e. the subject of evaluation and emotional state has a high degree of cognitivity, extracts plenty of grounds for emotive-evaluative reaction in the assessment. Besides, the author of the diary is characterized by the high degree of emotionality which is regularly verbalized in emotive-evaluative discourse and significantly determines the language personality axiological activity.
Fateeva Natalya A.
The article analyzes the texts that describe dance movements and the atmosphere of the ball. First of all texts of Bunin and Pasternak differing along the axis «verse-prose» are compared (fragments of the novel ««Zhizn’ Arsen’eva»» and the poem ««Val’s»» by Bunin, a fragment of the novel ««Doctor Zhivago»» and the poem ««Zamestitel’nica»» by Pasternak). The author shows that in these «twin texts» similarity on the sound and semantic levels is observed, and in prose fragments special rhythmic-syntactic organization is discovered which differentiates them from the surrounding context by the particular metric and sound structure. On the plot level a fragment of Pasternak’s novel «Doctor Zhivago» describing scenes of dance is compared with the inner chapters («Topotali ikh tufel’ki», «Dotantsovyval», «Bal») of the fourth chapter of the novel «Petersburg» by A. Belyj in which «the narrative line breaks». It was found that Koka Kornakov who conducted the dancing in «Doctor Zhivago» is a reflection of Koko (Nikolai Petrovich Tsukatov) from «Petersburg». It means that Pasternak in his novel consciously or unconsciously reproduces the line of fatal dance associated with Coco. In search for deeper intertextual correspondences for Koka and Koko the author refers to Tolstoy’s novel «Anna Karenina» in which the fatal ball when love flares up between Anna and Vronsky was conducted by «handsome man» named Yegorushka Korsunskij.
Golev Nikolay D., Shpilnaya Nadezhda N.
The idea of Yu.N. Karaulov, which claims that the structure of a linguistic identity contains linguistic and gnoseological level with superpropositions as its main units defining typical individual schemes of text production, gets further development in this research. The article aims at typical options of realization of linguistic and gnoseological level in the structure of linguistic identity description. The study is based on the analysis of essays on the painting «The girl with peaches» by V.A. Serov. The study results in typology of linguistic identities as bearers of typical individual schemes of text production. Three types of linguistic identity are being described: a logical type of linguistic identity, a generating type of linguistic identity and a recording type of linguistic identity. Possibility of theoretical and didactic linguistic interpretation of received results.
Ufimtseva Natalya V.
The subject of the study is the meaning understood as a reflection of social and cultural reality. We review the history of the approach to the meaning of the word in the works of A.A.Leontev, the original approach to the development of the meaning in the works of Yu.N.Karaulov. We provide a comparative analysis of the knowledge associated with words in the core of language consciousness of two generations of Russian culture media according to the RAS and EVRAS.
Boyko Boris L.
The military vocabulary in speech communication functions mainly in texts of military subjects and is represented by the general military vocabulary which entered the total speech turnover, military terms and units of informal conversation. Primary use of terminological or colloquial vocabulary depends on extent of social control. Content of social ideas of military subjects at the level of public official consciousness exists in military terms, at the level of public ordinary consciousness in units of military professional vocabulary and military slang.
Makhovikov Denis V., Nistratov Aleksandr A., Stavitskaya Lesya A., Tarasov Evgeniy F.
The paper analyzes ethnic stereotypes of modern Russians, Eastern Ukrainians (the town of Lugansk), Central Ukrainians (the city of Kiev) and Western Ukrainians (the city of Lviv). The analysis is based on the projective technique for studying the perception of ethnic stereotypes in the axiological space. A specialized semantic differential was elaborated.
Ulukhanov Igor S.
Old Slavic words and ancient Russian language neologisms with the meaning of religious and mythological creatures are considered in the article. These words are described from semantic, genetic and functional-stylistic points of view. From the semantic point of view there are two groups: «In religion and in religious mythology» and «In ancient mythology, in fairy tales and folk beliefs». From the genetic point of view the most commonly used and adapted words date back to the old Slavic words borrowed from the Greek language. Genetic division of words is the basis for building missing so far historical lexicology of the Russian language. A genetic group can get the description and the smallest fragment of such description is represented in the article: the words are subdivided into semantic groups, each semantic group is considered from the point of view of origin (the further genetic description of the genetically chosen group of old Slavic words - grecisms, original formations) and from functional-stylistic point of view (the description of the genre of the text in which the old Slavic word is used).
Belyaevskaya Elena G.
On the basis of fairy tales texts invented by children aged three to seven years the elements of the conceptual sphere are being extracted which influence conceptual sphere formation. The concepts of “consciousness”, “language mind” and “concept sphere” are specified. The research showed that the more important for the formation of children’s language mind is not opposed to a “domestic - foreign” but that channel, visual or auditory, at which a child receives information. The formation of the concept sphere of children’s language mind is mainly carried out in accordance with the conceptual matrix that is allocated to the ordinary Russian language consciousness. The most active areas of the formed concept sphere are the ideas about the family and natural environment. To provide speech activity the children’s concept sphere must be represented not only by a certain set of sections but also to be structured, i.e. embodied in the language knowledge about the world should be subjected to a primary categorization, combining separate concepts in possessing common properties of classes, and the primary classification of the basic concepts should be placed in a concept network of spatio-temporal relations that determine the proportion and the selected classes in space and time.
Tcherneyko Ludmila О.
The article deals witch the problems of polymorphic linguistic sign complex study with a focus on an abstract noun (AN) but not in the aspect of traditional grammar which is language system (code) aimed but in the aspect of associative grammar which is focused on the speech ability of native speakers. The method of information extracting about abstract essence associative aura with the linguistic tool «projective meaning» is suggested. Of particular importance in the modeling of consciousness images about abstract essences have their projections on geometrical figures. The dialogues (both adults and children) analysis which are directed by polymorphic signifier is given.
Krasnykh Viktoria V., Bubnova Irina A.
Some basic categories and notions of a new discipline - psycho-lingua-cultural studies - are concisely propounded in the given article. Correlation between world image, language mind, culture, language, lingua-culture are analyzed through the prism of Homo Loquens.
Shestakova Larisa L.
The article describes the stylistic parameter in «The Dictionary of the XXth Century Russian Poetry» which is the summary commenting concordance. It is shown that in the dictionary of this type the principle of stylistic information distribution in various zones of the entry is expedient. Stylistic notations of the different contents (ustar., nov., knizhn., vysok., razg., prost. etc.) are entered into the meaning zone for marking heading words, into the commenting zone - for separate grammatical forms characterizing. If it is necessary in the dictionary which basis is formed by a great number of poetic contexts a separate notations (Shutl., Iron., Bran. etc.) are given after contexts for their complete emotional and expressional assessment. Each of these ways of stylistic parameter representation is illustrated by examples taken from the Dictionary. In addition, the possibilities of poetic language stylistic resources studying on the basis of stylistic notations of dictionary sampling and systematization are demonstrated.
Lukin Vladimir A.
The paper deals witch the correlation between written text author's roles. Basing on the analyzing conditions that determine the neutralization of the opposition the «author of the text vs. the author of the work» the various types of texts are defined. The «image of the author effect» concept is introduced and described in its functional, dysfunctional and afunctional aspects.
Puig Maria Sanchez
The specific national characteristics of stimulus god in Russian and Spanish verbal associative network are described in the article. The contrastive analysis of one of the basic world-model points, inherent to Russian and Spanish native speakers, is being investigated.
Baranov Anatoly N., Dobrovol'skij Dmitry O.
The paper discusses the inner form of constructional phrasemes of the type [relative pronoun + idiomatic expression]; cf.: kto/?to/gde/kogda/kak ugodno. We claim that the inner form regularly influences the semantics and co-occurrence of these phrasemes as well as the choice of the variable constituent.
Petrova Zoya Y.
The article considers «The Materials for the Dictionary of Metaphors and Comparisons in Russian Literature of XIX-XX similes» and the main trends of their use in linguistic studies. The principle of semantic field is described which is the basis of the language material classification in the Dictionary. The author shows how semantic relations in classes of tropes make it possible to study evolution of metaphors and similes in the language of literature. Formal syntactic classification of tropes in the Dictionary allows the user to trace sequence of the corresponding constructions occurrence in literature. Due to explicit presentation of comparison criteria in similes with adjectives, verbs etc. one can understand semantic basis of figurative characteristics of different objects. Besides, the user of the Dictionary can get approximate comparative frequency characteristics of comparative tropes.
Ruzhitskiy Igor V., Ruzhitskaya Elina А., Shepeleva Svetlana N.
The article considers the possibilities of linguistic identity reconstruction through the analysis of the concrete character - Fedka-the-convict from Dostoyevsky’s novel «Demons» - speech features. The conclusions regarding the individual and collective peculiarities in the structure of this linguistic identity are made. The parallels between this character and other Dostoevsky’s characters are drawn, some of its constant components are determined.
Gridina Tatyana А.
The article discusses the play of words linguacreative mechanisms from the point of view of their word associative potential which determines them. Playing transforma creating means the purposive speech automatism violation by introducing the new words into the new (non-standard) associative context. As the main strategy «igrema» simulation is the principle of simultaneous updating and breaking, switching associative stereotypes of perception, production and consumption of verbal signs. For the verbal creativity diagnosis and stimulation it seems productive to use the gaming technologies based on the techniques for direct and directional associative experiment specially adapted to the training tasks. There are two game constructing technologies suggested: the first is the creation from quasiword the occasional word-formation nest, the second - the building of creative nominations field on a given thematic vectors. The training component of the presented technologies combines the step-by-step playing constructing principle and the direct definition of the obtained derivatives. The playing word associative projections become apparent during the definition. The experimental approbation results and the substantial interpretation of the developed playing technologies (using as stimuluses the quasiword «luft’», the top of the occasional word-formation nest, and also the words «yes» and «no» for thematically ranged of creative nominations making) are represented in the article.
Chulkina Nina L.
This article discusses the challenges of creating a lingvo-cultural dictionary and propose the project description of the dictionary «100 concepts of Russian daily life». The author draws on theoretical positions, proposed by U.N. Karaulov as a language personality theory, in particular, on the three-tier model of language ability. Materials used for building a dynamic model of the proposed dictionary are the associative Russian dictionaries (RAS-1 and-2).